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Street j^allway Journal 

Vol. XXV. 


No. 13. 

Published Eveky Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

Main Office: 

NEW YORK, Engineering Building, 114 Liberty Street. 

Bkanch Offices: t' j , 

Chicago: Monadnock Block. |1 ^ ^.j 

Philadelphia: 929 Chestnut Street. M''' 

Cleveland: Cuyahoga Building. \< 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk Street, Strand. 

Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjoum, London" — Lieber's Code 


Copyright, 1905, McGraw Publishing Co. 


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Of this issue of the Street Raikvay Journal 8300 copies arc 
printed. Total circulation for 1905, to date, 107,250 copies — an 
average of 8250 copies per week. 

Annealing Trolley Wires 

The practice of connecting together different sections of 
trolley wire in a large city system has hoth advocates and op- 
ponents. There are a few who will maintain that it is in every 
way a desiral)le practice to bridge across the various section 
insulators with jumpers of one kind and another, but many 
companies have been driven to it by either a temporary or 
chronic lack of sufficient feeder copper. Theoretically, the 
ideal method is to keep each section of trolley wire entirely in- 
sulated from every other section and with a circuit breaker at 
the power station for each section, so that the break- 
ing and grounding of the trolley wire in one section will in no 
way interfere with the operation of the balance of the system. 
It will frequently happen, however, -that cars will get bunched 
on one section so as to cause an excessive dro]) of potential 

while adjoining sections may be very lightly loaded. In order 
to enable the feeders on one section to be assisted by those on 
adjoining sections, it has become a very common practice to 
put jumpers around the section insulators so as to connect to- 
gether the different sections through the medium of fuses or 
automatic circuit breakers. Thus current can be fed into a 
section from adjoining sections as well as from its own feeder 
inVcase it has an exceptionally heavy load, while at the samt 
t'infe, if there is an actual dead ground, the circuit breakers 
w^'ll open so as to isolate the grounded section. The main ob- 
V jection to this practice is that it requires a much heavier cur- 
rent on the trolley line to open all the circuit breakers than it 
would to open simply the feeder circuit breakers supplying it, 
because the trolley wire section has three sources of supply, 
viz., its own feeder circuit breaker and the circuit breaker at 
each end connecting it with the adjoining section. 

On a large city system in practice, this objection may mean 
that sufficient current can flow through the trolley wire to 
anneal long lengths of it before the circuit breakers open. Its 
life after such an annealing process is, of course, no Ijetter than 
would be that of a soft drawn wire. In fact, it is almost ruined 
for trolley service. The current required on the modern city 
railway system in the downtown districts when large numbers 
of cars of about 40 tons weight are operated, is such as to make 
it necessary to set all circuit breakers for very heavy current, 
and it sometimes does not take a great deal more than the regu- 
lar current to anneal the wire. Thus, a trolley wire may be 
carrying a heavy current to supply the regular load imposed 
by the cars, and in addition a ground may come on the line at 
some adjoining section, which may not be enough to open the 
circuit breaker between the sections, but still be sufficient to 
anneal some of the trolley wire. 

One practice which gives some of the advantages of -utilizing 
all the feeder copper at points of greatest load, while at the 
same time lessening the danger of ruining considerable lengths 
of trolley wire, is that of placing equalizers between the feed 
wires at various points and inserting automatic circuit breakers 
or fuses in these equalizers. The trolley wire is then not called 
upon to carry current to any other section than its own. Of 
course, if the trolley line is not paralleled with a sufficiently 
■ heavy feeder where the traffic is very heavy near a power sta- 
tion, and the trolley wire is thus compelled to carry the total 
current for some distance, it will cause such an excessive drop 
in the wire as to anneal it in ordinary service, InU such condi- 
tions are not often found. 

xA-nother cause of annealed trolley wire is the use of soldered 
ears for supporting the wire. The wear is always greatest at 
the points of support in any event, and the annealing of the 
wire by a soldering torch at this point causes a considerable 
shortening of the life of the wire. It is this that has caused 
mechanical clamps and clips to be so popular with line super- 
intendents, and incidentally has helped the introduction of fig- 
ure 8 and grooved sections of trolley wire, wliich arc well 
adapted to mechanical clamps. 




[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

A Record of the Zossen Tests 

More than usual interest attaches to the record of the Ber- 
hn-Zossen tests of 1903, which has just become available 
through an English translation, for which Dr. Louis Bell has 
prepared an introduction discussing the general subject of train 
resistance. It is difficult to-day to estimate at its proper value 
the pioneering work of which this volume is the record. We 
are so used to looking at things through the glasses of current 
habits that we unconsciously distort all things which are un- 
familiar in outline. A new conception or invention is or is not 
greeted with enthusiasm according to its relation to the precon- 
ceived category of useful things. If it clearly belongs in the 
conventional list of things approved it meets an enthusiastic 
reception. Otherwise it is stigmatized as "theoretical" until 
long after it has been proved successful, and then is damned 
as "uncommercial" by every interest that would be put to trou- 
ble by its competition. We need not go outside the line of rail- 
way history to grasp the truth of this view. The volume itself 
gives a striking bit of inner history in telling the story of the 
Berlin-Zossen Railway, and of the bitter opposition it had to 
meet from every source — beginning with a doubtful King and 
ending with the abuse of exasperated stage owners. No doubt 
there were fervent appeals to government to protect "vested in- 
terests" by preventing this wanton destruction of their earning 
capacity, appeals which have a strangely familiar note even to 
us of the twentieth century, used to the march of improve- 
ments. The Zossen tests strike deep at the commonplace com- 
mercial methods of transportation to which the world is just 
now accustomed. They were made for the very purpose of 
proving that the world's present methods, however useful, 
generally are behind the age in the matter of speed. 

It is a somewhat singular thing that the speed records on 
railways are by no means always of recent making. Some of 
them run back nearly half a century, and many of th^-m more 
than a decade, in spite of all recent improvements. Even now 
the number of trains in the world that actually are scheduled 
above 45 m.p.h. is very small indeed, and the trains on long 
runs at anywhere near that speed are even rarer. On all but 
the most important lines there is the same old succession of 
"peanut trains" as twenty-five years ago, in spite of the very 
great improvement in general accommodations. The fact is 
that the subsidiary things of travel have been wonderfully de- 
veloped, while the main thing — getting there — stays in the 
same old place. The great service of the Zossen tests is in 
showing beyond the shadow of a doubt that existing speeds can 
be comfortably doubled without requiring the fulfillment of any 
impracticable or uncommercial conditions. The sources of 
previous doubt were threefold. In the first place there was a 
current opinion that no practicable roadbed could safely stand 
the speeds of 100 m.p.h. to 125 m.p.h. which were to be at- 
tempted. Even granting that they could be built, it would be 
possible only at prohibitive expense. Second, there were many 
who actually believed that the air resistance at these speeds 
would be so enormous that even if they could be reached at all, 
which was dubious, it would be at a cost in power absolutely 
out of the question in practical railroading. And finally, it was 
predicted that it would not be practicable to supply energy to 
the fast-moving car, even if the amount required were within 
the range of possible usefulness. In other words, very many 
persons with pretensions of experience in engineering took 
very little stock in the practicability of any speeds far beyond 
what their own familiar methods and apparatus could compass. 

To each of the questions thus raised the experiments re- 

counted in this book have given a definite and satisfactory 
answer. It proved, as some of those best qualified to judge had 
suspected, that the most substantial difficulty to be overcome 
was the instability of the ordinary roadbed, designed in accord- 
ance with experience at low speeds. In fact, the first series of 
Zossen tests was cut short by failure of the roadbed at speeds 
still below 100 m.p.h. But in the later tests here recorded it 
was shown that without going to unwarrantable expense and 
without any radical departure, the track and roadbed could be 
made entirely adequate for the speeds attempted. Grades and 
curves must, of course, be made relatively easy, the line must 
be well ballasted and the rails heavy and well laid, but that 
was all, provided the cars were properly designed. The most 
important new fact brought to light was the value of intelli- 
gent truck design and the need of proper balance in the moving 
parts. Given this, the motion at the highest speeds reached 
was steady and smooth, without it there was trouble at once. 
A common sleeper ran at speeds little above 100 m.p.h., with 
vibration altogether too severe. But balancing, just as in the 
case of a fast torpedo boat, removed the difficulty in a very 
.satisfactory njanner. As to the actual power required it proved 
to be nothing at all forbidding either from the technical or the 
commercial point of view. This matter is fully taken up in 
the introduction to the work. As there indicated, the mistaken 
notions on this point came mainly from reckless extrapolation 
far beyond the safe range of the older data. And, singularly 
enough, little weight seems to have been attached to the fact 
that nearly all the experimental runs with locomotives at high 
speed had clearly indicated much lower values of the total re- 
sistance than were customarily taken in the working formulae 
hitherto used. In this, as in many other things, the Zossen 
runs here recorded show that high speed is easier than had 
been supposed. 

The questions of power supply were likewise given definite 
and favorably answers. Given a supj^ly of current at a voltage 
high enough to keep the total current per contact within reason- 
able bounds, ample energy could be delivered to the moving 
car. Even with the three flying contacts made necessary by 
the polyphase supply, no trouble of any moment was experi- 
enced. If later it should prove practicable to utilize single- 
phase current upon the car, the task of power supply would be 
rendered still easier. In any case, it is not in the least forbid- 
ding. The engineering difficulties of the task being thus dis- 
posed of, by no means the least interesting part of the book 
will be found to be the discussion of the commercial side of the 
problem. Here it has turned out, as in other similar studies 
of transportation, that the limit to profitable first cost is the 
density of traffic. No one would think of building a four-track 
railroad through a country devoid of large towns and of large 
cities as termini. Just so, no one would think of building a 
road for very high speed where the traffic was light. But given 
a line between large cities with heavy traffic on the express 
trains and one finds a state of things where high speed will pay. 
The various projects for a Berlin-Hamburg fast line presented 
in this volume make it very evident that u paying traffic is in 
sight there, and there is little reason to doubt that similar lines 
could be laid out in this country. With this fact once made 
clear, there is good hope that some fast line will be built ere 
long. The speeds now in vogue are those adapted better to 
hastily built roads in a partially developed country than to 
trunk lines in the heart of a great nation. The Zossen trials 
have cleared the way for action in a way that is comprehensive 
and final. From this time forth one cannot pass over high- 

April i, 1905.] 



speed projects as chimerical and impracticable. They must be 
discussed fairly and upon their merits. A few years of fast 
automobile work will make a mile a minute seem tame in the 
eyes of the public, and then the railroads will rise to the oc- 
casion. Meanwhile the world should be grateful for the ad- 
mirable pioneering done by the Studiengesellschaft, as recorded 
in the volume which we are glad to be able to give to the 
American public. May it soon usher in the new era ! 

Car Design 

The adoption of electric power for rapid transit lines has 
been followed by a curious interchange in car design between 
Europe and America during the last four or five years. For a 
long time the cross-seat center-aisle car was recognized as the 
standard American steam coach, just as the compartment car 
was considered the standard of the British steam lines. But on 
both sides of the water the previous seating arrangement was 
not found desirable, so that, while the British tube lines have 
introduced and are operating end entrance cars, the latest 
American practice is decidedly toward the use of the side door 
car. The coming adoption of electricity on steam lines for sub- 
urban service emphasizes the importance of a study of the rela- 
tive advantages of different arrangements of seats, and for this 
reason the article by Mr. Fox, on another page, will be of in- 
terest. In this article the seating arrangements of some twenty- 
four different types of cars are discussed, and the writer sug- 
gests as a compromise a multi-side entrance car with seats for 
eighty passengers and a capacity for loading and carrying away 
5760 passengers an hour from a terminal. The number of seats 
provided in this car is exceeded only by the British Great 
Eastern and French Quest cars, both of which are impractical 
under American conditions, and by one of the types on the 
Liverpool Elevated Railway, which has three doors on 
each side. 

The proposed car is made up by combining a number of fea- 
tures from other cars, principally from the Illinois Central, 
Berlin and Liverpool elevated types, and has a great many 
points to recommend it. At the same time, we believe that for 
the average conditions of city rapid transit service Mr. Fox 
lays too much stress on providing a large number of seats. 
With the growing congestion on surface lines, there is an in- 
creasing tendency to use the elevated and subway lines for 
short distance riding, and in this service many passengers 
would prefer to stand rather than take the trouble to secure a 
seat if it is much further from the door than the place available 
for standing. Again, we can foresee serious objections to the 
multi-side door in any service where it is impossible to carry 
away from the platform all of the passengers who may wish 
to travel by that train. This would be particularly true in the 
case of a transfer station like the island express stations in the 
New York Subway, where there is a constant stream of pas- 
sengers across the platform from one train to the other, and 
where it would be very difficult for an end guard to close simul- 
taneously a number of side doors unless assisted by a large 
number of station guards. 

Rapid transit service can be roughly divided into four classes, 
each of which theoretically calls for a different type of car to 
best fulfil all the requirements. The first division would be 
that of purely suburban service, where the average haul is from 
10 miles to 15 miles, and where there is plenty of time at the 
terminals to load and unload, but where the intervening stops 
should be brief. As there is no standing load, the ordinary 

steam passenger coach would fill these conditions fairly well if 
its entrance and exit facilities were better. For such a service 
the cross-seat center-aisle car with extra large end entrances, 
or with possibly one side entrance, would seem desirable. 

Where the average ride is shorter, and where the passengers 
travel from a few important stations to and from other minor 
stations along the route, as in most elevated railway lines, 
and on some suburban and subway routes, larger entrances 
are of greater importance and standing room is more neces- 
sary. For such a service we believe that it is very desirable to 
provide considerable open space near the entrances, whether 
the latter are at the ends of the car, as in the New York Sub- 
way and Chicago^ West Side cars, or if side doors are used, as 
on the Paris Metropolitan and London Metropolitan District 
Railway. This space is useful as a reservoir or receiver for 
the boarding passengers while the doors are being closed and 
while the passengers are hunting for seats. It will also serve 
as a reservoir, where those who wish to leave the car at the 
next station can collect. It might be argued that this space will 
be blocked by standing passengers, but if this is the case it 
proves that many would prefer to stand here rather than go 
further back for a seat, and the remedy is to remove more seats 
and give a larger standing area. 

Still a third class of service is that of a very short haul with 
only a few stations, like a bridge service, where, of course, the 
principal desiderata are plenty of standing room and plenty 
of doors. 

The service on a road with a number of transfer stations in- 
troduces still other considerations, as already described. Here 
many side doors, while desirable for quick loading and unload- 
ing, will prove very difficult to close simultaneously against a 
stream of people, unless many station guards are employed. 
With tube or subway cars the introduction of side doors may 
also be prevented by lack of head room. 

There is also no doubt that every opening to a car which is 
used by passengers to board and leave it is a source, if not of 
accidents, at least of claims, and hence is to be avoided. A 
multiplication of doors means a multiplication of claims, and 
while we believe in the use of side doors where their operation 
can be closely watched and remain under the immediate control 
of a station or platform guard, yet an effort should be made to 
limit them, except in possibly the third class of road men- 
tioned above. 

Too much stress should also not be placed upon lengths of 
station stops for different types of cars in different cities. 
Figures of this kind are interesting for reference, and some 
statistics of this kind are presented in this issue. But while 
these records have considerable value when made with vary- 
ing types of cars in the same city, the difference in habits and 
quickness of movement between residents of different cities 
vitiates any general conclusions on the length of station stops 
as related to car design, unless the effect of these human quali- 
ties is given full consideration. There can lie no doubt, how- 
ever, that the tendency on both sides of the Atlantic is toward 
the abandonment of the old style platform and the introduction 
of two or more side doors, usually operated pneumatically from 
the end of the car. The Boston Elevated was the first in this 
country to use this type for purely electric rapid transit ser- 
vice, and the results in that city have proved satisfactory. The 
subject is one of the keenest present interest, and Mr. Fo.x's 
discussion in this issue will be followed hy other articles trcal- 
nig on the same general subject. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 



The great variety of car designs in Europe suggests, some- 
times, that we may have carried standardizing too far in this 
country and failed to evolve types that might carry more, earn 
and save more than at present. When an American standard 
car seats forty-four passengers and a European manager can 
get for the same length of car 168 seats, with standing room 
easily for 150 more, it certainly sets one to thinking seriously; 
as again when a single city surface track and terminal can 

and foreign practice for the severest city service. The sliding 
side doors shown are usually operated by guards from the car 
ends, except with such foreign examples as Berlin, Paris and 
Liverpool, where passengers operate the doors themselves. 

In the endeavor to shorten station stops, a curious inter- 
change of car designs has taken place between this country and 
Europe. While the English in their electric trains have aban- 
doned their many side doors for American end doors, believing 
the latter to allow shorter stops, the Illinois Central Railroad 
finds the Manhattan type of car greatly inferior to one with the 
seats facing each other and side doors to every group of seats. 
The difficulty with English steam cars for rapid transit is, of 



only allow about 9150 seats an hour with American cars and 
methods, and foreign methods can provide for the loading and 
cairying away of at least 40,000 seated passengers an hour 
through the same city street. The writer has been making for 
several years a careful comparative study of American and 
European car designs for surface, elevated and underground 
service, and hopes that the results will be of some service. 
The present article will take up the relative carrying capacity 
of different types of cars for elevated, underground or sub- 
urban traffic, where high station platforms are used. 

In order to compare European and American rapid transit 

course, slowness of loading, because passengers naturally 
hunt for seats. They are quick enough in unloading, as 
shown by the rapidity found by an American engineer recently, 
who timed 500 passengers unloading from a Caledonian train 
in ten seconds from the time the train stopped. The loading 
difficulty has been eliminated in the Illinois Central car by the 
introduction of aisles. This enables passengers to enter by the 
nearest door and find seats later when the train is in motion. 
Again, all difficulties from swinging side doors are solved 
by making them sliding. But the English cars still fur- 
nish more than twice as many seats as the Illinois Central type 


practice, a large number of car types have been reduced to the 
same dimensions, viz. : length over all, 46 ft. 6^ ins. ; width at 
platform, 8 ft. 7 ins. A reduction of 77 : i has been given to 
the plans in this paper, so that the scale is i in. equals 6 ft. 5 
ins. In order to adapt some foreign cars to these dimensions, 
radical changes have been necessary, so that the original types 
may not be recognized at once ; but it will be seen that the re- 
lations between seats and doors have been preserved. As in 
Europe the motorman's cab is usually found only at the ends 
of a train, the accompanying designs are all for a middle 
car, though many have a cab. In place of European side buffers, 
blind platforms have been substituted. In addition to types 
now in use, several new ones are given, and the writer would 
like to see thoroughly criticised the type given in Figs. 22 to 24, 
which is an attempt to combine the best features of American 

can for city service, and the latter can hardly be operated safely 
where high station platforms are greatly curved, because of 
the wide space between the middle of the car and the platform 
edge. Now curved high platforms, while absent at the Illinois 
Central stations, are very common at English steam railway 
stations, and their dangers have been effectively met by the use 
of running boards filling up all spaces. The Manhattan type 
of car had no such advantage, until the Metropolitan Railway 
of London, in its new electric cars, most ingeniously applied 
the running board idea, as shown in Fig. i. The car posts are 
carried on an angle fastened to the channel underframe. The 
car platforms project out still further on brackets, and are con- 
tinued the whole length of the car by the projecting running 

For suburban service, where time is not of such vital im- 

April i, 1905.] 



portance as capacity, no cars, of course, can equal the 
new wide rolling stock of the lines out of London. The Great 
Eastern Railway has been experimenting with a compound 
decapod locomotive which can accelerate a loaded eighteen-car 
train i m.p.h per second. With sixty seats to the 27-ft. cars, 
one such a train will carry 1080 seated third-class passengers, 
and, having the ability to attain a speed of 30 m.p.h. in thirty 
seconds, could probably hold its own against electricity for 
some time. This is a car with curved sides and swinging doors 

rangement is the one illustrated in Fig. 5, only that the 
greater width of car than that found in l-'aris allows two seats 
on each side of the aisle instead of one and two. This car is 
also 75 per cent longer than the Paris single-truck type. The 
schedule speed in Paris is much slower than in Liverpool, and 
the interchange of passengers much greater at stations, so that 
perhaps the wider doors justify the loss of seats. The stops 
average about thirteen and a half seconds. The reason why 
this car has so many less seats than tlie Liverpool type — 


on each side, the latter, of course, operated by the passengers. 
Fig. 2 shows one of these cars lengthened out to the standard 
length adopted in this article for purposes of comparison, when 
it would have io8 seats. 

The lack of an aisle in the ordinary English steam cars was 
overcome in the electric trains of the Liverpool Overhead Rail- 
way (see Fig. 3). In spite of the small number of single side 
doors this car could probably handle more passengers than 
any American type, because of the many seats and their ten- 
dency to keep people away from the doors. The Liverpool 
station stops were found by the writer to average fourteen 
seconds, with a schedule speed of 19 m.p.h. Passengers are 
well distributed along the line, getting on mostly during the 
first half of trips and off the second half, the only heavy inter- 

though the similar plan of seats would seem to furnish the 
same — is that the Liverpool doors are very economically placed 
between passengers' knees, where but little additional room is 
needed ; while the Paris doors, coming between seat backs, allow 
no such economy and have nearly twice the aggregate width. 

The Manhattan type of car, with its open platforms and sin- 
gle end doors, has been greatly improved on in the new Metro- 
politan Elevated cars in Chicago (see Fig. 6) and the steel 
subway cars in New York. The enclosing of the platforms 
and the substitution of sliding doors for gates have remedied 
serious defects. With the Interborough cars the giving over 
of the whole front of the train to the motorman is in line with 
the universal European practice. But with very heavy traffic, 
and especially with many passengers getting both on and off 


change of traffic occurring at the Pier Head, the middle station 
of the line ; but the time lost there is easily made up during the 
rest of a run. The weight per seat of an empty three-car train 
is 809 lbs., against 790 lbs. for the New York Elevated local 
trains, 1251 lbs. for the New York Subway express trains, 
about 1590 lbs. with the new Boston Elevated cars, and 732 lbs. 
for the City & South London trains, including locomotive. 

In order to get more seats to a car, one Liverpool train, I 
believe, was built wider at the seat level than at the floor (see 
Fig. 4), giving three seats on one side of the aisle, with two on 
the other. This economical way of widening did not, affect any 
clearances, as other cars already had guard's windows project- 
ing about 10 ins. beyond the panels, with a width over all of 
about 10 ft. 2 ins., though only 8 ft. 6 ins. wide at the platform. 

The first underground cars in Paris had seats facing each 
other, as in Liverpool, with narrow side doors, sliding instead 
of swinging. The doors were later made double, and this ar- 

at the same station, as unexpectedly found in llie New York 
Subway, the Manhattan type seems to have some disadvantages. 
The first and last cars of a train have only half the entrances 
of the other cars, and if it should prove necessary in the future 
to keep passengers always circulating in one direction on plat- 
forms and in cars — that is. entering a station and all cars at one 
end and passing out at the other — it would be impractical with 
the front and rear Manhattan cars, and hindered by the cross 
seats in the others. Increasing congestion has made American 
passengers more and more impatient, especially of waiting for 
persons to get off cars before they get on, and if serious delay- 
ing conflicts are to be surely avoided perhaps either a regular 
circulation will have to be provided or else so many doors fur- 
nished that moving passengers will be widely distributed and 
tend to get on and off with less friction. 

Perhaps this is a good place to introduce the question as to 
how rapidly passengers will enter a car at the ends. It will be 


[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

remembered that tlie new steel subway cars in New York have 
sliding side doors with a 38-in. opening. This, considering the 
44-in. inside opening, would seem enough to cause passengers 
to pass in or out two abreast, and so twice as rapidly as through 
the single doors of the wooden subway cars. Yet the writer, in 
timing the passage of people through both kinds of doors, has 
found the rate of movement only slightly faster through the 
single doors than through the double doors, even though pas- 
sengers went two abreast at times through the latter. With 
doubly wide doors, why should not the rate be much more rapid ? 
Various explanations have been suggested to answer this ques- 
tion. One is that the outside opening was not wide enough, 

follow the Manhattan type closely, the Metropolitan District 
Railway has introduced middle doors, 46 ins. wide, in the whole 
arrangement, doubling the efficiency of the Manhattan plan. 
All the side doors will be operated by compressed air from the 
platforms, thus avoiding one of the most serious objections to 
middle doors, viz., the expense of platform men. As side doors 
have always been used in Europe, less stress is laid upon the 
weakening effect on construction from their use than would be 
the case in this country. As to the safety of operating middle 
doors from the car ends, the experience of the Boston Elevated 
Company has been that there is no danger. 

The original plans for the car of the Great Northern & City 





that 48 ins. should have been allowed instead of 38 ins. An- 
other is that at the adjacent ends of cars people cannot be fed 
rapidly enough to keep four going in or out at once. Then the 
passengers wishing to enter line up on each side of the door 
openings on the station platforms, tending to leave only a nar- 
row lane for the outgoing crowd, and even if persons enter two 
abreast they may be obstructed by standing passengers or by 
those hunting for seats. Again, it has been suggested that if the 
door opening were plainly divided in the middle by a post, 
people would not tend to hesitate whether to pass through one 
or two at a time, any such chance for hesitation being usually 
ground to cause delay. The practicability of a post with slid- 
ing or folding doors raises some question, and perhaps it is 
best not to try to handle people two at a time at the end of a 
car, but to put in a middle door if construction and head room 
allow it. 

Fig. 7 represents one of the original plans for the Metro- 
politan District cars, of London, with open platforms and gates. 
The final plans, as illustrated in the S TREET Railway Journal 
for March 4. 1905, page 419, provide for enclosed platforms 
with sliding doors and drop seats for unused openings. While 
the new electric cars o£ the Metropolitan Railway in London 

Railway, London (see Fig. 8), provided for three seats on one 
side of the aisle, with two on the other, but only two seats on 
each side were finally adopted. The former arrangement has 
been followed here to illustrate a large possible seating capacity. 
Of the folding seats at the middle doors, only the one opposite 
the open door is counted in the tables. The width of the car 
requires curved sides. The sliding middle doors are intended 
for use only at the terminals. 

In the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, 'Liverpool, third-class 
car (see Fig. 9) we find the general plan of a vestibuled Ameri- 
can steam car. The actual English cars have some steps at the 
entrances, which would be omitted, as drawn, with our high sta- 
tion platforms. The actual cars also have a partition, with a door, 
in the middle. Being 10 ft. wide over all, three seats are possi- 
ble on one side of the aisle. The seats are reversible. The vesti- 
Iniles are closed by doors, not gates, and the doors all swing, 
and not slide. The windows are unusually large. While this 
car has wide entrances, it would, of course, be slow to load 
and unload because of the single center aisle, added to the 
many seats ; but for a suburban electrified steam line this may 
not be of much importance. 

The cross seat steam railroad type (see Fig. 10) affords a 

April i, 1905.] 


maximum of comfort in having cross seats facing forward, 
and with sHding side doors and inside partitions, with or with- 
out doors, drafts can be reduced to a minimum. If passengers 
wish to sit facing each other, the seats can easily be turned 
over, but no one has to ride backward unless he wishes to do so. 
Of course, no rapidity of circulation is possible in this type of 
car, especially if there are any standing passengers. 

The longitudinal seat car shown in Fig. 11 appears to be an 
ideal one for the circulation of passengers in one direction 

using longitudinal seats the car floor has been dropped down 
between the wheels to a height of only 19}^ ins. above the track, 
leaving a head room inside the car of about 6 ft. 6^^ ins. The 
cars, of course, are all trailers, the physical conditions of the 
railway being such that locomotives have proved more satis- 
factory and economical in almost every way than motor cars 
could be. 

The Berlin cars have already been described by the writer 
and illustrated in the Street Railway Journal for June 4, 





through the car, but as persons would probably only move in 
single file through the entrances, the large interior space is 
effective only for standing, and any standing passengers in the 
aisle would tend to block through circulation. Indeed, the 
through circulation in one direction, suggested in connection 
with Fig. 6, would appear to be practical only where all per- 
sons were seated and the aisles kept free. The longitudinal 
seat car has its advantages, which are most strikingly illus- 
trated on the City & South London Railway, where the tube 
diameters of lo ft. 3 ins. and 10 ft. 6 ins. allow a height from 
the rail to the top of the car roof of only 8 ft. 41-2 ins. The 
wheels of the double trucks arc 24 ins. in diameter, and by 

1904, Attention can be called again to their generous allow- 
ance of seat space, as shown in Fig. 12. Every three passen- 
gers are also separated by a seat arm and post, thus giving 
many agreeable corners to sit in and to look out from through 
the large plate-glass windows. The posts used on this car fur- 
nish a far more desirable and a safer hold than straps. The 
main body of the car is seiiarated from the outside sliding doors 
by glazed screens, but there are no platforms. On the end 
doors are single folding seats, which arc not counted in the 
tables accompanying this article. Passengers open and shut 
the doors themselves, but though this undoubtedly tends to 
cause long stops, averaging twenty-two seconds, an average 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

speed of nearly 17 m.p.h. is maintained. As with the City & 
South London, advantage was taken of the longitudinal seats 
to make a low and very compact car, which resulted in great 
economy in building the subway. 

The Berlin car would look a little more regular if the doors 
were moved to the center of each half of the car, as has been 
done in Fig. 13. This brings the passengers in each quarter of 
the car at the same average distance from the doors. Screens 
can then shelter the seats each way. The gain in seats over 

should collect at the forward door before stops, and should 
enter promptly by the rear door only. 

The last three cars show the relative seating capacity afforded 
by three principal methods. Where longitudinal seats require 
18 ins. of car length per passenger, reversible cross seats get 
along with even 15 ins., and seats facing each other with as 
little as iy/2 ins., though 15 ins. is better, always affording four 
more seats per car than ordinary cross seats. Where seats face 
each other, no foot rests are possible, and their general use 





the original Berlin car, which has forty-four seats, is due to 
removing the arms and allowing i8 ins. per passenger instead 
of over 20 ins. One advantage of the end door type is lost 
here, viz., having the entrances practically within reach of the 
guard ; but this advantage is less important with the latest slid- 
ing doors, where a passenger can hardly get caught and hurt, 
than with the ordinary gates where the platforms frequently 
get blocked. 

If we take the same car and use cross seats, as in Fig. 14, we 
can secure four more seats than in the car shown in Fig. 13, 
without really cutting down the facility of loading, for we have 
the condition of a single narrow aisle which can be entered by 
four passengers at once. Circulation in one direction could be 
secured fairly well if the passengers who are leaving the car 

might make passengers complain of having to ride backward; 
l>ut the ease of access to such seats, their compactness and free- 
dom from turning over recommend their greater use in this 
country. Fig. 15 shows such a type of car with two side doors 
and seats for sixty-four passengers. 

The latest elevated cars in Boston (Fig. 16) are obviously 
ideal in some ways for the circulation of passengers. The 
middle doors, however, have hitherto required platform men 
to each car at each station to open and close them, at great ex- 
pense, although on one train they are now being operated most 
successfully by the guards from the car ends by compressed 
air, with an automatic starting signal when every door is 
closed. Allowing about jGjA ins. of seat room per passenger, 
the Boston cars would seat forty-eight, but the i8-in, space 

April i, 1905.] 



used here for comparative purposes allows only forty-four 
seats, which is the actual number usually occupied, the cushions 
being continuous and not divided. The wide aisle allows con- 
siderable space for 'circulation or standing passengers, but it has 
the disadvantage of furnishing nothing solid to get hold of or 
lean against, so that the frequent curves of the Boston subway 
and streets tend to make passengers stand at the doors, where 
there are some handles, and so obstruct the openings. The in- 
troduction of vertical posts along the seats, as in Berlin, would 

at the same time, but this is better provided for in Fig. 19. 
Passengers standing along the platform should keep close to 
the car and enter by the nearest door and aisle. Passengers 
would leave by the further aisle, passing out the center door to 
the further side of the station platform, out of the way of those 

The straight Illinois Central type of car (Fig. 20) has the 
advantage over this last car of twice as much entrance space 
per seat, and its spreading out of passengers at so many single 





seem to be an advantage and keep the passengers from being 
thrown over by unexpected curves or stops. The Berlin arms 
could be omitted to save space. Another possible change would 
be to arrange the seats as in the Illinois Central cars, facing 
each other between two side aisles, as in Fig. 17. Here stand- 
ing passengers have more to take hold of and there is a gain 
of four seats, or three when the cab is in use. But the distance 
of tlie middle door from the guard at the end of the car sug- 
gests another arrangement of doors, as in Fig. 18, where the 
guard .stands between two wide side doors and can see and 
regulate things Ijetter than with the end doors alone. The 
arrows indicate how passengers might enter and leave the car 

openings should tend to make them go in and out with less 
friction and confusion. If the guard stands at the rear of each 
car, at the side, he can look along the platform more easily 
than with ordinary types, and has only to look in one direction. 
Now, the two-aisled car seems all right if nobody has to stand. 
But the minute that people begin to stand in an aisle its use- 
fulness obviously begins to diminish. One clear aisle is better 
than two filled with people. And if only twelve people have to 
stand in a forty-eight-seat car, might it not be an advantage to 
throw one aisle into seats, putting the other aisle into the mid- 
dle of the car? 

This has been done in Fig. 21, where the Boston Elevated 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

entrances are combined with the vis-a-vis seat, and where sixty 
seats can be in use at one time. But, for seats facing each 
other, the IlHnois Central side doors seem better than this com- 
bination of end and middle doors. 

For the severest conditions of American city traffic none of 
the preceding types of cars seems satisfactory in every way. 
Many of them are all right with a small number of passengers, 
or with plenty of time for stops. The capacious Great Eastern 
type has no aisles, and its swinging side doors, which are simi- 
lar to those used with the Liverpool cars, might make trouble 
in this country. The chief difficulty with American cars comes 
when passengers have to stand, for that is the beginning of 
the blocking of circidation and friction, which ends in loss of 

would be more floor space for entering passengers to fill inside 
a car before hunting for seats began. So the writer, in looking 
for an improved plan, abandoned the two aisles for one, as in 
Fig. 22. This is the first study for a steel type of car. The 
plan will be criticised at once on the ground that there is too 
much passing in front of passengers to get anywhere in the 
car; but, in second thought, it will be seen that there is really 
no more passing in front of people than in a two-aisled car, and 
only half as much as in an open car. Passengers anyway would 
probably tend to sit in the seats away from the doors. To keep 
those passing by off the feet and knees of those seated, the 
doorway would furnish one guide, and brackets have been 
added to the inside seat ends, following an ingenious feature 


time, wages, current, etc., and often causes accidents. The 
extra expense caused by the overcrowding and consequent de- 
lay of a single train is surprising. The trouble with providing 
a maximum amount of standing room and a minimum number 
of seats is that standing begins too soon and may hinder speed 
all day long. If passengers in this country would only learn, 
as they are compelled to in Europe, not to take the first car or 
train if it is very crowded, it would help things very much. 
Since his last trip to Europe, the writer has often tried 
letting a crowded car or train, or two, go by, with quite 
satisfactory results. But, of course, if people insist on bunch- 
ing themselves it is of little use to run empty cars. It seems 

of the Berlin Elevated cars. The end vestibules are partitioned 
off from the body of the car, and are solely for employees and 
apparatus. The motorman would, of course, use the front 
vestibule of each train, the guard the rear one of each car, 
operating the side doors, as on the Illinois Central, either me- 
chanically or by compressed air valves s.t A, B, C or D, calling 
station names through a partition window through which he 
"could see when all leaving passengers were out of the car. 
For the guard to look along the platform without having to 
open a door or window, four glass bay windows have been 
provided, after the common English fashion, as found on the 
Liverpool Overhead Railway. On the partition doors folding 



as though the time had come for more regulation and education 
in this matter. The persuasion of guards is not enough. Peo- 
ple would soon learn to allow a little more time for reaching 
places. But the writer is convinced that th,e easiest and best 
way in the future to. keep entrances clear is to give passengers 
more seats out of the way, as has been done on the Liverpool 
Overhead Railway, only furnishing more entrances, as has 
been best done in the Illinois Central cars. 

To make the Illinois Central car a success it is evidently 
necessary to keep passengers from hunting for seats before they 
enter, and to do this effectively one aisle should be kept clear 
of standing people. With a heavy interchange of traffic at 
stations it might prove difficult, with only forty-eight seats in 
a car, to keep passengers from standing in the aisle close to the 
doors in use, and even if there were no standing passengers 
those persons hunting for seats might get in the way of those 
just entering the doors. So a two-aisled plan might not work 
well for city traffic. Now, if a single aisle is provided in the 
center of the car, not only is the seating capacity increased 25 
per cent, and the aisle more likely to be kept open, but there 

seats can be placed, as in Berlin. End doors are furnished at 
the ends of the cars between heavy vertical angle irons to pre- 
vent telescoping. Of course, the partitions can have sliding 
doors, and the cars can be vestibuled if desired; but in Boston 
passing between cars has been prevented on the new trains in 
order to reduce accidents. The floor construction of the Illi- 
nois Central cars has been followed in this case. The door 
details might follow Boston Elevated practice, with an auto- 
matic starting signal, not given, of course, till every door is 
tightly closed. 

To facilitate safe moving about the car and encourage pas- 
sengers to stand ready to get out, vertical posts are provided, 
not only on the top of each seat back, as in the Swiss Saint 
Gotth&rd Railway cars and the Paris Metropolitan, but further 
posts are added at the outer corners of the seats next to the 
aisles, just inside the brackets. The windows can be lowered 
from the top, and those in the doors are also movable. The 
lower line of transoms can be opened inward at the top by 
passengers, as in the latest English electric cars and German 
steam cars. The seat ends would be of ornamental pressed 

April r, 1905.] 



steel. The seats themselves would be constructed after the 
European practice as found on the City & South London Rail- 
way and London United Tramways, whose seats are better 
than anything yet in use in this country. The exterior design 
follows the lines of the Midland Railway cars of England, 
which seem to meet the conditions in an attractive manner. 

If it should seem desirable to have a circulation of passen- 
gers in one direction through the car, they might pass forward 
in the car just before reaching a station, and then out through 
the four leading doors, all entering being by the four rear doors. 
As side door cars are not too cold on the lake front of Chicago, 

The carrying capacity of Fig. 24 may be illustrated by vvliat 
it might do at the Brooklyn Bridge. The bridge trains are 
obliged to carry in a single rush hour as many as 35,000 passen- 
gers. But if the terminals were fully utilized it appears that 
the capacity of the railway tracks could be not less than 41,600 
seats an hour, if elevated cars of the new type were used, run- 
ning with the present headway, or 50,000 seats an hour if spe- 
cial bridge cars were used, the trains loading or unloading 
from one side only in ten or twelve seconds. It should be noted 
that cars with side doors between seats facing each other are 
the only cars that can be loaded and unloaded simultaneously 

€6 AVMrs 

i.O«mi ovKR Burrass 


itfW ^sfibttles are used o-niy by 
trtoicrrnun ^asr^ 

Si^t dnors are o/xrafdd ^ ffuara 
bv comrTiprcsse<f atrfivm nar yzs - 
- rihule o^eac/i car by means of va^tns 
on partition >^l> ar 'A,B.C.t> 

Vfifh aufzimsfic slectrtc tfartthj 
Sjfinaf, fra/ri 4oes not move t/// £¥i:ry 
Qpor/s tighf/^ c/oi^. 


they ought to be satisfactory for subway, or even elevated ser- 
vice, especially if the elevated platforms are covered and en- 
closed, as in Paris, or better, as in Berlin, where inexpensive 
steel roofs span both tracks and platforms above and glass- 
lighted side walls are used. 

While this new car has 50 per cent more seats than that 
shown in Fig. 16, it is possible to gain still more seating ca- 
pacity by widening the upper part of the car, as in Liverpool. 
This would provide sixteen extra seats, the car floor being the 
same. Fig. 23 shows the changes, the seat arms, some posts 
and the bay windows being omitted. As the curved sides would 
not be as satisfactory as straight, the construction may finally 
be changed to that of the London Metropolitan cars, as shown 
in Fig. 24, where the transoms and better appearance of Fig. 22 
have been restored. The straight vertical posts would be car- 
ried on an angle fastened to the steel underframe, with a clear- 
ance above the platform sufficient to allow for the breaking of 
a spring. The increased height of the car floor, as now often 
found in this country and in Europe, would be compensated for 
by the absence of any gap between platform and car in inost 

by means of two station platforms without taking more time 
than loading or unloading separately. 

The large seating capacity of the modified Illinois Central 
car, shown in Fig. 24, makes it look very inviting for suburban 
steam or electric service. A 60-ft. body would allow 120 seats 
against the ordinary eighty. With a vestibuled train one guard 
might operate the side doors of two cars. The end partitions 
could have sliding doors, and the vestibules have trap doors, 
steps and swinging outside doors, which could be brought into 
use at stations where high platforms were undesirable. Pas- 
sengers might use the car steps at way stations and have the 
side doors opened only at terminals. The introduction of a 
third person on one seat might be objected to, but a passenger 
would probably prefer to sit there to standing, and we never 
think of really objecting to sitting between passengers on an 
open car, though longitudinal seats are growing in disfavor. 
But would people consent to ride backward, as they do on the 
Illinois Central? It is argued that vis-a-vis seats have been 
practically abandoned on street cars in this country, in spite 
of their economy of space and that the bulkhead seat of open 
cars is alwavs the last to be filled. Rut it nmst be remeniberc l 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

ber of both is not desired, it may be best for suburban service 
to continue the present steam car type, with the addition, for 
electric service, of wide vestibuled platforms, as on interurban 

As an example of the most capacious type of car in Europe, 
though obviously impractical for American rapid transit pur- 
poses, a design is added in Fig. 25, following the lines of the 
latest double-deck steam cars of the Quest Railway of France, 
which affords 168 seats for the standard length of 46 ft. 6 ins. 
Double-deck steam cars have been used for many years on the 
lines out of Paris, as well as in Denmark and Egypt. The up- 
per deck of this car is wholly enclosed, and is reached by open 
stairs going up from each side at the ends. Though the wheels 
are 39^^ ins. in diameter, the height of the French car from 
rail to roof is only 14 ft. 6 ins., the French preferring to have 


that vis-a-vis seats have not always been well designed, espe- 
cially as regards the backs ; that they are still in use on many 
elevated cars and all Pullman sleeping cars, and that they are 
universal and very popular on all European railroad cars, which 
are often more comfortable as regards seating than our parlor 
cars.' The writer believes that if European seat construction 
were followed, both in cushions and backs, passengers would 
learn to forget their previous habits. Still, if suburban cars 
are never by any possibility to use a subway or elevated sys- 
tem, if the terminal stop for either loading or unloading will 
never be less than a minute, and if greater economy in the 
number of cars and men or larger capacity for the same num- 

seats enough even if cramped vertically, while the Americans 
are crowded horizontally. On the Quest Railway on Sundays 
sometimes 1500 people ride on one train of double-deck cars. 
Passengers climb stairs at the rate of about one in two seconds. 

The best test of the carrying capacity of a car seems to be 
the number of passengers it can handle at a terminal, and in the 
accompanying tables all the foregoing types of cars have been 
classified in this way. With a given number of persons to be 
loaded or unloaded at stations it is obvious that the length of 
stops will depend on the number of car entrances. If the head- 
way is two minutes or more and the length of stops not very 
important, as on long or fast runs, of course the entrances can 

Elevated. Subway. 
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April i, 1905.] 



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[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

be few in number and subordinated to other features. In 
classifying the different types a rate of loading or unloading 
has been assumed of one passenger per second through each 
single opening, and two per second for each double opening, 
except where the latter occurs at the car ends, where ap- 
parently, as already discussed, all openings as at present con- 
structed can only be counted as single. It may be questioned 
whether double openings elsewhere should be counted as such, 
but the writer has found persons passing through the Boston 
Elevated middle doors at the rate of twenty in thirteen seconds, 
forty-four in twenty-eight seconds, etc., and so will assume 
for the present the rate of two persons a second. For single 
car doors the writer has records of each passenger, taking 1.38 
seconds in Boston and seconds in the New York Subway, 
and hopes that one second will be accepted as a satisfactory 

seats as customary to-day for the same total operating ex- 
penses, it seems well to consider whether the time has not come 
for the adoption of the steam road practice of always furnish- 
ing more seats than there are passengers, and so attracting all 
possible business. There is nothing that has hurt electric rail- 
way traffic so much in our cities ^s overcrowding. Evening 
traffic is especially sensitive; ladies in evening dress do not 
like to be roughly handled, and one disagreeable experience may 
keep them off the cars at night for some time. While the limit 
of a rapid transit line and terminal with eight-car trains is 
about 50,000 seats an hour, the limit of a city street and ter- 
minal is about 40,000 seats an hour in one direction, as will be 
shown in a later article. 

To return to the matter of car comparisons, in the accom- 
panying tables a terminal is assumed at which cars load through 

Plan of Upper Deck 

Plan of Lower Deck 


ideal rate. The number of passengers allowed to a car is the 
number of seated passengers only, a limit which will doubtless 
be criticised. But if a standing load is to be figured on it seems 
impossible to assume any satisfactory uniform rate of loading, 
because the obstruction to movement caused by standing pas- 
sengers would probably vary the loading rate differently for 
each type of car, depending on width of openings, handles, 
posts, direction of aisles, etc., the effect of which could only be 
told by actual experiment with all the types under the same 
conditions. Suppose it were necessary to carry away 46,080 
passengers an hour from a terminal. The type of car in Fig. 
24 could do' it and give every passenger a seat with eight-car 
trains, whereas it seems doubtful if the types with few seats 
and large standing room could in any way handle so many peo- 
ple, no matter how closely packed, because the entrances would 
be too few to get them on in time, besides which the early be- 
ginning of standing would soon reduce the rapidity of loading 
and finally stop it altogether before all the people were on. 

In regard to the matter of standing, the writer has been 
studying its aspects for several years, both in this country and 
Europe, discussing it with some of the best experts on both 
continents, and feels now, as do so many practical men in this 
country, that it has been greatly overdone, and has been the 
cause of much loss of business, higher operating expenses and 
serious accidents. Now that it appears possible in the future, 
even with the worst congestion, to furnish in some cities all 
day long, and even at the rush hours, at least twice as many 

all doors on one side only, and are operated with a block-signal 
system, which causes a train to take twenty seconds to run 
from the home signal to a full stop at the station, and another 
twenty seconds from the time of leaving the station till the 
home signal is clear for the next train to run in. Only, instead 
of trains, the capacity of cars run singly is taken to make the 
figures smaller. The first column in Table I. shows the maxi- 
mum number of passengers that can be carried away from the 
terminal by stopping each car just long enough to fill the seats. 
In this case a slow loading car is at a disadvantage, unless it 
has a great many seats. The second column assumes a two- 
minute headway, which allows time enough for the slowest 
type to fill its seats, so that the cars come out grouped in order 
according to their seating capacity. The third column assumes 
a minute headway, and here again the number of entrances, 
combined with the largest number of seats, show their im- 
portance. In practice, the Quest Railway and Great Eastern 
cars would not load so many people as given in the table if 
passengers hunted for seats, but the figures for unloading would, 
of course, be as shown. The capacity of a number of the types 
with cross seats could obviously be increased by using a 
widened construction like that in Fig. 24. 

Through limited service has been instituted between Colum- 
bus and Dayton over the Appleyard lines. The running time is 
three hours, about one hour faster than the local schedule. 

April i, 1905.] 


The Street Railway Journal has been interested for some 
time in some of the question raised in the article on "Car De- 
sign and Carrying Capacity," printed elsewhere in this issue, 
but especially in the effect of car design on station stops, a mat- 
ter which has received less attention in the past than accelera- 
tion, speed and braking. While these last are most important 
factors in rapid transit, station stops must be short if they are 
frequent and if a high schedule speed is needed. According 
to L. B. Stilkvell, in an address on the New York Subway on 
Feb. 8 at the annual dinner of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, the factor of time lost at stations presents the 
most serious obstacle to the satisfactory solution of rapid 
transit problems. An interesting contribution to the subject 
has been furnished to the Street Railway Journal by James 
R. Chapman, general manager of the Underground Electric 
Railways Company of London. He states that practically all 
the suburban business of the steam railways entering London 
is handled in side door cars, and similar equipment is being 
added every year. The cars used on the London electric 
tube lines, however, are of the American type with end doors. 
The diameter of the tubes being 11 ft. 6 ins., the floor of the 
car cannot be raised high enough to permit of a side door. 
Hence the advantages and disadvantages of both types of cars 
for handling short riders can easily be studied in London. 

The side door car has the following advantages : 

Greatest possible seating capacity per lineal foot of train. 

Rapid loading and unloading of passengers at terminals. 

Minimum number of trainmen. 

Its disadvantages are as follows: 

Time lost at intermediate stations. 

Difficulty in properly lighting, warming and ventilating. 

Danger to passengers from evilly-disposed persons. 

Risk of passengers falling out of car in motion. 

Impossibility of collecting fares between stations. 

Non-resistance to telescoping due to inherently weak con- 
struction above floor line. 

In regard to time lost at stations, an excellent illustration is 
between Notting Hill Gate and the Bank. The Central London 
Railway, a tube line, has a station on one side of the street at 
the former point, and the Metropolitan Railway has its station 
on the opposite side of the street. The tube Hne has ten sta- 
tions in 4.7 miles, and its stops average eighteen seconds per 
station with end door cars. The Metropolitan Railway, for the 
same number of stops, averages thirty-seven seconds per sta- 
tion with side door cars. The figures given represent the mean 
of many observations during the busy hours. The character 
of traffic is the same, both lines receiving more passengers than 
they discharge for the first five stations, and discharging more 
than they receive for the remainder. 

On the other hand, the side door train of nine short cars has 
but two trainmen, while the end door train has a man between 
each pair of cars, or six men for seven cars. The side door train- 
men have plenty of work shutting doors at every station. In 
this duty they are assisted by one or more station porters. It 
is not unusual for a train to start with fully one-half of the 
doors open, and these are caught and slammed as it moves off, 
the operation being rather trying to the nerves of the passen- 
gers. Rapid acceleration is not possible under such conditions. 

From an American standpoint, the chief objection to side 
door cars arises from the methods which have to be adopted to 
collect fares. Many of the suburban express trains make fine 
runs at the rate of 45 m.p.h. to 50 m.p.h. into London, but wait 
from two to four minutes at some station, a mile or more from 
the terminus, while a gang of ticket collectors open the side 
doors and take up tickets. It is not unusual to see a train with 
600 passengers held an extra minute while a few pennies are 
collected from a passenger who has lost his ticket. A receipt 


is given for the amount collected, and 599 passengers lose a 
minute and get no receipt. 

On other lines the train is brought directly into the terminus 
and passengers are passed through a gate. Each one is ex- 
pected to say "season," or give the gateman a piece of colored 
cardboard. The pressure from behind is severe, the gateman 
does a two-handed business and takes anything that is given to 
him. The whole system is very crude and wide open to fraud. 
If a fraud is discovered, however, an English magistrate has 
to be reckoned with, and the fine is heavy ; while in America 
the police magistrate would probably discharge the offender 
and assess the costs against the company for not having a 
better system. 

While Mr. Chapman's company, in building the new Metro- 
politan District Railway cars, has abandoned the swinging door 
compartment type for a sliding end and middle door type along 
Boston Elevated lines, the Illinois Central Company has been 
developing its side door steam car and obtaining remarkable 
results with its use. This type of car was so fully described 
and illustrated in the Street Railway Journal for April 30, 
1904, page 661, and July 4, 1903, page 21, that it seems hardly 
necessary to repeat more than to say that, with a length over 
all of 72 ft., there are 100 cross seats, facing each other, with 
twelve sliding doors on each side of the car opposite each sec- 
tion of eight seats, the seats being arranged down the middle 
of the car, with an aisle on each side. The side doors are oper- 
ated from the ends of the car, and can be all opened or closed 
at once, or locked or unlocked, the general practice being at 
way stations to merely unlock all doors and allow passengers 
to open such as they wish to use, all being then closed by the 
guard. In regard to the length of stops, the originator of the 
car, A. W. Sullivan, states that no formal test has been made 
to determine how rapidly the cars might be worked, the results 
in ordinary service being so remarkably good that no special 
test has been deemed necessary. As an illustration, he gives a 
statement of the time required for station stops on a run re- 
cently made, leaving Randolph Street at 4:35 p. m., with a 
heavy load of passengers, the time being taken with a stop 
watch and the test made without the knowledge of the train- 
men, who on this trip were performing their duties in the usual 
manner : 

Stations. Time consumed 

in stops. 

Sixteenth Street 7 seconds. 

Twenty-Second Street 5 " 

Twenty-Sixth Street 6 " 

Thirty-First Street 8 " 

Thirty-Sixth Street 12 " 

Thirty-Ninth Street 7 

Forty-Third Street g " 

Forty-Seventh Street 12 " 

Fiftieth Street g " 

Fifty-Third Street 10 " 

Fifty-Seventh Street 6 " 

Sixtieth Street 5 " 

Sixty-Third Street 3 " 

The average time of the thirteen stops was 7.61 seconds. 
Considering that the passengers on this train were largely 
ladies returning from their day's shopping and that their move- 
ments were made with much deliberation, the time required to 
make the stops, to open the side doors of the cars, let out and 
admit passengers, close the doors and lock them, is quite re- 
markable. There was in this case no opportunity for the train- 
men to cut short their work by giving the signal before all the 
passengers were on or off, as all the doors were on an electric 
circuit, and the only manner in which the signal can be given 
to the engineer to start the train is by actually closing the 
doors. So the operations were conducted under conditions that 
admit of no possible chance for casualties by persons attempt- 
ing to get on or off trains while in motion. 

In regard to the heating of the Illinois Central type of car, 




[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

some doubt having been expressed as to the possibility of keep- 
ing a side door car warm in American winter weather, it is in- 
teresting to know that the Illinois Central Company has found 
its new type easier to heat than its other cars, the exhaust steam 
from the air pump on the locomotive being all that is required. 
The explanation given for this ease in heating is that the heat- 
ing coils under the seats are so exposed as to allow the favor- 
able circulation of air about them, so necessary for efficient 
heating. Cold air entering a side door, passing along the floor 
as it does, quickly meets obstructions, loses its 
velocity, and is soon heated in contact with the 
steam pipes under the seats, the car design allow- 
ing a large amount of radiating surface. With an 
end door car, cold air finds a long aisle to sweep 
down, and the heating surfaces seem less easily 
reached, though, of course, end doors are more 
sheltered than side doors. When all the side doors 
of a train are opened, more cold air can enter than 
by two end doors ; but in practice on the Illinois 
Central, only a few doors are opened at each sta- 
tion, except at the terminals. 

The Boston Elevated Company has been oper- 
ating for some time two types of cars as illus- 
trated in the accompanying diagrams, the older 
cars having open platforms, end doors, swing- 
ing gates, with middle side doors opened by 
platform men, all day long on the first car of 
each train, and on all cars at terminals and during the 
rush hours. The newer cars have no platforms, but 
sliding end and side doors, operated by compressed air 
from the car ends by the guards, as illustrated in the 
Street Railway Journal for Aug. 6, 1904, page 202. One of 
the new trains has had its middle doors equipped with pneu- 
matic operating apparatus, and also an electric signal, by 

which a starting bell is rung in the motorman's cab the instant 
every door is safely closed. A test was made on Jan. 19 to de- 
termine how quickly this last new train could handle passen- 
gers compared with an old train. The old train followed the 
new over the same routes, covering the entire system. The old 
train had the end gates of all cars and the side door of the for- 
ward car opened at all stations all day. In addition to this, 
during the rush hours all the doors in the old train were opened 
at all stations except on Atlantic Avenue and Northampton 




■St Rv..)oiini 





Strsti Rv.Jn 


Street, northbound, and Thompson Square and City Square, 
southbound. The new train had all doors opened at all stations 
all day, the doors being operated by pneumatic means. At the 
terminals all doors and gates of all trains were opened at all 
times of the day, except the forward and rear end doors of the 
trains, which are never opened. The number of passengers 
getting on and of¥ at each station were counted and the length 



Stops in 

Old Train. 

New Train. 

Station Stops Secs. 

Passengers On and Off. 

Station Stops Secs. 

Passengers On and Off. 

Per Cent 
Per Sec. Old 
Train= 100. 


Average . 



Per Sec. 





Per Sec. 

Thompson Square 















City Square 


















North Station 


















Haymarket Square 

















Adams Square 


















Scollay Square 









62 ' 








Park Street 

















Boylston Street 

















Pleasant Street 


















Dover Street 










I 107 








Northampton Street 

















Battery Street 

















State Street 















Rowes Wharf 

















South Station 

















Beach Street 































" 118 


Terminal Station. 

Old Train. 

New Train. 

Seconds Stop. 


Per Second. 

Seconds Stop. 


Per Second. 


Average . 



Sullivan Square . 


Per Cent. Passengers Per 
Sec. Old Train=100 















April i, 1905.] 



of stops was taken, so that the number of passengers handled 
per second was found. Six runs were made, covering both 
slack and rush hours, with an old three-car train and a new 
three-car train. Five corresponding runs were made with a 
four-car train of each type. The accompanying tables give the 
principal results secured as an average of both the three and 
four-car trains. 

As all trains are held at the terminals for the proper time to 
start, the figures given for terminal stops are the estimated, not 
the actual, times taken. For the same reason also they are not 
of so much importance as the intermediate station records. It 
will be seen that in these stops the new train beat the old in 


All Si.MiiiNs Exckpi Terminals. 

Old Thain. 

New Train. 





Average Passengers per Second. 





passengers per second by from 5 per cent to 51 per cent, the 
average being 18 per cent. It will also be seen that at ScoUay 
Square, which has the heaviest traffic of all the way stations, 
the new train showed an average of 3.2 passengers on and off 
per second with 1020 passengers, as against the old train record 
of 2.62 with 992 passengers. This is due, of course, to the 
opening of the middle door by compressed air at all times, to 
the use of an automatic signal, and to the freer end entrances 
with sliding doors instead of gates. 

The question will be asked whether it has proved safe to 
operate middle doors from the ends of cars by pneumatic means, 
and the experience with the Boston Elevated train allows an 
emphatic affirmative answer. The new Boston doors have 
proved remarkably safe, due mostly, perhaps, to the pneumatic 
striker on the edge of the door, which can only press lightly 
against the smooth door jamb, and cannot hold anyone's cloth- 
ing or hand. 

The conditions in the New York Subway differ from those 
on most other rapid transit lines, because four tracks are used, 
and to gain time passengers frequently transfer from local to 
express trains, and vice versa, at the island platforms. For 
this reason the number of passengers entering and leaving each 
train is much larger than if each passenger used one train only. 
.\ fair average of the length of station stops on the subway is 
given in the accompanying table: 


Rush hours 

Type of train Slack hours Important stations 

Subway express five-car train 30 .... 

Subway express eight-car train 35 SO-70 

Subway local 12-15 25-30 

In the average one-minute stop for the express trains at im- 
portant stations during rush hours, about twenty seconds are 
taken by passengers leaving the train, about thirty seconds by 
passengers boarding the train, and about ten seconds in getting 
started. These figures are unofficial, but are the average of a 
number of observations, the length of time varying with the 
number of passengers getting on and off the train. The aver- 
age length of station stops on the New York elevated lines is 
about the same as that on the sulnvav local trains. 

*^ — 

President A. G. Wheeler, of the Illinois Tunnel Company, 
estimates that the company will carry 3,000,000 tons of dirt 
during the remainder of the present year. The charge for 
hauling is 623/ cents per cubic yard.. By the use of the tunnels 
the foundations for the new buildings to be constructed for the 
Northern Trust Company and for Marshall Field & Company 
are being put in without disturbing the present tenants of the 


Murnau is a station on the Partenkirchen branch of the 
Bavarian State Railways, one of the several small lines that 
run from Munich into the picturesque mountainous country on 
the border of Tyrol, known as the Bavarian Highlands. Ober- 
Ammergau is right in the heart of these mountains, and has 


become famous owing to its association with the decennial 
passion play that takes its name. The new railway will now 
be able to develop the already considerable traffic between the 
mountains and Munich, of regular tourists, holiday makers, 
peasants, hunters, etc., as well as a good business in farm 


])roduce. The rolling stock, as will afterward be shown, has 
been built specially to meet these requirements. 

The line, which is 23 km long (about 14 miles), is operated 
on the Siemens-Schuckert single-phase current traction system. 
The power is derived from the River Ammer, a stream which 
rises in the Ober-Ammergau Mountains, and running through 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

the Ammerthal discharges into the Ammersee. The hne start- 
ing from Murnau more or less follows the coach road running 
west and skirting the Staffelsee, thence through Kohlgrub, it 
joins the Ammerthal and turns south, passing Saulgrub, Wur- 
mesau and Unter-Ammergau to Ober-Ammergau. The power 


station is situated about 8 km from Ober-Ammergau (i. e., the 
line is fed at a point one-third its length from one end). One 
of the views shows the dam and intake at the commencement 
of the mill race. The latter crosses the stream some distance 
below the intake by means of a steel aqueduct, and a con- 
siderable head is available. The power station is provided 
with two turbines, each of which is direct coupled through 
a flexible coupling to two generators arranged in tandem 
on the same shaft. The generators nearest the 
turbines are single-phase machines, and the 
others generate three-phase current, which is 
used for lighting some of the neighboring vil- 
lages. The single-phase current is generated at 
5000 volts and at a frequency of 16% cycles per 
second, and is fed direct into the line at this 
pressure, the return being to earth. The total 
drop in volts when two trains are at the end of 
the line furthest from the power station is only 
6 per cent. 

The overhead wire is mostly single, but there 
are some experimental lengths of catenary sus- 
pension, comprising one steel catenary and two 
copper wires. The second illustration shows a 
station with ordinary single suspension and one 
of the poles provided with horn type lightning- 
arresters, which carry out their functions very 
well. The district is subjected to extremes of 
weather, the violent thunder storms of the sum- 
mer giving place to heavy snow storms and in- 
tense cold in the winter, when the temperature 
falls as low as — 30 degs. C. Hence, the over- 
head line has had to be very carefully and 
strongly erected. It was at first found that the snow tended to 
short-circuit the lightning arresters, while the lubricants of the 
motors and car axles often froze, but these troubles have been 
successfully overcome. 

The cars are'of the corridor type. The trailers are ordinary 
four-wheel coaches for third-class only, and are attached to the 
motor coaches as required. The latter are mounted on three 

axles and are divided into four sections, namely, second-class, 
third-class, post and luggage, and driver's compartments. Their 
net weight fully equipped is 26 tons. They are well lighted by 
means of batteries under the car bodies and electrically heated 
by radiators in the secondary circuit. The brakes are worked 
by compressed air provided by axle-driven 

The collecting apparatus comprises two 
bows mounted on the top of each car on 
frames which are insulated from the roof. 
The bows are held up by springs and are 
pulled into position by an air cylinder which 
is fed from the brake reservoir and controlled 
by the driver. The high-tension current is 
taken past a horn lightning arrester through 
a choking coil and fuse on the roof, and passes 
thence to an automatic circuit breaker (see 
diagram) under the car body. This switch 
is mechanically closed by the first operation 
of the controller CB, which is provided with 
two electromagnetic trip devices ; one of these 
is in series with the primary of the trans- 
former Tp, and operates as a maximum cut- 
out; the other trip device is controlled by a 
local battery and switch in the driver's 
cab, and enables the driver to open the 
main high-tension switch. Each motor is 
provided with one transformer, which is 
suspended ' under the car body, enclosed 
in an oil tank, which is ribbed outside. 
The secondary coil of the transformer Ts is connected 
at various points to the controller CB, which is pro- 
vided with a magnetic blow-out M, and is taken thence to 
the reversing switches RR and the motors Mi and M2, the 
main current passing through an ammeter shunt to which are 
connected two ammeters Am. The reversing switches have, 
as will be seen, three positions. The two extreme positions are 
for backward and forward running, respectively, while the 


center position is for taking the cars into the car shed, where 
a special low-tension overhead trolley line is provided. For 
this purpose, when the cars arrive at this point the switches 
Szv are closed and the low-tension trolleys LT are put into 
operation. The transformer reduces from 5000 volts to 260 
volts, and the barrel controller switches this voltage step by 
step on to the motors. 

Aprii, I, 1905.] 




Each car is provided with two 80-hp motors, which are 
geared to the two end axles of the coach through single reduc- 
tion gears with a ratio of i to 5.2, the running wheels having a 
diameter of 800 mm (^lyz ins.). These motors enable the car 
to maintain a normal full speed of 40 km per hour when run- 
ning either by itself or with a trailer. The two motors are 
always in parallel; they are of the lo-pole single-phase com- 
mutator type, and are built to a design which includes special 
windings for reducing the sparking. It is claimed that this 
arrangement has been so successful that the sparking at the 
commutator is practically nil over a very wide range of speed. 
This type of motor can also be arranged for running with con- 
tinuous current if necessary. The cars have been tested on the 

steepest grade (i in 25), and they started with a gross load of 
50 tons without any trouble whatever. 

The complete electrical equipment for this railway, which 
was opened for regular service early this year, was designed 
and supplied by the Siemens-Schuckert Company. It is re- 
ported that this company is also completing for the Swedish 
State Railways a single-phase locomotive which is capable of 
working with 20,000 volts taken direct from the trolley wire. 
They are also at work in conjunction with the Allgemeine 
Elektricitiits Gesellschaft on the Hamburg-Altona single-phase 
line. It is interesting to learn that single-phase railway motors 
of the type above described are being made by Siemens Bros. & 
Company, Ltd., at their Stafford Works, England. 




[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 



The use of thermit in the welding of rail ends, especially in 
street railways, has become so well known within the past six 
months that the management of nearly all the systems in opera- 
tion in the United States know more or less what it is and its 
advantages. It is'obvious that if it is possible to join the rail 
ends permanently together so that they become continuous, 
and the joint has been practically eliminated, and permanently 
so, one of the worst, most expensive and annoying troubles 
incident to track construction and its maintenance has been 

There can be no doubt that this can be done when thermit 
has been applied in rail-welding. The rail ends are melted to- 
gether at their ends and become one solid mass, and the joint 
no longer exists. It has also been demonstrated in making this 
weld that the quality of the steel in the rail has not been 
changed and that no decarbonization takes place. Repeated 
tests show that the tread of the rail retains its hardness, and at 
same time the joint may be handled and used just the same 
as any other part of the rail. The conductivity of the joint is 
above that of an equal section of the rail away from the joint, 
and remains so up to the end of the life of the rail. 

The simplicity of the application of the system, its flexibility 
and the fact that it may be economically applied to the welding 
of worn joints without interruption of traffic, are facts that ap- 
peal strongly to the track engineer, but its superiority in an- 
other direction, and the enormous economy worked out during 
the life of the rail, does not seem to have been so fully gone 
into in the United States by street railway engineers as in 
Europe and Great Britain. There are many cities in Great 
Britain and Europe that set aside as high as $2,500 per mile 
per annum for upkeep of rail-joints, bonds and track. 

The following is an estimate made to show the actual econ- 
omy in welding the rail ends with the Goldschmidt thermit sys- 
tem, as compared with the same line joined with fish-plates 
and bonded with a 000 copper bond around the same. A case 
has been taken where a 7-in. steel rail weighing 70 lbs. to the 
yard was laid on creosoted ties, 2-ft. centers, paved with the 
usual granite blocks. An average was taken of 500 amps, for 
twelve hours per day at 500 volts, current delivered at 2 cents 

per kw-hour: 

Cost of fish-plating and bonding i mile of double track. . $2,816 
Depreciation of joints (life ten years, of rails) at 20 per 

cent per annum 1,408 

Testing for bad bonds 1,260 

Paving, repaving, excavation, etc 2,110 

Repairs of rail-joints, tightening up bolts, paving excava- 
tion and repaving 2,310 


Credit for old copper 294 

Cost of one mile of double track to the extent of its life, 
including upkeep* $9,610 

Cost of I mile of double track with joints thermit welded 

at, say, $4.00 per joint $2,816 

Losses by breakage of rails, caused by contraction at 
per cent per annum (the life of the rail when welded by 
thermit being estimated at twenty-five years) 353 

Total cost of line and upkeep for life of rail (twenty-five 

years) $3,169 

The comparative cost of ten years' life of thermit welded 
joints and of fished and bonded joints would then be as follows : 

Fished and bonded joints $9,610 

Thermit welded joints for ten years 1.243 

Difference in favor of thermit welded joints for i mile 
of double track, 70-lb. rail $8,367 

This gives at the end of the life of the rail, when fished and 

* See article in Street Railway Journal, Sept. 3, 1904, entitled "Rails and 

bonded, a difference of $io.8i per joint, which is more than 
double the price of making a thermit joint for such a rail. 

Again, take the same rail and calculate the loss per mile of 
double track where joints are fished and bonded with a coo 
B. & S. copper bond, and include the loss of life of rail by de- 
preciation of joint, caused by imperfect joining and bonding. 
The loss of current on account of difference in resistance be- 
tween bond and rest of line, leaving out considerations of in- 
terest, etc., and the fact that the bonds are continually depre- 

ciating, would be as follows : 

Loss on rails, per annum $683.00 

Loss on bad bonds and renewals, per annum 448.60 

Loss on current to overcome difTerence of resistance of 

bonds and resistance of rail if thermit welded 181.77 

Per annum $i;3i3-37 

Cost of upkeep of thermit welded joints per annum.... 124.30 

Difference per aniuim in favor of thermit welds, or the 
respectable sum of $1.69 per annum per joint $1,189.07 

The above calculations have been made without regard to 
the wear and tear of rolling stock, pounding over worn joints, 
and to say nothing about the increased comfort of the patrons 
of a line where the joints have been welded. 

The calculations as to loss of current are based upon the fol- 
lowing; 000 B. & S., 36 ins. average length, 500 amps, for 
twelve hours per day ; resistance of bonds, 0.0083 ohms per mile 
more than if the rails were continuous ; 70-lb. steel rail ; cost 
of current, 2 cents per kw-hour. This runs into the respectable 
sum of $181.77 per annum, and is based upon the assumption 
that the tracks and lines were regularly cross-bonded and the 
bonds were kept up to their best condition all of the time. As 
a matter of fact, 15 per cent or 20 per cent can be safely added 
to this amount on account of the bonds after a period of a few 
months. If even 10 per cent is added, it brings the amount up 
to the large sum of $199.94 as a dead loss per annum for each 
mile of double track. 

There is another phase that must not be lost sight of that is 
bound to be given some prominence in the near future, and 
that is earth returns of current and its damaging efTect by elec- 
trolysis to adjacent pipes. The writer has often seen a drop in 
voltage on lines of 150 volts, and a good part of this is due to 
defective bonding. The current must return in some way, and 
it is natural to suppose that water, gas and other metallic pipes 
assist materially in return the current. The authorities are 
bound to take this subject up seriously in time, and it would 
seem to be good engineering to forestall such a movement by 
at least giving the rails their full conductive strength, which 
can be obtained by welding the joint. The English and other 
European nations have strict laws in force on this question 
and enforce them to the letter. 

The English Board of Trade rules provide for elaborate tests 
tn be made periodically, and will not allow a loss on the nega- 
tive lines from the furthest point to the power station to ex- 
ceed 7 volts. 

Henry A. Everett, of the Everett-Moore Syndicate, seldom 
takes out a party in his private car, "The Josephine, "that he does 
not undertake to reduce previous records. Last week the car 
made a remarkable run from Cleveland to Detroit over the Lake 
Shore Electric and Detroit, Monroe & Toledo lines. It left the 
Public Square in Cleveland at 12:30 and arrived at Toledo at 
3 .-46 p. m. Here there was a slight delay, but the run to the 
Russell House in Detroit was made by 5 :43 p. m. The distance 
is 178 miles. The Lake Shore (steam) has a train which leaves 
Cleveland at 12:45 ^^c^ runs by way of Sandusky and Toledo, 
reaching Detroit at 4:30. The distance by this route is 171 
miles, so that the electric run was two minutes faster over a 
route 7 miles longer. It is stated that the run was made with- 
out interfering in any way with the regular schedule. 

April i, 1905.] 




In response to numerous requests from undertakers and tlie 
public generally, the International Railway Company, of Buf- 
falo, has put in service a special funeral car for the use of 
funeral parties desiring to go to cemeteries in the suburbs of 
Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Lockport and the Tonawandas. 

The car was formerly a 28-ft. body passenger car and was 
rebuilt at the company's shops. It has two compartments, one 
about 19 ft. long, containing six cross seats and a short longi- 


tudinal seat along one side and five cross seats and two short 
longitudinal seats on the other. The second compartment is 
about 9 ft. long and is intended for the casket and the pall- 
bearers or immediate family of the deceased. This smaller 
compartment has a longitudinal seat along one side. The 

casket is carried in an enclosed case or compartment extend- 
ing along the other side. 

The casket compartment is about Sj/^ ft. long, 32 ins. wide, 
and the top comes about to the level of the window rail. The 
top of this compartment forms a convenient place for the floral 
contributions. Access to the casket compartment is had through 

a door from the outside of the car. The door is hinged at tlie 
bottom and is let down much as is the Ijertli in a Pullman 




sleeper. It is held by chains and spring rollers, similar to those 
used on Pullman berths. 

The casket rests on a sliding floor or shelf. When the casket 
is to be placed in the car, the door is let down, the sliding shelf 
is pulled out and tlie casket is placed on this shelf and firmly 

secured in place l)v means of pegs placed along the sides and 
ends. The pegs go into holes in ihe slielf, there 1 icing several 
lines of these Iioles, so that any size of casket can be accommo- 
dated. The shelf bearing the casket is then pushed back into 
the compartment and the door closed and locked. 

The exterior ami interior of the car is Unislicd in dark green. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

with heavy dark green draperies at the windows and doors. 
The seats are the Hale & Kilburn high-back type, with high 
roll-back and finished in dark green leather. The car is heated 
with Consolidated electric heaters. 

The car is mounted on Brill 27 trucks, with four GE 1000 
motors and Christensen air brakes. 

The car is named "Elmlawn," after one of the large suburban 
cemeteries. A charge of from $25 to $35 is made for the use 
of the car, depending upon the distance it has to travel. It is 
engaged for most of the funerals going to the outlying ceme- 
teries, and the greater comfort, privacy and convenience of the 
funeral car, as compared with horse-drawn coaches, seems to 
be appreciated by the public. 




The importance of developing every detail in street railway 
operation which will assist in the proper maintenance of car ser- 
vice schedules has for a long time been recognized by operating 
officials. Under conditions of heavy traffic in the streets of our 
largest cities, a very few delays, even if of slight duration each, 
are sufficient to entirely disorganize the schedules of an entire 
division, which will result in a serious loss to the operating 
company. Studies of operating conditions with the view of 
eliminating the possibilities of delays are, therefore, of par- 
ticular interest to large railway companies, and in this connec- 
tion the use of the automatic track switch lias offered many 
attractions as a means of accomplishing this end. 

The need of provisions of this nature are perhaps more 
keenly felt in the city of New York than anywhere else in this 
country, although there are unquestionably many other cities 
where the same problem has grown to troublesome proportions. 
The inevitable delays at switching points, especially upon lines 
where in "rush" hours cars are operated upon twenty seconds' 
headway or less, amount to a very serious matter, and in con- 
sequence the New York City Railway Company has for some 
time been conducting an extensive series of experiments along 
this line. The results are of interest and, furthermore, are very 
promising in their relation to future work in this direction. As 
a positive assurance of operation at the desired moment, an 
automatic contrivance eclipses any attempt at punctuality which 
human attendance may offer, and, while its first cost may in 
some cases appear unreasonably large, the expense for installa- 
tion of the electric automatic track switch is compensated for 
by the reduction in future operating outlay. The New York 
City Company has installed several automatic switches at vari- 
ous points, and is making preparations for the installation of 
several others in the near future. 

Numerous and well-grounded reasons exist which strongly 
favor the operation of switches by automatic means rather 
than have a switchman stationed at every switching point for 
the purpose of manually controlling the switch tongue move- 
ment. The continuous expense for manual labor, taken in the 
^gg^'^gate for all the switchmen required upon a large city 
system, involves an expense item of great size. The presence 
of switchmen at important switching points involves additional 
office expenses and detail in time keeping, and also adds to the 
duties of the inspectors in charge of workmen of that class. 
When subjected to extreme weather conditions, the switchmen 
develop inactive tendencies because of physical discomfort, 
while in event of heavy traffic, the man may find it difficult to 
reach the switch always at the desired moment, on account of 
the danger to which he would subject himself, and in the con- 
fusion will necessarily cause delays in the operation of cars. 
Again, the switchman, if careless, may throw a switch only 
part way over, which will result in serious damage to the 

equipment by causing the "plow," or underground trolley con- 
tact device (as used in New York City), to take one track while 
the car truck takes the other. When the switch mechanism is 
operated manually from the street, the hand lever must either 
remain in position or else be inserted in the bell-crank jaw at 
each shifting of the switch ; the former is undesirable because 
of obstruction to street traffic, and the latter is a source of de- 
lay. Under conditions of manual operation and in the absence 
of a regular switchman, on the other hand, the motorman from 
the car must alight and operate the hand lever, which obviously 
infringes on the schedule. 

An automatic switch operating contrivance enables the mo- 
torman to operate the switch from the platform of the car while 
it is in motion, and entirely without outside assistance. Several 
designs of automatic track switches have been devised, em- 
l)racing operation by both mechanical and electrical means. 
Both types have their merits, but the mechanical species have 
in general offered less promise of reliability under the un- 
usually severe conditions of operation to which such a device 
will be subjected. The New York City Railway Company has 
accordingly devoted its attention to the electric type of switch. 

Plan o'^ Conduc-i-or Bars 

Inswlated Section 


and has in use several installations of two different manufac- 
turers of the latter class. One of these was built by the Baldwin 
& Rowland Switch & Signal Company, New Haven, Conn., and 
the other by the American Automatic Switch Company, New 

The American switch was described in these columns in the 
issue of Dec. 19. 1903. A diagrammatic view of the Baldwin & 
Rowland switch is shown in Fig. i. As will be noted, it em- 
braces two electric circuits in parallel, one of the common leads 
connecting to the insulated section and the other to the live 
underground conductor or trolley bar on the same side as the 
insulated section. In each of the parallel circuits are two oper- 
ating solenoids A4R and ML, a bridge switch sr and si and a 
steadying magnet inr and ml. When a car is passing over the 
insulated section with power on, the cores CC, which are joined 
by a yoke attached to the operating link OL, are attracted to- 
ward the operating magnets MR- The operating link is con- 
nected to a bell crank which operates the switch tongue mechan- 
ism, as indicated. The lower end of the connecting link car- 
ries the roller R. which, as the plungers move, rolls along the 
under side of the balance lever BL. The position of the balance 
lever, the unstable setting of which is maintamed by the at- 
traction between the magnet mr and its armature AR, controls 
the distribution of current to one of the parallel circuits. Only 
after the plow has left the insulated section does the longer 
arm of the balance lever descend. The next car passing over 
the section with power on would throw the switch tongue back 
to its former position. The function of the magnets mr and ml 

April i, 1905.] 



is to maintain current in only one of the parallel circuits, and 
thus prevent to and fro motion of the tongue while the plow is 
on the insulated section ; in the absence of these magnets, just 
whether or not the final position of the switch would be the 
one desired for the car schedule, would depend upon the par- 
ticular part of the insulated section the plow was when the car 
stopped, and also upon the rapidity of operation of the switch 
tongue mechanism. 

Fig. 2 shows diagrammatically the standard application of 
the American switch for the operation of switch movements 
upon the lines of the New York City Railway Company. Ad- 
ditional consideration is involved in the operation of switches 
upon the lines of this company, on account of the use of the 
underground contact system of electric operation, as the switch- 
ing mechanism must throw the slot guide for the "contact plow" 
as well as the switch point, in order that the plow will be 
directed to the proper track slot in switching. 

The application of the electric switch mechanism for accom- 
plishing this result is here illustrated. The electric switch 
operates through a system of levers in conjunction with an 
auxiliary mechanism by which the switching can be accom- 
plished from a bar inserted through a street plate at one side, 
as shown. A spring-operated retaining or locking leverage is 

adopted by the New York City Railway Company as the sim- 
plest method of instructing motormen in the operation of the 
electric type of automatic switch. As indicated in this plan, 
there is located about 45 ft. in advance of the switch tongue an 
insulated section in one of the conductor bars of the under- 
ground trolley system, which section provides for the opera- 
tion of the automatic switch, as above explained. In order to 
indicate the location of this section, as well as to serve as a 
guide for the various movements in the switching operation, 
whitewash marks are maintained on the surface of the pave- 
ment, which furnish the motormen the information as indicated 
on the plan. 

As will be noted, a V-shaped mark indicates the approach to 
the insulated section ; the wide mark extending entirely across 
the track further on, indicates the position for the first stop, 
where the front platform of the car must be brought to a stop 
when it is desired to change the position of the switch point. 
Upon then starting the car, a narrow mark extending entirely 
across the track indicates the position for the motorman to shut 
off power in passing the gap in the conductor bar (to avoid ex- 
cessive arcing), while a similar mark extended half-way across 
the track shows the position for resuming the power after pass- 
ing the insulating break. The further wide whitewash mark 


provided on the end of the electric switch rod, by which the 
system is partially locked in either position of throw; this, in 
connection with the semi-locking action of the electric switch, 
makes the switching action very effective. As may be noted, 
the various levers of the switching mechanism are provided 
with adjustments by which their throw may be changed to ac- 
commodate changes in track alignment. 

The switch mechanism is, as may be noted, enclosed in a 
water-tight case, which is filled with oil for the lubrication of 
the moving parts within, and which also provides immunity 
from interruptions due to dirt and other extraneous causes. 
The magnet coil is also enclosed in a water-tight case, which 
is filled with transformer oil, thus protecting the magnet from 
moisture. The wires leading into the magnet coil are intro- 
duced through stuffing boxes. 

The details of the American switch mechanism have, as above 
stated, been previously mentioned in these columns. As will 
be remembered from the same, the action of this switch is posi- 
tive, causing a complete throw each time the current is passed 
through the solenoid coil ; in this way splitting of the switch 
tongue and derailment of the car is impossible. The action of 
the mechanism is such as to partially lock in either position of 
the switch tongue movement, although the lock is not suffi- 
ciently tight to prevent the switch movement being thrown by 
means of the usual street switch lever. 

Fig. 3 illustrates in plan a section of track at a switching 
point, and illustrates the operating method which has been 

immediately before reaching the switch tongue indicates the 
position in which the car should make its stop before taking 
the switch when it is noticed in approaching the insulated sec- 
tion that the switch point is properly placed for the destination 
of the car, this latter movement providing that the car shall 
drift across the insulated section without power, in order not 
to operate the switch mechanism. 

To study the modus operandi, let it be assumed that the 
switch tongue is set for the straight track, and that a motorman, 
advancing in the direction shown, desires to turn to the left. 
Upon coming to the electric switch warning mark, he turns off 
the power and allows the car to drift. Seeing that the switch is 
set contrary to his route, he brings his car to a stop when the 
front bumper is over the first stop mark, in which position the 
plow of the car is on the insulated section marked IS-, and 
which is in series with the switch solenoid. The car is then 
started with the controller handle at the first or second notch, 
which passes a comparatively small current through the oper- 
ating coil and throws the tongue. When the front bumper 
reaches a position over the "off" mark, the motorman turns the 
power oft', in order to prevent an arc at the insulating break, 
and when the "on" mark is reached, the power is again turned 
on, as by that time the plow has come again in contact with 
the live section of the conductor bar. 

If, on the other hand, tlic motorman finds the s\vitch point set 
properly for the route of his car, he is instructed to approach 
the insulated section at a speed sufficient to drift over the en- 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

tire gap without power. This prevents current from passing 
through the switch solenoid coil, and thus the switch point is 
not disturbed. His procedure in this case is, upon approaching 
the V-shaped warning mark at a fair speed, to shut off power 
and drift entirely over the insulated section to the second stop 
position, after which he may continue upon his trip. 

Special instructions are given the motorman concerning the 
operation of the switches in case of double-throw of the switch 
mechanism due to being required to stop and start a second time 
on the insulated section, due to congested street traffic or any 
other cause, which will result in returning the switch point to 
the position in which it was found originally. In this event, 
he is required to throw his controller handle back to zero and 

BreoK in oondmctor bora 

'in switch -t-ont^i. 

BreoK in condi/\ofor bors 

£ "■■ Stop ■S fop h ere whan awi+ch 

\5 set in i-K^ht poai + ion 


\^^€>t op S+op h ere when switch 
IS not set \n i-icjht position 



re ot 1 

n svii at edsecV ion 

ElectncL Qwiich Wornirx 






I M 

I I — 





again turn on power the third time while on the insulated sec- 
tion, which will bring the switch point to the desired position. 
The motorman must in such a case, however, take precautions 
not to stop on the insulating break, which would prevent start- 
ing, and thus cause serious delay to the car until pushed over 
by the car following. This is a practical feature of the opera- 
tion which will be readily apparent, the possibility for which 
trouble being due to the extremely congested conditions of 
vehicular trafhc in New York City. 

Among the advantages of both types of electric switches is 
the ease of access to all parts, which permits of ready inspec- 
tion, their convenience of operation and quickness in action. 

The American type of switch has been under trial for over two 
years, and now is in use in different sections of the city, and 
several more are at present being installed. Among its ad- 
vantages determined during this time the following may be 
cited : There are no wearing surfaces in the mechanism what- 
ever to change the action, while the enclosure underground in 
a water-tight metal box prevents the contact of dirt or water 
with the magnet or other parts. One magnet moves the switch 
tongue in either of the two directions ; the cam plate is arranged 
to produce a partial lock upon the switch bar, but still does not 
render the switch inoperative by the hand lever in event of 
trouble to the automatic mechanism. The switch operates in 
all weathers. 

The automatic switches which are to be installed upon the 
lines of the company during the coming spring will be placed 
in locations where street traffic congestion will be most likely 
to interfere with the operation of the cars; in this way a very 
tliorough trial of the device may be made before extending its 
use more generally throughout the city. This does not in- 
volve any question of the advisability as to the use of the 
automatic switch, as its advantages far overweigh any objec- 
tions to its use. The financial advantages of the introduction 
nf these switches are very considerable, as in each case they 
will obviate the necessity of two switchmen, one for day and 
the other for night service. As these switchmen are paid ap- 
proximately $2 per day, this means a saving of $4 per day, or 
$1,460 per year (365 days), which at an interest rate of 6 per 
cent would warrant an expenditure of over $20,000, neglecting 
attendance and repairs to the automatic switch. There are 
upward of 140 switching points upon the lines in New York 
City, so that an idea may be had of the possibilities in this 
direction. If 100 switches are installed the annual saving will 
thus grow to $146,000 — an amount worthy of consideration. 




In the previous three issues the writer has considered tht 
newspapers, bill-posters and other channels of publicity for 
making public announcements, but of equal or greater im- 
portance is to determine what to advertise through them. As 
to the pleasure travel, there are many things all ready to handle 
on the system, such as historic spots, recreation grounds and 
public events of one kind and another. But the best traffic man 
is the one that causes public events to grow where none existed 
before — in other words, to originate new reasons for crowds 
gathering at points where his road will get the benefit. On the 
principle that the nimble sixpence makes the shilling, he should 
remember that the short haul boosts up the earnings per car- 
mile. A study of his parks, picnic grounds, historic spots, sub- 
urban routes, swiftest schedules will develop how best to adver- 
tise these regular features, and the public events that occur by 
the calendar or that can be. foreseen can easily have sufficient 
publicity given them. 

Some of the events that can be "created" are city days at 
your various resorts, music festivals, electric carnivals, family 
reunions, gatherings of all orders and societies, special outings 
on the holidays of the various nationalities in your territory, 
political conventions, labor meetings for all sorts of purposes, 
water fetes, children's days, horse races, band competitions on 
a large scale, clay and live pigeon shoots, firemen's play-outs, 
old-timers' reunions, sham battles, and so on without end. 
Plan them well beforehand, get influential individuals inter- 
ested, work them up, nurse them along and aid them, but sel- 
dom "stand" for them. "Under the auspices of" be your watch- 
word ! The nickel, not the glory — amen ! 

April i, 1905.] 



City days at some resort could include band concerts, ball 
games by rival local nines, clay pigeon shoot, mammoth tug-of- 
war, hurdle and obstacle races and field sports. Get the most 
prominent citizens to act as judges, have the prizes donated by 
local firms and displayed in their windows and work on civic 
pride for your publicity. Music festivals might include all the 
musical societies of a State, if no State organization already 
exists through which it could be worked. There should be a 
score of State soloists, vocal and instrumental, an immense 
festival chorus, a few singers of perhaps national reputation 
and a symphony orchestra. Plan it for several days, where 
the company is interested in a hotel, if possible — and let the 
public know about it. Many of these great events are pulled 
off in apparent secrecy. Electric carnivals in parks and picnic 
grounds at night are based principally on some extra current, 
strings of incandescents and perhaps several gross of Chinese 
lanterns. One or two spectacular attractions to focus attention 
on beforehand and for the crowds to talk about afterward, in 
addition to the regular amusement features of the resort, and 
the natural gayety of the people under these circumstances 
will fill out the carnival. Family reunions work themselves. 
A few hours with the directories of the cities along the line or 
in interviewing some of the old inhabitants and you can learn 
the family names in your territory best adapted for your de- 
signs. Seek out the influential individuals bearing the names 
that you have selected, give them the "suggestion," and with a 
little assistance they will do the rest. But it is not the Smiths, 
Browns, Joneses and Robinsons, necessarily, that make success- 
ful reunions. Select names that are perhaps unusual enough 
to excite interest in those bearing them as to the extent of the 
family connection. In this same way picnics on the holidays 
of all the nations of Europe are made profitable. Secret orders, 
particularly the military branches, use special cars nowadays 
to a great extent, visiting other lodges or gathering for an out- 
ing or parade. Banquets having political "blackbirds served 
in a pie" are more enjoyable when partaken of at some pleasant 
resort. Labor unions can muster thousands for all purposes 
from sympathy meetings for raising aid to most enjoyable out- 
ings with field sports on the programme. Special features for 
children's days are fancy dancing for prizes by a limited num- 
ber of entries from each city on the system, free rides on the 
carousel for the first thousand entering the park, a Scotch 
Highlander bagpiper, or some such inducement. Band com- 
petitions, firemen's play-outs, sham battles, farmers' days, 
county fairs, street carnivals, military tournaments, etc., re- 
quire more of company assistance, but they seldom fail to fill 
the receivers' safes. Sometimes the public is in just the humor 
for a big barbecue, clam-bake or watermelon cutting, and the 
unusual feature causes a great deal of talk. Sports of all kinds 
are an unfailing source of revenue. Some companies own 
baseball franchises and maintain the grounds. Where the haul 
is short, the population large and the enthusiasm high, the re- 
sult is certain. Much can be done also by working up minor 
leagues for baseball, handball, basketball, bowling, etc. ; get- 
ting up track meets, games of Gaelic football, launch, boat and 
canoe races, automobile contests, swimming matches and dozens 
of other variations that play on the national love of exercise. 

I do not advise road managements to adopt the methods that 
are followed in popularizing a midway at a great world's fair, 
nor should they all attempt to have Dreamlands on their line, 
but there are many good drawing cards among the "big spec- 
taculars" that amusement companies are ready to give at your 
resort, such as water spectacles showing land and sea battles 
or volcanic eruptions, engine collisions, submarine boats, fake 
airships, diving horses and elks, and the whole series of balloon 
and parachute acts. These require careful planning if they 
are to be made successes, and not, as in some cases that have 
shocked the country, catastrophes. Crowds nuist be kept under 
control and at a proper distance. At one resort this last sum- 

mer, where an engine collision was advertised, the crowd forced 
its way too near the track, a panic followed, the management 
refused to give the exhibition and the disappointed ones 
wrecked the hotel on the grounds. At the least, these spec- 
tacles call for constant watchfulness or your water-walker may 
go out into the lake for his act in a dangerous state of intoxica- 
tion and make the spectacle ridiculous and perhaps serious. I 
am somewhat "gun-shy" from experience with these features, 
but if you know where to look for trouble and avert it you can 
sometimes use them to great advantage. Some resorts have 
permanent features, such as captive balloons, imitation battle- 
ships floating in the lake, and even submarine boats. I shall 
make no mention of the long list of customary permanent fea- 
tures at amusement resorts, but only of the movable ones trav- 
eling the country over or of permanent features of an unusual 
nature. The traffic man's business is not park building, but 
creating travel. 

Sometimes a spectacle company can be secured for the entire 
season at a very low figure which is prepared to give a dozen 
of the smaller feats, especially if the contract is made early 
enough in the season. This gives them a "backbone" to work 
on during the summer ; and they will fill their side contracts 
for special days or weeks at other resorts at a higher figure of 
profit. They can usually give two performances, afternoon and 
night, and as many Sunday "stunts" as wanted, varying the act 
each week. Their repertoire usually includes the balloon acts — 
single and double ascensions, single and double parachute 
drops, balloon races, cannon and torpedo release parachute 
drop, etc.; the "slide for life," high dive, bicycle act on high 
wire with trapeze, bicycle dive into water, loop the loop and 
loop the gap, high-wire walking, walking on water, etc. Aside 
from the regular attractions at the resort, a spectacle of this 
kind is a good focusing point for the afternoon's or evening's 
entertainment features. 

Most amusement resorts have their own band, but special 
band concerts, especially on Sunday afternoon, with some well- 
known organization, or the local bands, either single or com- 
bined, are always high cards in drawing crowds. Their enter- 
taining value, and incidentally their advertising value, are 
heightened by the addition of a popular soloist, either vocal or 
instrumental, without too nnich extra expense. 

A few good animals, without attempting to make the menage- 
rie too large, pay as a rule; but this is a matter to be decided 
by local conditions, in which many things enter besides the size 
of the population to draw from. 

The trafific man, though, can make his greatest financial hits 
for the road by taking advantage of sudden opportunities, like 
the stock broker. Accidents, large fires and other calamities 
can be made to yield money for the road if the traffic man does 
not allow his enthusiasm to appear too cold-blooded. If a 
freight train wreck has been rapidly photographed and the 
pictures displayed, and notice be made of the location of the 
wreck on the bulletin boards at terminal points, the car-fare 
results are likely to equal those from a prepared engine col- 
lision of the spectacular order. Large fires, explosions, floods 
are in this class. I have known of instances in the interior 
where the discovery of large fossilized bones has been seized 
on to draw thousands. On the coast, races at sea, battleships 
in port, new vessels on trial runs, launchings, the appearance 
of a school of whales have been treated in the same way. As 
an instance in pomt to show how the trafific man must be pre- 
pared to work rapidly when the proper moment comes, it is the 
custom to have dasher signs printed in advance for some events 
which may be supposed reasonably to occur once or twice in a 
season. He will have in his bill room a supply announcing: 


The Sight of a Lifetime 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

or perhaps another pile ready for the dashers and wall cases 
and bulletin boards reading: 


Crowds Line the Banks 

If the road has no resorts there are certainly some picnic 
spots on the line, a grove or perhaps a hill from which a view 
may be had. May-flower and arbutus hunting and autumn leaf 
gathering and botanical expeditions may be held forth cleverly 
as inducements for city dwellers to take a little suburban ride. 
If your line goes no further than the city limits find something- 
inside to draw the crowds to. How many people in New York 
go within a mile of the obelisk and yet have never seen it, sim- 
ply because they have never received the direct suggestion ? 
They know that it is there ; that if their interest in it is ever 
awakened they can view it ; but nothing ever quickens this 
knowledge into impulse. 

The most important matter of excursions I have purposely 
left until near the last. Special car business from points along 
your own line can be greatly increased by some "heavy think- 
ing and light hand-shaking." In the territory outside the zone 
directly served by your own line there is plenty of money 
waiting for the proper suggestion to start it your way. Up-to- 
date electric railways are now running joint excursions, and 
some even enter into arrangements with the steam roads and 
.give people living comparatively near to some resort or his- 
toric spot the opportunity that they had never had, because 
they did not know enough about the schedules of the two lines 
to make the trip easily. I brought 780 people over 25 miles of 
steam road before they connected with the electric cars, and 
had their patronage all day from 10 a. m. to 7 p. m. in the 
restaurants and at the amusement devices, and my share of the 
advertising was only $13. Also one carload went in another 
direction over the lines of the company when they left the 
steam train on a trip to the coast that cost 90 cents apiece for 
the round trip. That excursion was repeated several times, 
and when the weather was favorable the same success resulted. 
I have brought special excursions of fraternal orders, high 
schools, Sunday schools, etc., miles over the steam roads before 
connecting with the electrics, and have always found that they 
liked the novelty. Frequently, if they receive the proper sug- 
gestion, they prefer to get up the excursion themselves to make 
money for their society. I give them a rate for the special 
cars and help them on rates with connecting roads, details of 
transportation, advertising, etc. They charge what they please 
for the tickets and settle with the roads for the special cars. 
This plan frequently nets quite a little sum for their treasury. 
The main hitch with electric railways in getting up joint ex- 
cursions is the apportionment each should receive from the 
specials and what they should pay for the crews, but more par- 
ticularly the difficulty in arranging joint excursions is the mat- 
ter of liability in case of accident. That can be adjusted by a 
joint agreement, the tickets bearing some form like this on the 
backs : "The One, Two & Three Street Railway in issuing and 
selling these coupons, which are good for passage between 
Blank Square and Railway Park, acts only as agent of and for 
the Four, Five & Six Electric Railway and the Seven, Eight & 
Nine Electric Railway, and assumes no responsibility for any 
negligence whereby any passenger is injured or his property is 
injured or lost on any line other than its own, and the pur- 
chaser accepts the coupons subject to the above condition." 

Sometimes where an organization guarantees several hundred 
on a joint excursion, the special form of ticket printed can in- 
clude the stub and the coupons for the fare limits of all the 
connecting roads, and even dinner, launch or theater coupons. 
This requires quite a little extra bookkeeping, but when the 
trouble taken brings several hundred people from a distance 
who had never seen your resort the "word of mouth" advertis- 

ing that they do when they return home is almost to be figured 
among the assets for future seasons. I have sometimes gone 
so far out of the usual zone of travel for my lines that arrange- 
ments had to be made with three other connecting lines before 
the special car could be run. Each road supplies a pilot as the 
car comes onto its tracks. The opportunities in this direction 
are only limited by the traffic agent's ingenuity and the time he 
is willing to give to perfecting his plans. 

The real estate business has been entered into successfully 
by many roads. Suburban lots are boomed and sold, and some- 
times wholly new communities have been planted by the elec- 
tric railway. The traffic man, when he sees a new house going 
up in the suburbs on his line, can set down in the asset column 
an additional $30 per year for every adult male occupant if in- 
side the fare limit to the center of the city and $60 per year if 
outside the fare limit. In other words, every new house is as 
good as a special car rented. 

But summer is not your only harvest. Winter is not neces- 
sarily solely for fighting snow and ice and for retrenchment. 
Along your lines perhaps there are good spots for fishing 
through the ice, skating, curling, horse trotting, ice-boating, 
hockey contests, etc. Some roads have places where winter 
parties can enjoy dancing or skating at will, tobogganing or 
bowling or such sports as basketball. At least one road that I 
am familiar with has turned a brick car house, which consolida- 
tion of lines rendered unnecessary, into an immense indoor ice- 
skating rink, and has never had cause to regret the novel line 
of business. 

These suggestions on traffic creating have dealt mainly with 
the pleasure travel, but there is a rapidly widening field in the 
business travel that is coming over to the electric lines from 
the steam roads. Business men as yet have not enough 
confidence in electric railway schedules, and fear delays by 
the power going off or some minor accident. Still, there are 
certain points where the electric roads have the advantage of 
the steam lines, and the traffic agent of the former should harp 
constantly on these, not forgetting to put a map of some sort 
into all his advertising when possible. Electric roads, as com- 
pared with the steam lines, have comparatively no noise and no 
smoke, dust or cinders, and they pass through more beautiful 
scenery with better opportunity to see it from the car window. 
They make trips between cities with greater frequency than 
the steam roads, and in almost as quick time, and at a lower 
rate of fare. These facts should weigh in the balance with 
business men when on trips where the mileage does not run 
over two figures, and sometimes where it does. 


Instead of using illuminated signs at night, the Springfield 
Street Railway Company employs an effective electric lantern 
for the designation of routes. The lantern is hung at the right- 
hand side of the motorman's vestibule and can easily be dis- 
cerned by would-be passengers before the car comes within 
hailing distance. It consists of a small metal box frame hold- 
ing two incandescent lamps, one above the other, and provided 
with panels of different colored glass for use on different 
routes. Thus, an orange light above a red signifies an "Aga- 
wam" car, a straight red light "Brightwood," and so on. The 
scheme appears to work very satisfactorily in the case of resi- 
dents of the city, and as for strangers, the publication of all 
the route signs and time-tables in the various weekly "guides" 
displayed at hotels, clubs and other gathering places, facilitates 
the acquisition of the system adopted. A second lantern of the 
same coloring is also hung at the rear vestibule on the left- 
hand side of the car, facing forward. In some cases three 
lamps are employed to give the proper combinations. 

ApRir, I, 1905.] 



Tlie Question Box this week includes questions and answers 
pertaining to general topics, the track department and the 
master mechanic's department. Of special interest is the de- 
scription on page 604 of the portable pile driver used by the 
Detroit United Railway. 


A I. — What various methods do you employ for advertising 
your road and its attractions? 

This company is already preparing its advertising matter for 
the summer season's business, the experience of the writer for 
many years past proving it is a good idea to start on this matter 
early in the year. The company has four resorts, reached exclu- 
sively by the 13s miles of its system. These are as follows: 
Canobie Lake Park, a high-class amusement ground of 50 acres; 
Central Park, a smaller outing resort; Hampton Beach, with two 
hotels, large Casino and group of cottages owned by the com- 
pany; and Seabrook Beach, exclusively for cottagers. Half-sheet 
posters in colors have been designed, the one for Canobie show- 
ing a girl in canoeing costume against a full shore background, 
and that for Hampton having a girl in bathing dress against a 
full surf background. Only eight words on each poster tell the 
name of the resort and the line that it is on, a series of half-tone 
panels on the margin of each poster informing the public, in bet- 
ter detail than any amount of description, what each place has to 
offer in the way of theaters, band concerts, roller coaster, athletic 
grounds, bathing, boating, etc. Half are printed on pasteboard 
and half on heavy paper. Locations have been secured in store 
windows and in other public places in Lowell, Lawrence, Andover, 
Methuen, Haverhill, Amesbury and Newburyport, Mass.; Man- 
chester, Exeter, Nashua, Portsmouth, Dover and Rochester, 
N. H., and in the smaller places along the lines, and these are 
paid for solely with a season ticket for one of the three theaters, 
passing two people each week. The extra riding which originates 
with the possession of this pass as an incentive, and which aver- 
ages 25 cents a head for the round trip, amounts to enough to 
make this advertising plan self-supporting from this source alone. 
When the public is confronted with the constant recurrence of 
these posters in window after window on the main streets of each 
city, the effect of the strong impression in creating the desire to 
ride is one that can be counted on. Souvenir postal cards form 
a splendid means of advertising a resort. As they are sent by one 
friend to another their effect is the same as a verbal recommenda- 
tion of the resort. This is a form of advertising that really pays 
a large profit. For Canobie Lake Park there will be seven de- 
signs of cards in color and seven in sepia. The order will be 
100,000, following the experience of last year's sales of the plain 
ones. For Hampton Beach four views have been ordered. A 
novel way of advertising the "sea-food dinner" at Hampton 
Beach has been devised. The menu will be printed on a postal 
card 7 ins. x 5'/^ ins. Bathing views cover the back, the daily 
change in the bill of fare being printed in a mortised space in the 
view. They may be addressed at the table and mailed from the 
cashier's desk. The printer is working on a little double folder to 
fit the ordinary size envelope, designed to draw banquet and din- 
ner party business to the immense restaurant at Canobie Like 
Park. Many large conventions were drawn there last year by 
featuring this big hall. The little folder has a cover design of a 
smiling waitress presenting the menu, the latter being enlarged 
in comparison with the figure, in the manner familiar to every 
l^hotographer who has had to record the capture of a large fish 
held in the angler's hand. Inside the folder there are two panel 
half-tones of the restaurant and the lake, two reproductions of 
typical banquet menus, an outline of the facilities of the place for 
large spreads, quotations from the newsjiapers and aftcr-dinncr 
speeches made in past seasons praising the service, etc. Solely 
for advertising the hotels and cottages at Hampton Beach a book- 
let will go to press shortly containing half-tone views of the shore 
and the interiors of the buildings, with descriptive matter. Later 
in the season the company sends out to all organizations and so- 
cieties and lodges in this territory a booklet describing the fea- 
tures along the lines and containing half-tones of all its resorts 
and "beauty spots," and making a bid for special car and excur- 
sion busin ess. A liberal use of the newspapers, commercial bdl- 
boards and boy distributers putting out maps and time-tables for 
the public and posting up wall time-tables in all frequented places 
follows in the proper season. A blotter containing a panoramic 
view of Canobie Lake Park, with a list of its attractions, has been 
printed for early distribution in cities off the lines from which ex- 

cursions will be run in the summer. In past years a company 
publication called the "Bulletin" has attracted a great deal of at- 
tention, and has been the means of bringing the company and the 
public into closer and friendlier relations. Dozens of minor 
methods are made use of in season to boom each attraction and 
event and excursion according to its importance. This is the third 
year that this system has maintained an advertising and passenger 
soliciting department. As to whether it pays, the writer would 
state that another large New England system has this year es- 
tablished a similar department, with rumors of others to follow. 

E. P. HuLSE, Adv. Agt., 
New Hampsire Tract. Co.'s lines, Haverhill, Mass. 

We use the local press for advertising our park attractions, our 
interurban line, and for presenting our time-tables. We employ 
as press agent a reporter connected with one of the local papers to 
do the write-ups, and find this a good medium of reaching the 
people. We also place banners on car fenders for advertising 
special attractions, and frequently distribute dodgers in cars. 

Superintendent or Transportation. 

Printed time cards, large i6-in. x 19-in. cards judiciously dis- 
tributed, and a folder with time card in the center. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

A 3. — How much money can be spent profitably by an elec- 
tric railway company for advertising? 

Depends upon what it has to advertise. We advertise our power 
business by ads in daily papers and by booklets sent to all possible 
power users in our territory. L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 

Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 4. — What are some of the ways by which an electric rail- 
way company can kindle and foster a more kindly feeling and 
a fairer treatment on the part of the public press of its com- 
munity ? 

By taking the press into its confidence whenever possible. The 
policy of giving reasons for changes in service, and for the com- 
pany's actions on matters of interest to the public, will bring the 
management into closer touch with the press, and will ensure fair 
treatment and a hearing before publication is made, unless there 
are particular reasons for the press to be hostile. 

Superintendent of Transportation. 

By keeping the papers advised of matters of public interest, such 
as changes in schedules ; by giving press representatives free trans- 
portation, and by taking advertisements in the papers. 

L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 
Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 5. — What are some of the ways by which an electric rail- 
way company can kindle and foster a more kindly feeling to- 
ward it on the part of the public ? 

By having business-like employees and trainmen of good man- 
ners ; by maintaining schedules; by furnishing clean cars, and by 
strict care and prompt return of all lost articles found by em- 
ployees on cars. L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 

Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 6. — Several electric railway companies are publishing- 
regular leaflets or periodicals for public distribution, with the 
idea of bringing about a better relation between the conipanv 
and the public. What do you think of this suggestion? Have 
you ever tried the suggestion of publishing such a periodical? 
What were the results ? 

The writer was much interested in reading the many replies in 
the Question Box Department of your issue for Feb. 18, page 319, 
in answer to Question A 6, referring to company publications. 
As early as 1902 the writer was publishing a four-page leaflet in 
the interest of the Georgia Railway & Electric Company, of At- 
lanta, Ga. This was called the "Daily Amusement Programme 
and Street Railway Bulletin." The daily issue in the spring of 
1903 was 10,000, or 60,000 weekly (no Sunday paper being pub- 
lished), which I believe is a larger edition than was ever printed 
by any company for a publication of this character. It stood high 
in public favor, the chief of the fire department, for instance, 
sending in a "fire-line" badge with the announcement that it was 
the best newspaper in the city. Commencing with June, the edi- 
tion was run up to 12,000 daily, then 15,000 and even 18.000 on 
special days. The first year the company had the printing done 


at a fixed price per thousand. The second year printing presses 
were located in one of the car houses, and the "Daily Bulletin" 
and some of the small printed forms of the company were handled 
there. This printing plant was leased, the advertisements in the 
"Bulletin" sustaining it. The feasibility of this as a regular plan 
is doubtful; much depends on the man engaged to run it. This 
plan enabled us to make night runs of the presses, when necessary, 
up to almost the time that the first cars started out. The folders 
were distributed not only in the cars, but piles were left in public 
places, such as hotels, cigar stands and soda water fountains; also 
about a hundred bunches of the leaflets were strung up to trolley 
poles at favorable points. This was done by a boy in the early 
morning hours. We found that all the leaflets in these bunches 
were taken before lo a. m. each day, and constant inspection of 
the street and sidewalk showed that few were thrown away and 
none maliciously torn down. Hundreds of people kept "complete 
files" of the publication each year. I have even considered the 
advisability under certain circumstances of supplanting newspaper 
advertising in the summer with a large edition of a bulletin. 
Newspapers are not read as closely in the summer months as in 
the long winter evenings, and I have always favored putting the 
suggestions directly into the people's minds, unhampered by com- 
petition with other matters of interest. 

E. P. HuLSE, Adv. Agt., 
New Hampshire Tract. Co.'s lines, Haverhill, Mass. 

Good. We do it each year. The educational pamphlet if prop- 
erly edited results in fewer accidents and educates the people into 
the habit of getting on and olT cars more promptly. 

L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 
Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 8. — A company wishes to carry is own fire insurance by 
setting aside a certain percentage of its gross receipts each 
year to cover fire losses. What would be a safe percentage to 

Two per cent. L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 

Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 9. — Under what conditions can an electric railway com- 
pany venture to carry its own fire insurance on its various 
properties ? 

The writer does not think a company can afford to carry its own 
fire insurance on its \arious properties unless buildings are so 
constructed as to be practically fire-proof, and are separated or 
divided in sections so arranged that fire could not spread and cause 
a general conflagration. Superintendent of Transportation. 

If it has good organization of its barn employees with plenty of 
water, pump, fire hose and two well drilled foremen, one for day 
and one for night, who know what to do in emergencies. Water 
pressure must be at least 65 to 75 lbs. per square in., and fire hose 
must be of ample strength and good quality. 

L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 
Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 10. — What percentage of your gross receipts are you pay- 
ing out through the claim department ? 

For 1903 our claim department expense was 35-100 of i per 
cent of gross receipts. In 1904 this was reduced to 14-100 of i 
per cent. We think this low percentage is partly due to very rigid 
accident report rules, which are lived up to, and merit system of 
discipline, allowing small credits for every correct accident report 
turned in, and severe penalties for failure to turn in report. In 
this way we get complete reports on all minor accidents imme- 
diately, and this is generally quite an advantage. 

R. P. Stevens, Supt., 
Everett (Wash.) Ry. & Elec. Co. 

About 5 per cent. L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 

Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A II. — A company wishes to set aside a certain fund each 
year to cover all accident claims. Should this fund be based on 
a definite sum per car-mile, or on a percentage of the total 
gross receipts? What would be a proper allowance? 

About 8 per cent of the gross receipts, where the Supreme Courts 
are liberal, and all construction work is of the safest kind. 

L. M. Levinson, Mgr., 
Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

I I. — In the construction of a suburban or interurban elec- 
tric railway, what are the deciding factors in determining the 
weight and section of rail to be used? State what weight and 
section you prefer, and why. 

Weight on each wheel of car ; width of tread ; headway of 
trains ; speed and character of bond. We prefer 8o-lb. A. S. C. E. 
rail. Asst. Eng. Ry. Dept. 

Weight of cars and speed. H. A. Tiemann, 

New York City. 

Weight of car and speed. We prefer T-rail of standard section, 
because it makes a better and cheaper track both to construct and 
maintain than other sections. We are using a 60-II). rail section, 
which is about right for our conditions. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Light Co. 

I 2. — What is the best type of rail for city service in unim- 
proved streets ? 

Ordinary T if street is not to be paved. If street is to be paved 
in the near future, rail as described by the writer in answer to 
I 4- Asst. Eng. Ry. Dept. 

The best type of rail for city service in improved or unim- 
proved streets is some type of T-rail. In the writer's judgment 
there is no type of girder rail that has yet been devised equal to a 
good T-rail section. The T-rail rides easier, lasts longer and 
maintains better joints than any girder section. The groove-rail 
sections are an especially undesirable type of rail, as the groove 
fills with dirt, ice, snow, sleet, etc., and in addition to these dangers 
there is also the question of expense ; elaborate types of groove 
now being rolled are very expensive, and yet the length of their 
lives is practically not increasing. As soon as the head of the 
rail wears down the flange of the wheel begins to ride on the tram 
of the rail, making very uneven riding and producing a great num- 
ber of broken flanges ; when the rail reaches this state of wear it 
is practically worn out, and the great weight of metal still remain- 
ing is only fit for the scrap heap. Regarding other types of girder 
rail the same e\'ils exist, but to a somewhat lesser degree. The 
height of the' T-rail to be used for city or interurban service de- 
pends entirely upon the paving necessary; for unimproved streets 
the writer would advocate a low, heavy section of T-rail, provided 
of course that there are no plans to have paving in the future. The 
low sections of T-rail are better than the high section, for the 
reason that they retain gage longer, as they are less liable to spread. 
This is very e\-ident, as the low sections are more firmly in posi- 
tion and are less liable to be "upset." The writer believes that 
the low sections of T-rail, say 4^^ ins., are the best that can be laid, 
presuming, of course, that the foundations are firm and lasting. 
The high sections with increased weight have greater strength, 
but this strength in many instances is not necessary on account 
of the excellent foundations which are now being laid under street 
railway tracks. P. Ney Wilson, Supervisor, So. Jersey Div., 

Public Service Cor., Camden, N. J. 

I 3. — What advantages, if any, does a 9-in. girder rail pos- 
sess over a 7-in. girder? 

A 9-in. girder rail allows a better foiuidation or bed for paving 
than a 7-in. girder. Asst. Eng. Ry. Dept. 

No advantage. A 9-in. girder rail permits use of sand, stone, or 
granite blocks and 4 ins. of concrete under blocks and above top 
of ties. The 7-in. girder rail is cheaper ; is fully as durable, and 
permits use of brick or sheet asphalt paving with 4 ins. of con- 
crete under same. H. A. Tiemann, 

New York City. 

I 4. — If the conditions require a girder rail, which type 
would you prefer, semi-groove, full-groove, tram, center-bear- 
ing or Trilby section ? Please state your reasons in full for the 

Full groove ; one not wide enough to admit carriage and wagon 
wheels. While this, small groove shortens the life of car wheels 
and occasionally breaks the flanges, in our particular case it saves 
considerably more in paving bills, as the vehicles on the street 



April i, 1905.] 



cannot follow the track and wear grooves in the paving. This 
city has very strong laws regarding paving. The railway company 
is compelled to keep in order the paving between the tracks and 
2 ft. outside the rails, and so stringent is the city that we are often 
reported and fined in the police court for small depressions in 
the paving which have been temporarily overlooked and neglected. 

Asst. Eng. Ry. Dept. 

I 5. — When laying tracks, what space should be left between 
the ends of the rails for contraction and expansion ? 

As girder rails in paved streets have only about one-fifth of 
their surface exposed to the elements, five-sixths of the rail being 
under the ground, the joints should be butted. Exposed rails on 
suburban and interurban roads shoidd be laid according to steam 
railroad practice, using standard shims for every 10 degrees change 
of temperature. Chief Eng. Ry. Dept. 

I 9. — What means, machines, devices, special rigged cars, 
etc., do you know of for expediting or cheapening the work of 
ballasting and laying track? Please give sketch or photogiaph 
and detailed description, including cost. 

The Detroit United Railway has built a portable pile driver 
which has been used with excellent results in interurban track 
work, and in building trestles and bridges. The illust-.ations 
herewith show the flat car carrying the pile driver and also the 
long closed car which is used to push the flat car. The upright 
leaders of the pile driver are 38 ft. high, and the diiver is pro- 
\ided with a 2200-lb. hammer. The frame supporting the weight 

The question of space between the ends of the rail to provide 
for expansion and contraction is a mooted one, and has been 
given consideration and a great deal of study by some very prom- 
inent engineers. In paved streets, laid with a very heavy section 
of rail, we would not leave any opening at the joint at all. The 
writer believes that the elasticity of the metal would provide for 
any expansion or contraction, and, as a matter of fact, this has 
been practically worked out on our system. In open work, where 
track is exposed to changes in temperature, would leave }i-'m. 
space between the abutting ends of the rail, using 60-ft. lengths, 
presuming, of course, that this work be laid in winter ; in the 
summer would lay in open construction with an opening of J^-in. 
These figures have been borne out by experience. We believe, 
however, wherever it is possible the rail should be covered, and 
it has always been our purpose to keep our rails covered, at least 
up to the shoulder of the rail. We have some construction that is 
entirely open, but by using the above mentioned spaces we have had 
no trouble. In new construction every possible precaution should 
be taken in laymg any type of rail to cover it up and keep u 
covered as much as possible. This will provide against a great 
variety of troubles, particularly expansion and contraction. 

P. Ney Wilson, So. Jersey Div., 
Public Service Cor., Camden, N. J. 

If on private right of way, in extremely hot weather lay rails 
end to end; in moderate weather leave 3^-in. opening; in extremely 
cold weather leave l4.-m. opening. With 60-ft. rails leave twice 
these spaces at joints. If track is laid in country road and dirt is 


can be swung at right angles with the car to either side, and we 
ct "drive a pile 10 ft. from the center of the track on either side 
of the roadbed. Also, the upright frame is hinged at the bottom 
and can be lowered down to the top of the cab when the car is 
traveling over the road. In the upright position the frame is held 
by adjustable braces. There is a 25-hp steam hoist on the flat car 
for operating the hammer, and the frame is raised and lowered by 

special drum on the hoist. The pile driver 
'.3 in use most of the year, and we employ 
about eight men on this work. The long 
coach is used as living apartments for the 
men when they are out on the interurban 
systems. The men eat and sleep in the 
coach ; the company furnishing the cooking 
utensils and fuel and also paying the cook, 
but each of the men making up the pile- 
driving gang pay at the rate of $2 a week 
for the supply of eatables. The car is 



to be filled to head of rail lay joints close except in extremely 
cold weather, when one-half the spaces mentioned should be left. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co. 

I 6. — What are the determining factors in selecting ballast 
for a new suburban or interurban electric road ? 
Cost and suitability. J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 

Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co. 

I 7. — What is the best material for ballast on a suburban or 
interurban electric road? 

Broken stone, preferably lime-stone. J. Chas. Rnss, Gen Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) i ract. & Lt. Co. 

neatly furnished, having a sleeping apartment, sitting-room, 
dining-room and kitchen. All of our pile driving on the main 
lines is done at night after the regular cars are pulled in. 
We find this outfit effects a great saving in our bridge work as 
well as in track work. One of the illustrations shows the Canard 
River bridge on our Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg line in 
Canada, The bridge is 650 ft. long, and was built entirely with this 
machine, which not only drove the piles, but also hoisted the tim- 
bers into place. In working with the pile driver, we extend two 
girder rails out 5 ft. in advance of the last bent, which enables us 
to drive the next bent. The piles are then sawed ofT and the cap 
and stringers are hoisted into place with the aid of the hoist on 
the pile driver. This bridge was built at a cost of $9 per lineal 
foot, which price included all labor and material. The timber and 
piles were white oak. J. Kerwin, Supt. Tracks, 

Detroit United Ry. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

We have found the slag cars shown in the accompanying iUus- 
trations very convenient for handHng slag for ballast. We use 
two types of cars, a box car having 18 cubic yards capacity, and a 
dump-car having 10 cubic yards capacity. With the dump car we 



— /9-0 > 


() ( ) 



30- ni" 


I 14. — Have you had any experience with "creeping" rails, 
and how have you remedied this difficulty? 

The creeping of rails is due to expansion, and is particularly 
evident in hot weather. We use 6o-ft. rails in partly open con- 
struction, and from practical experience we find that the creeping 
due to expansion is not any more evident with our 6o-ft. lengths 
than it is with our 30-ft. lengths. The most serious problem in 
this connection is the fact that the creeping will push the special 
work out of its proper position. The only ways to remedy this 
difficulty that have come to our attention, are either to cover up 
the rail flush to the head, reducing the expansion to a minimum, 
or else cut out a small section of the rail when the creeping would 
cause a dangerous condition. We had a peculiar experience in 
this connection. We were building some girder track, and while it 
was still open and subject to the direct rays of the hot sun it 
went so badly out of alignment that it became dangerous. A 
sprinkler was sent over the tracks and after the water had cooled 
the rail we found that it went back into its normal position. 

P. Ney Wilson^ Supervisor, So. Jersey Div., 
Public Service Cor., Camden, N. J. 

E 130a. — A road has had considerable annoyance due to hand 
hole covers on motor cases becoming loose and dropping off. 
What can be done to stop this ? 

We had trouble at one time from this source. Investigation de- 
veloped the fact that the trouble was due entirely to carelessness 
in the part of the men who inspected the motors, as they did not 
always take the trouble to see that the bolt holding the hand hole 
cover was properly tightened. We began charging the price of lost ' 
covers to the men responsible for this work and have had no 
more annoyance from missing covers. The men were instructed to 
use a spring washer whenever they found a nut that worked too 
easily on the holding bolt. Schenectady Ry. Co. 


E 148a. — What apparatus do you use for handling wheels 
and axles around the shops ? 

The accompanying illustration contains a good suggestion for- 
handling wheels and axles about the shops. The tool shown is 
made of wood. The distance from the notch to lower end of tool 
is just a trifle longer than the radius of the wheels to be handled. 

With this lever one man can take the heaviest pair of wheels and 
axle all over the shop with little trouble, turning the wheels 
around corners, lifting them on and off trucks, etc., with ease. 



are able to dump the slag wherever we want it along the tracks. 
The cars are handled in trains drawn by electric locomotives. 

Geo. H. Harris, Supt. Ry. Dept., 
Birmingham (Ala.) Ry. Lt. & Power Co. 

E 154. — What is the best method of cutting circular discs of 
glass for headlights ? 

One of the well-known supply firms makes a special machine for 
cutting circular headlight glasses. I have used it for some time 
and found it satisfactory. D. F. Carver. 

April i, 1905.] 




An interesting paper on this subject by George A. Damon 
was read at the meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers held in New York, March 24, 1905, by Prof. Sever, 
in the absence of the author. 

Mr. Damon first described the line construction in use on the 
Valtellina three-phase, Spindlersfeld single-phase and Huber 
experimental lines in Europe, and then that on the Lansing, 
St. Johns & St. Louis Electric Railway, the Indianapolis & 
Cincinnati Traction Company and the Bloomington, Pontiac & 
Joliet Electric Railroad in this country. As particulars and 
views of all of these lines except the last have been published 
in these columns, and as a description of the Pontiac overhead 
construction appeared last week, the diagrams of the Pontiac 
line construction are published herewith, together with Mr. 
Damon's general conclusions : 


Bearing in mind the distinct requirements of th'e three classes 

4: Sfm^^a' So/^ Sfee/Coi/s 


/& Concrete. 

Omj} susjcieniicn^cr hii^h feniion trallt^ 
C^ifi^ streets. 


of roads already referred to, the problem of line construction 
may be discussed under the following heads : 

1. Pressure and Insulation. 

2. Location of Conductor. 

3. Requirements for Safety and Stability. 

As an entire paper might be devoted to any one of these 
subjects, there is offered an opportunity for considerable dis- 

Pressure and Insulation. — The single-phase lines now in 
operation in this country have 3300-volt trolleys, and several 
lines under construction have also decided to use this pressure. 
From present appearances, therefore, 3300 volts is to be the 
standard for interurban lines. It would be well, however, to 
cons-ider just at this time whether it would not be advisable to 
use a trolley pressure of 6000 volts. From an operating stand- 
point there seems to be no reason why this higher pressure is 
not just as practicable as a lower one; and to get the full bene- 
fit of all the advantages inherent with the high-tension system 
the higher pressure should be adopted. 

Even if a few of the first roads are built with a 3300-voit 
trolley, there is no reason why, with the catenary suspension, 
the insulation provided should not be capable of standing a 
working test of 6000 volts, so that when the time comes to 
double the pressure the expense of the change will be a 

For steam railroad conditions, the larger amount of energy 
required indicates that a pressure of at least 15,000 volts will 
probably be desirable. Just where to strike a balance between 
the cost of copper and the cost of insulation for steam road 
work is a problem which should be carefully worked out; but 
there seems to be no reason at this time why pressures of over 
10,000 volts should not be considered. 

The catenary form of suspension affords so convenient a 
method of insulation that it should become standard practice 
for interurban electric lines. When selecting an insulator for 
this construction, mechanical strength should be the first con- 
sideration, and a few cents more spent on the insulator will 
insure an abundance of insulating qualities. As far as insula- 
tion is concerned, there is no reason why the catenary con- 
struction could not be operated at more than 30,000 volts, if 
desired. For pull-offs and cross suspensions to iron poles 
special porcelain insulators are being designed and used with 

It has long been admitted that dry wood is one of the best 
insulators. The convenience with which a wooden rod fitted 
with suitable terminals can be worked into an overhead con- 
struction will commend this form of insulation. Impregnated 
with an insulating compound, and of sufficient length to with- 
stand high-pressure tests, the long wooden insulator is appli- 
cable to the insulation of guy wires, anchors and cross suspen- 
sion wires. Its use in actual practice will be watched with 

The use of a wooden bracket to hold the insulator for sup- 
porting the catenary will probably appeal to some as a step 
backward. As far as looks are concerned, however, it may be 
said that a wooden bracket of a section 3.5 ins. x 5 ins. presents 
an appearance fully as attractive as the ordinary cedar pole 
to which it is attached; and that a double-track road with a line 
of center poles equipped with wooden brackets will be much 
less offensive from an aesthetic point of view than a double 
row of side suspension poles raked outward in the usual fashion. 

The wooden bracket has an element of safety not possessed 
by an iron support, as the insulating properties of the wooden 
arm would be useful in the case of the failure of an insulator. 
Unless the wooden bracket were wet it vvould safely hold up a 
6000-volt catenary until the line could be repaired. 


For moderate speed roads the natural tendency will lie to 
have the trolley wire where it has proved to be so thoroughly 
satisfactory — that is, over the center of the track, and to con- 
tinue to use the present trolley harp and wheel. For speeds 
not exceeding 40 m.p.h. to 50 m.p.h. at trolley pressures up to 
3300 volts, this arrangement will work satisfactorily. 

For high-speed electric lines there will be little objection to 
the conductor wire remaining over the track, provided it is 
properly suspended; but the danger of the ordinary trolley 
wheel jumping off the wire at high speeds will, no doubt, sug- 
gest the use of some form of collector other than the wheel. 
The bow, the roller and the shoe will each find advocates until 
more experience has been obtained and the results are reported 
and discussed. 

Special cases will arise such as the installation of a high- 
pressure conductor wire over a road already equipped with a 
direct-current trolley, as was the case with the Ballston, N. Y., 
road. In such an event the catenary construction can be very 
nicely adapted to suspending the wire at the side of the track. 
This location could be advocated for an entirely new installa- 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

tion on the grounds of cheaper first cost and some additional 
safety in case the wire should break and fall, but both these 
arguments lack sufficient weight to establish the wire in the 
side position as standard practice. 

For steam road conditions considerable objection may be 
found to locating the conductor wire over the center of the 
track : the danger to trainmen standing on top of the cars ; the 
fouling of the conductor ; the deterioration of the insulation, 
and the destruction of the wire and supporting cables by the 
gases of locomotives which may jointly occupy the tracks; the 
blocking of traffic when it is necessary to repair a broken wire — 
all these are serious drawbacks to this location of the conductor 
for heavy railroad practice. To avoid the deleterious effect of 


the locomotive gases it would seem to be imperative to place 
the contact wire at one side and as low as possible consistent 
with general safety. The advisability of installing an inde- 
pendent and duplicate system of conductors is also to be con- 
sidered for lines of importance; this can be done only by put- 
ting the wires on opposite sides of the track. 

The Huber system appears to have been carefully worked 
out, and at the present time is the best suggestion for a solution 



of the line problems in connection with the electrification of 
steam roads. There is one serious objection to the arrangement, 
but this can be overcome. The contact wire carried from pole 
top to pole top is liable to break, and some form of support 
should be devised to prevent the broken ends falling to the 
ground. A double-catenary suspension system with one wire 


carried on an insulator at each end of a cross-arm attached to 
the pole, say a foot from the top, could be provided, and the 
contact wire could be supported from the apex of triangular 
supports attached to the two catenary wires. This method 
would offer advantages over any system of guard wires or 
cradles which might be devised to catch the broken wire, as it 
would require three wires to be broken before any part of the 
system could fall to the ground. 

Frequent Supports. — Whatever method of construction is 
followed, every precaution should be adopted to prevent acci- 
dents to the public or employees from the loose ends of a 
broken live wire. Suspensions or supports properly installed 
every 10 ft. to 15 ft. will 
lessen this danger. 

With bracket construction 
having poles about 100 ft. 
apart, there will be no need 
of a double-catenary suspen- 
sion for the wire which is to 
be used with an under-run- 
ning collector. In such a 
case, the double suspension 
would mean twice as many 
insulators as would be required 
with the single catenary, thus de- 
creasing the insulation resistance 
and increasing the chances for 
trouble. With what is known as 
the "tower" method of construc- 
tion — using long spans — the double catenary, spreading at 
the points of insulated supports and converging together 
at the center of the span, will be found desirable. The neces- 
sity of keeping the wire from swaying will justify the double 
catenary in this case, and the fact that the number of points 
of support is reduced by using long spans will more than bal- 
ance the use of two insulators at each support. 

The frequent clips holding the contact wire are not only ad- 
vantageous from the standpoint of additional safety, but they 
contribute to the perfnanency of the construction by keeping 
the wire almost perfectly horizontal at all temperatures, and 
thus avoiding the bending of the wire up and down at the sup- 
port points every time the collector passes. The only disadvan- 
tage to clips holding the wire every few feet is the tendency for 
the trolley wheel to spark at these points. This is not a serious 
objection if a collector similar to the bow device is used, in 
which case there will be no interference between the collector 
surface and the mechanical clips. 

Protection From Sleet. — In a hard sleet storm every attach- 
ment connected to the wire will naturally be the cause of addi- 
tional trouble. The arcs due to a coating of ice between the 
wire and the collector will be much more vicious at 6000 volts 
to 15,000 volts than at 300 volts, but there is no occasion to 
become alarmed at the possible danger from this source. In 
this country one of the high-pressure lines using a trolley wheel 
on a 3300-volt wire has already passed through a hard siege 
of sleet; and though the sparking was spectacular, very little 
damage was done. The frequent trolley supports, however, 
added considerably to the sparking. 

Greased trolley wires are sometimes used to prevent the 
trouble caused by sleet; it would be interesting to learn the 
experience of members of the Institute with this device. It is 
well known that the grease finish of an aluminum wire pre- 
vents the collection of sleet upon the wire, and it may be pos- 
sible that a coating of grease on the high-pressure conductor 
wire would entirely obviate this trouble. It is evident that 
with a collector taking the current by means of a contact made 
on the top of the wire, as in the Huber system, the trouble 
from sleet would be a minimum. In those kinds of sleet storms 

April i, 1905.] 



in which icicles are formed and hang from the wire, a top- 
bearing collector would have every advantage, but when the 
sleet freezes equally all round the wire, the lighter pressure 
of the top-bearing contact might put the Huber collector at a 

Transmission Lines. — The transmission lines from the power 
plant to the sub-stations will be at a higher pressure than the 
trolley pressure, and will therefore require careful treatment. 
For a road which is to be built economically, a single set of 
transmission wires serving all of the static transformer stations 
in parallel will be sufficient. These transmission wires will 
ordinarily be carried on the tops of the same poles which sup- 
port the trolley bracket. 

The next refinement would be to have a separate set of trans- 
mission lines from the power house to each sub-station, making 
it possible to put the overload protective devices on the central 
station switchboard and thus eliminate the sub-station attend- 
ance. With this multiplicity of wires and consequent higher 
first cost adopted, 
it is but one step 
further to sepa- 
rate entirely the 
two systems and 
to install two pole 
lines on the same 
right of way ; 
where the electric 
road is of the 
high - speed class 
this should be 

To be consist- 
ent, however, in 
insuring safety to 
the public, it 
would be well to 
advocate as stand- 
ard practice . the 
plan of carrying 
the high-pressure 
transmission lines 
entirely around 

small towns and cities instead of through them. If the trans- 
mission lines are too dangerous to be carried on the railroad 
company's trolley poles, then there is more danger in carrying 
them along the streets and over the network of telephone wires 
inside the corporate limits. The problein of the proper regula- 
tion for this situation is one that will shortly have to be 

The first investment in the transmission line, the cost of 
maintenance, and the loss by leakage — all these can be cut in 
half by thoroughly grounding one side of the single-phase 
transinission line so as to use the earth as one leg of the cir- 
cuit. An actual trial of this suggestion to further simplify the 
distribution system is under contemplation, and no doubt will 
furnish valuable information as to its effect on telephone and 
telegraph lines as well as data in connection with the resistance 
of the earth with alternating currents. 

Grounded Guard Wires. — Where the transmission lines pass 
over other wires there should be a cradle of grounded wires to 
prevent a broken transmission line from coming in contact with 
a foreign wire. This cradle will be of little use unless it is of 
ample dimensions. Some effort has been inade on European 
roads so to install grounded wires that the breaking of a con- 
ductor would at once cause the live end of the wire to make a 
contact with the grounded guard wire, but in two cases which 
have come to notice the grounded guard wire caused more 
trouble than it eliminated ; for this reason it was soon aban- 
doned. In order to encourage the discussion of the unsettled 


features of line construction for high-pressure electric railroads 
the following are offered as 


1. There are no reasons why the standard pressures of the 
conductor wire for interurban electric lines should not be at 
least 6000 volts; this is suggested as a standard in order to 
provide for interchange of equipment. 

2. For the electrification of steam roads a pressure of about 
15,000 volts on the conductor wire is desirable. 

3. For electric interurban lines the present tendency is to- 
ward the catenary form of suspension, with the trolley over 
the center of the track. A connection should be made about 
every 10 ft. between the steel catenary wire and the trolley 

4. For steam railroad conditions a contact wire at the side 
of the track appears to offer the greatest advantages. Some 
form of construction should be adopted, however, to prevent 
the falling of the conductor in case it should break. 

5. A successful bow collector for interurban work and a 
contact arm for steam road installations similar to that in use 
liy the Huber system would allow the location of the contact 
wire to be standardized. 

6. A trolley wire 20 ft. above the center of the track is sug- 
gested for interurban roads. For steam road electrification 
tlie height of the contact wire at the side of the track could be 
made standard at 16 ft. 



The chief advantage to be derived from the direct application 
of the alternating current to railway service is in the use of 
high trolley pressures. Having a successful alternating-cur- 
rent motor, the reinaining problem of greatest importance is the 
method of supplying current to the car. The third rail, which 
is largely used in heavy railway work, is obviously unsuited 
for carrying 3000 volts, 6000 volts or 10,000 volts on the score 
of insulation and of safety. Moreover, the third-rail construc- 
tion, whatever be the pressure, is not suitable for terminal 
yards in which there are many tracks and in which derailments 
are not unusual. A smash-up would be almost certain to result 
in tying up the system. 

Of the various methods of current supply heretofore em- 
ployed the overhead conductor is believed to be the only one 
capable of development into safe or permanent operation with 
trolley pressures running up into thousands of volts. The 
present paper will describe some preliminary work which has 
been carried out on a practical scale with overhead conductors. 
Tn laying out a suitable overhead high-pressure alternating- 
current system it was decided to make a radical departure from 
the present methods of construction wherein the insulation is 
made only good enough and the supporting structure only 
strong enough to keep the cars running by the aid of an efii- 
cient repair department. It was rather the aim to obtain a sys- 
tem which would be serviceable and reliable for several thou- 
sand volts and which when once in place would at least equal 
in durability and cost of maintenance the bridges, track and 
other portions of a standard railroad. While the exacting con- 
ditions and heavy traffic of the present steam roads will re- 
quire for successful operation by electricity a carefully planned 
and substantial construction, the lighter interurban roads may 
frequently be equipped with a less expensive system. 

Several classes of construction have been designed ; of these 
tlie least expensive type employing bracket arms will be de- 
scribed first. 

* Paper presented at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, New York, March 24, 1905. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

This system consists of a single line of wooden poles spaced 
well apart and fitted with bracket arms and steel catenary sus- 
pension cable for supporting the trolley wire. The bracket arm 
is a T-iron supported by a tension rod at its outer end 
and fitted at the inner end with lugs which partly em- 
brace the pole and to which they are bolted with lag 

tie-wires. The tension in 
the messenger cable is ad- 
justed to give the proper 
sag, and the trolley wire 
is pulled up tight enough 
to take out all kinks and 
Ijends. Both trolley and 
messenger are then an- 
chored. The messen- 
ger is next clamped to 
the insulators and the 
trolley is permanently 
supported from the 
messenger by means of 
hangers or clips which 
are adjusted in length 
in such a manner as to 
hold the trolley hori- 
zontally. By this means 
the tension in the trol- 
ley is slightly relieved 
and allowance is made 

FIG. 1. 

screws. Fig. i indicates the construction. The in- 
inslator is of corrugated porcelain, cemented to a 
malleable-iron sleeve, which in turn is slipped over the bracket 
arm and held by clamps and set screws. The porcelain insu- 
lator has a groove at its center surrounded by a malleable-iron 


collar similar to a pipe clamp. This collar has an eye on the 
lower side into which the hooks of a clamp which carries the 
steel supporting cable or messenger are inserted. Wheel trol- 
leys will probably be used to a considerable extent with the 
liiwcT pressures. Guard loops are provided to prevent breakage 


of the porcelain, in case the trolley should leave the wire under 
a bracket. The insulator with its fittings is shown in detail 
in Fig. 2. 

The guard loops are also of service in temporarily support- 
ing the cable while it is being run out and pulled up. The trol- 
ley and messenger are run out together, and the former is sup- 
ported from the messenger at occasional points by temporary 



[ 0J 






" 1 


. 1* ^ f f\ ^- .. . ..■ . . 


April i, 1905.] 



for expansion and contraction. The hangers are stiff and, being 
placed only 10 ft. apart, correct any tendency of the grooved 
trolley wire to twist. This insures that the smooth lower sur- 
face will always be downward, a feature especially necessary 


when bow or sliding trolleys are used. The 
short distance between hangers also prevents the 
end of a broken trolley wire from coming dan- 
gerously near the ground. 

The method of supporting the messenger be- 
low the bracket arm enables a tension rod to be 
attached to the outer end of the bracket without 
the necessity of fishing the messenger cable over 
the arm and under the brace. The cable and 
trolley may be run out along the track and 
pulled up in place under the brackets with a 
minimum amount of labor. Another advantage 
in this arrangement is the slightly flexible char- 
acter of the point of support of the messenger ; 
this is not sufficient to permit any considerable 
vibration of the span as a whole, but will allow 
any small vibration set up by the trolley to pass 
on. It has been noticed in rigidly supported 
spans of considerable length that a tendency 
exists for waves to be reflected from these fixed 
points which, when they reach the trolley, lift the 
wire from it, thereby causing flashing. 

The hanger is illustrated in Fig. 3, and con- 
sists of a galvanized malleable-iron casting made 
in ten lengths. It is fitted with a bolted clamp 
to take the messenger cable, and is secured 
to the trolley with screws. At intervals of about 1000 ft. and 
upon curves of large radius, a steadying device, shown in Fig. 
I, is used. The pull-off used on sharp curves, the method of 
anchoring and the section-break insulator are shown in Figs. 
4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. 

A road 5 miles in length has been in operation for about five 
months, and upon this road several forms of construction have 
been installed. One portion has been equipped with 120-ft. 
spans with sags of 24 ins. in the messenger cable. Another 
section has spans of about 96 ft. and sags of about 4 ins. In 
the latter case both messenger and trolley wire are tighter than 
the former. The effects of temperature upon these two forms 
of construction are indicated by the following observations 
during a period of two months : 



Height of Trolley Wire Above Rails 

Span No. 1 

Span No. 2 





21 ft. 3.4 in. 

21 ft. 5.1 in. 



21 " 2.0 " 

21 " 3.6 " 

1- 4-05 


21 " 4.1 " 

21 " 5.5 " 





20 ft. 7.0 in. 

20 ft. 7.5 in. 



20 " 6.8 " 

20 " 7.4 " 

1- 4-05 


20 " 7.4 " 

20 " 7.9 " 

The greatest temperature variation noted on the i20-ft. spans 
was 36.3 degs. F., and the corresponding changes in height at 
the centers of the spans were 2.1 ins. and 1.9 ins., respectively. 
For the 96-ft. spans the temperature variation was 37.6 degs., 
and the corresponding changes in height were 0.6 in. and 0.5 in., 

The combined weight of messenger, 000 trolley wire and 
hangers averages i lb. per foot, which gives a tension in the 
messenger cable with 120-ft. span and 24-in. sag of about 900 
lbs. The tension with 96-ft. span and 4-in. sag is about 3500 lbs. 

For best results with this form of construction, both as re- 
gards cost and operation, the following arrangement is consid- 
ered satisfactory: The spans should be 120 ft. long on straight 
track, reducing the length as may be necessary on curves. The 


messenger to consist of a 0.4375-in. galvanized Bessemer steel 
cable composed of seven strands and having an ultimate 
strength of about 6000 lbs. The trolley wire to be 000 grooved 
section supported in horizontal position by hangers placed 10 ft. 
apart. The messenger cable is to be pulled up to a minimum 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

cold-weather sag of about 11 ins., corresponding to a tension of 
about 2000 lbs. 

For conditions where bracket arms cannot be used, cross- 
span work may sometimes be employed. For this purpose the 
arrangement indicated in Figs. 9 and 10 has been designed. 
The difTerence between this arrangement and the bracket-arm 
construction is the substitution of a 0.4375-in. steel span cable 
for the bracket. Other details are practically the same. 

For the heavy service requirements of steam roads having 
from two to four tracks, the construction described above is not 
adequate ; a more substantial equipment and one which will not 
encroach upon the present standard clearances is necessary. 
Obviously, the best form of support to accomplish this result 
is a bridge long enough to span all tracks with ample clearance 
on the sides and overhead and stiff enough to carry all of the 
overhead conductors without undue vibration. Bridges of this 

The maximum temperature variation is 32.4 degs., and the 
corresponding change in height of trolley wire is 2.8 ins. for 
the 230-ft. span and 5.6 ins. for the 270-ft. span. Fig. 12 repre- 
sents a curve of 425-ft. radius. In this view the use of double- 
catenary curve pull-offs is illustrated. 


It was first thought advisable to run the messenger cable over 
the bridges. Fig. 11 shows this construction. It is necessary, 
however, to provide an unobstructed view of the signal ap- 
paratus, and it is accordingly considered preferable to make the 
bridge high enough to permit the semaphores to be suspended 
below the truss. 

Fig. 13 indicates a signal bridge which has been devised for 
a four-track road carrying, beside the semaphores, the four sets 
of cables and trolley wires suspended below the truss. This 
construction is a decided advantage in erecting, as the cable 
and trolley wire can be run out along the track and lifted into 
place. Massive porcelain insulators will be used mounted on 


character are at present in use on many roads to support sema- 
phores and other signal apparatus. 

Fig. II illustrates a section 2500 ft. long of a three-track 
road, one track of which has been equipped with the bridge 
construction. The double-catenary system is used, each mes- 
senger being a 0.4375-in. steel stranded cable. The trolley wire 
is 000 grooved, and the supporting hangers are placed 10 ft. 
apart. The average total weight per foot supported by each 
cable, including its own weight, is 0.91 lbs. The vertical sag 
in the first span, which is 230 ft. long, is 2.6 ft., and in the 
second span, which is 270 ft. long, 3.6 ft., both at 26.6 degs. F. 
The corresponding tension in the messenger cables is 2300 lbs. 

The observed variation in heij,ht of trolley wire due to tem- 
perature change was as follows: 


Height ot Trolley Wire Above Rails 


Span'No. 1 

Span No. 2 


1- 26-05 

2- 9-05 


23 ft. 9.1 in. 
23 " 10.1 " 
23 " 7.3 " 

23 ft. 7.1 in. 
23 " 9.9 
23 " 4.3 " 

heavy pipe and fitted with collars having soft lead strips under 
them. From these the cables will be hung by means of bolted 
clamps. By anchoring all cables to the bridges after being 
drawn up to a uniform tension, the effect will be to steady the 
bridges. For roads having wide rights of way comparatively 
light bridges steadied with .guy cables may be used, but for most 
cases a substantial structure similar to those now used for sig- 
nal towers will probably be preferable. It will be noted, how- 
ever, that owing to the comparatively long intervals between 
signals only a few of the bridges carry semaphores ; the others 
may be made lighter than the one indicated in Fig. 13. 

Spans of 300 ft. for straight tracks appear to be satisfactory, 
not being so long as to permit undue vibration in the cables, 
and not so short as to require a large number of bridges per 

For the messenger cables 0.625-in. extra high strength steel 
strands are suitable. With a 0000 grooved trolley wire and 
hangers spaced 10 ft., the average load per foot on each cable 
is X.43 lbs., and with a vertical sag of 2.7 ft. the tension is 6000 
lbs. In a rough climate, wind and sleet will at times increase 
this tension ; assuming that the tension may be doubled, a fac- 

April i, 1905.] 



tor of safety of about 3.5 will still remain, as the breaking 
strength of the cable is about 40,000 lbs. 

For use in localities where milder weather conditions may be 
assumed, lower grades of steel may be used, having breaking 
strengths for the same weight per foot of 25,000 lbs. and 19,000 


lbs. These latter cables are somewhat easier to handle and 
would be sufficiently strong for most conditions. 

The sag given above is taken to he the cold weather condition, 
and for loo-deg. F. rise the sag would be about 4.4 ft., or a 
variation of 1.7 ft. In Fig. 13 this allowance is made in the 


height of the bridge so that tlie lowest point of tlie trolley wire 
will be 22 ft. above the track. It is not believed that the varia- 
tion will be this much on account of the giving of the supports 
and other causes. 

For curves the length of span will he decreased, and when 
necessary to hold the wire in the center of the track radial pull- 
ofFs will be used, secured to strain insulators. These will be 

iiioinited on latticed poles, which in turn will 1je braced hy guy 

For sharp curves the radial pull of all the messenger cables 
would be severe, and it is intended to provide at the tangent 
points anchor bridges which will have trusses stiff enough in 
the horizontal plane to stand the strain of slacking off the cables 
' about one-half. These anchor bridges will then Ije held by long 
guys running out a considerable distance from the bases of the 
bridges and anchored to cross-ties or channel irons buried in 
the ground and concreted. 

Several details for the doul)le-catenary construction are 
shown in Figs. 14 and 15. All of the metal parts other than 
the bridges and trolley wire are galvanized, but as a further 
protection against depreciation from locomotive funics period- 
ical painting is advisable. 

Regarding the efficiency of the insulation employed, it may 
be stated that under snow-clad conditions 2500 ft. of iron bridge 
work and 5 miles of single-catenary construction showed under 
test a leakage of i amp. at 6000 volts. 


The foregoing descrilies the actual work which has been car- 
ried out with the view of developing a system of overhead con- 
ductors for moderate and heavy traction service which will 
approach in a far greater degree than heretofore the reliability 
and permanency of present steam railroad equipments. 

Aside from the work described above, 40 miles of road using 
the single-catenary wood-pole construction have been ])ut in 
operation in Indiana. This has been in successful running 
order since the first of this year. The remaining 60 miles of 
this road will probably be completed in the near future. The 
pressure is 3300 volts. 


F. N. Waterman, in opening the discussion, gave some par- 
ticulars of European alternating-current practice. He said 
that the longest experience with the prol)lem of conveying 
energy at high tension to a moving vehicle has been that of 
the Ganz Company, which has now extended over about five 
years. This has all been with three-phase current at 3000 volts 
and low frequency, and there have, therefore, been two trolley 
wires. The preliminary trials on the experimental line at 
Buda-Pest lasted for something over a year, and the system 
has been operated in Italy altogether nearly four years, of 
which two and a half years has been in actual practical service. 
The original line erected in Buda-Pest, while differing in de- 
tail, was not essentially altered in the actual construction em- 
l^loyed on the Valtellina line. During the experimentation at 
Buda-Pest both single and double-catenary suspension were 
tried, the construction being essentially similar to that used on 
the Spindlersfeld line. The cross-suspension type, however, 
was adopted, the system of double insulators and double sup- 
ports, shown in Mr. Damon's paper, being used. A consider- 
able sag is allowed in span wires, and every effort is made to give 
an elastic and uniform suspension. The insulators as installed 
are extremely heavy and certainly do not aid in securing this 
result. Dry wood, impregnated as suggested by Mr. Damon, 
forms an important feature both of the old and new con- 

For long spans and at switches an arrangement similar to 
the first diagram in the accompanying abstract in Mr. Damon's 
paper, showing cross suspension, is employed, and a very in- 
teresting special type of span-wire construction is also used, 
particularly where the trolley wires are lowered to pass under 
l)ridges, and hence undue rise and fall with the passage of the 
trolley would be undesirable. This consists of a catenary type 
of cross suspension connected at intervals by suspension wires 
widi an upwardly arched span wire which carries the insulators, 
thus making a construction wiiich does not sacrifice the sub- 
stantial elasticity of the line, but holds it accurately in place. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

permitting a limited rise and fall with the passage of the trolley. 

During the experimental period some difficulty was experi- 
enced with the overhead construction, and in one or two cases 
the wire broke, but the chief difficulty was encountered in the 
tunnels, and was both mechanical and electrical in its nature, 
since the accumulation of deposits from the steam locomotives 
continually running through the tunnels during the experi- 
mental period and the leakage of tunnel roofs caused insula- 
tion troubles, while owing to the very small clearance of the 
tunnels, difficulty was experienced in keeping the wire from 
grounding between supports. This was overcome by shorten- 
ing the distance between supports and weighting the conduc- 
tors by clamping small iron rails upon them, these being put 
on in sections several feet in length in the same manner as a 
mechanical clip. Although the construction is not by any means 
heavy, and the workmanship shows the effect of inexperience 
on the part of the linemen, it has successfully witlistood the 
wear and tear of use, and so far as the speaker had been able 
to learn has never been pulled down. In one or two instances 
at the beginning of the experimental operation, the trolley 
caught in the suspension wire owing to the improper location of 
curves and turn-outs, but the result was to break some, portion 
of the trolley mechanism and leave the line in condition for use. 

For their newest construction the double-catenary type is 
used, no span-wire supports whatever being employed, and two 
messenger wires serving to carry both contact conductors. The 
spacing of the conductors is maintained by wooden insulator 
bars upon which the insulators proper are carried, and to 
which supports from the messenger wires are attached. The 
insulators have been very much lightened by the substitution 
of pressed steel for malleable-iron castings. The messenger 
wires are carried on iron girders, spanning the track, the dis- 
tance between girders being 130 ft., and the distance between 
points of attachment to the wire, 65 ft., there being two sup- 
ports between girders and none immediately under them. 

The block and signal system is interconnected directly with 
the contact conductors, and the entrance of a train onto a sec- 
tion in face of a danger signal disconnects the section, but the 
speaker was unable to learn the details of the system. In addi- 
tion to this, the conductors within the limits of the stations, 
and for a deffiiite distance on each side, are dead at all times, 
save when a train is actually approaching or starting from a 
station. These sections can only be thrown in by the signal 
operator. It is customary for express trains to coast over with 
trolleys down, and it is the usual practice for trains moving at 
full speed to lower the trolleys at all switches, except such 
trains as are off from schedule and are making up time. 

The feature of double insulation, which is used throughout, 
has proved particularly useful in rendering possible the break- 
age of a single insulator without causing interference with 
traffic until repairs can be effected. This feature, while of 
course not a novelty, seems particularly worthy of perpetuation 
in high-tension lines where special liability to mechanical 
break-down exists. The idea of cutting out sections at stations 
and the extension of the same idea carried out on the Spin- 
dlersfeld line, of cutting out sections under bridges where the 
right of way passes under highways, seem also worthy of con- 
sideration, at least for special cases. 

The Valtellina system seems to have been free from trouble 
with the overhead construction to a remarkable extent, not- 
withstanding the fact that two overhead wires are required, 
and this fact emphasizes the importance of using a trolley con- 
tact device which cannot get off from the wire, and thus either 
break insulators or pull down the construction. 

The trolley itself is a single apparatus and not two inde- 
pendent devices. It requires, however, two separate bases and 
poles, as would be the case were there two single trolleys. The 
outer ends of the two poles are connected by a continuous bar 
of impregnated wood, the center portion of which for a dis- 

tance of about 8 ins. is the full diameter of the rolling con- 
tacts. On either side the diameter is reduced to receive two 
contact cylinders which are slipped over and supported on in- 
sulated ball bearings, the current being taken off by carbon con- 
tact rings at the ends and carried by flexible jumpers to the 
trolley poles. The cross bar with its contact rollers is flexibly 
connected to the ends of the arms by horizontal spiral springs, 
permitting simultaneous contact with the two wires, even 
where they are at widely different heights. 

The rollers originally put out were of copper and gave trou- 
ble by elongation under the hammering of service, and so bind- 
ing the bearings. Ganz & Company now send out steel rollers 
copper plated, and claim a wear of 10,000 km per roller, or 
20,000 km per vehicle, before replating becomes necessary. 
The copper rollers gave a life of 30,000 km to 40,000 km per 
vehicle, but then had to be entirely renewed. The operating 
company prefers bronze, and finds no trouble from elongation. 

The trolley poles are supported by spiral springs in tension, 
the tension being put on from within the vehicle by compressed 
air. .With this device the slow-moving trains take 300 amps, 
without sparking or burning the wire. The normal speed of 
passenger trains is 40 m.p.h., and the maximum current that 
has been taken at that speed is about 240 amps., at which the 
collectors worked satisfactorily. The highest speed at which the 
device has been tested is 62 m.p.h., taking off a current of about 
IDO amps. This test was made without alteration of springs 
or line construction, and gave entirely satisfactory results. 

The plan of construction employed has therefore demon- 
strated its effectiveness at moderate speeds, in spite of the 
handicap of the extreme weight of the insulators. After two 
years of use the trolley wires show practically no wear, nor 
evidence of burning. Very little sparking is evident at night 
when running at full speed, but, as would naturally be ex- 
pected, such flashing as does occur takes place at the points of 
suspension. The type of trolley used seems therefore to com- 
bine the advantages of the wheel and bow forms. It cannot 
leave the wire, and as at present constructed cannot catch. The 
rolling contact practically eliminates the wear on the wire and 
contact conductors. The only serious objection to the over- 
head construction raised by the local engineer was to the loca- 
tion of the wires over the track, necessitating much of the work 
to be done at night, or else conducted under serious disad- 

During the entire period of operation no one has either been 
killed or injured by contact with the overhead construction, 
but an engineer of the Ganz Company was killed in one of the 

The organization for the maintenance of overhead construc- 
tion is very interesting. The line is 66 miles long, and for the 
purpose of controlling is divided into five sections, for each of 
which five men are kept. Their duties include patrolling of the 
line and visiting the sub-stations at regular intervals. When 
not otherwise engaged, one man is always on duty at the sub- 
stations. In general charge of all sections is a superintendent, 
who reports to the electrical engineer. 

The total cost of maintenance of primary and secondary 
lines, care, attendance and maintenance of sub-stations and 
patrolling of line on this plan is about $102 per mile per annum. 
This force is not kept fully occupied, but it is held that no 
smaller force would be allowable. The engineers of the oper- 
ating company and of the Rete Adriatica seem to agree that 
the exigencies of mail line railway service demand that a suffi- 
cient force should be maintained to insure the prompt re- 
sumption of service in case of accident, and that the cost of 
maintenance and repairs and of the supervision of sub-stations 
is not determined by the actual labor involved, but by the neces- 
sity for prompt action in emergencies. The difference in cost 
of maintenance between a three-phase and a single-phase line 
on main line railways is therefore, according to this view, sim- 

April i, 1905.] 



ply the difference in tlie cost of material, and hence a negligibly 
small quantity. The point of view is interesting, and so far as 
the speaker knew has not been mentioned in just this form in 
this country, but in view of the higher cost of labor here, it is 
questionable how far the plan could be adopted. 

Mr. Townley pointed out that hitherto overhead trolley con- 
struction had followed along the original lines, and that the 
improvements made have been those of details. The departures 
indicated in the two papers of the evening were therefore ex- 
tremely important, but we should observe a considerable degree 
of caution in recommending extremely high voltages right 
away. It is one thing to construct 10,000-volt systems in the 
open country and another to recommend a high-tension trolley 
system for general service through closely populated centers. 
We can, of course, provide safeguards in the way of grounds, 
etc., but there is a wide difference in doing this for 500 volts 
than for 2000 volts, 3000 volts, 6000 volts or 10,000 volts. The 
difficulty of maintaining the insulation and keeping the pas- 
sengers out of danger should not be lost sight of. He did not 
agree with Mr. Damon's recommendations that now was the 
time to standardize the pressure or location of the wire. He 
believed that was the very thing we do not want to do at pres- 
ent. We have not had enough evidence of satisfactory opera- 
tion on any of these lines to attempt standardizing without 
danger of making serious mistakes. He considered of interest 
the data presented by Mr. Waterman on the rolling contact 
system, which brought to his mind the remarks made by Mr. 
Potter at a recent meeting of the New York Railroad Club, to 
the effect that some of the European contact devices had 
failed on this side owing to higher speeds and greater 
currents. Mr. Damon also suggests the possibility of greasing 
the trolley wire to prevent sleet, but he thought it would be 
difficult to provide a sufficient number of men to grease the 
trolley wire before sleet forms. Mr. Damon's suggestion of 
the use of 15,000 volts on steam roads introduces at once the 
query of how far it would be desirable to go in raising the trol- 
ley potential. It was not clear to him that 15,000 volts would 
be more economical either in first cost or operation. The addi- 
tional expense for insulation would prove considerable, and for 
any distances thus far contemplated, he was inclined to think 
that a lower voltage would prove cheaper. 

Mr. Armstrong, the next speaker, said he believed absolutely 
in keeping the trolley potential as low as can be done to do the 
work. We do not need to go higher than 3000 volts. Greater 
pressures would involve increased cost, danger, liability of 
break-down and otherwise unnecessary expenses. The catenary 
type of construction is adapted for potentials as high as 15,000 
volts, but the advisability of using this voltage simply because 
it is possible is another question. Looking at this matter in 
another way, it is possible at 3000 volts to operate cars of 40 
tons to 50 tons at a speed of 50 m.p.h. on half-hour headway, 
with sub-stations spaced 20 miles apart. It was a question as 
to how much trolley wire should be out of service in case of 
an accident, and it seemed to him that 20-mile blocks were 
surely long enough, if not too long, for economical operation. 
To have a higher trolley potential for the sake of permitting 
greater spacing of sulj-stations is an undue refinement not 
called for by operating conditions. When one comes to heavy 
freight trains with 1500-hp motors it is time to consider higher 
potentials, but even in such cases 5000 volts or 6000 volts would 
take care of all conditions involving not only sub-stations, but 
the line drops, cost of apparatus and all the operating condi- 
tions would be perfectly satisfactory. The position of the 
trolley has been alluded to. At the present time there are three 
high-tension lines in operation, two having the trolley sus- 
pended over the center of the track and one at the side. It 
seemed to him that there are arguments in favor of both loca- 
tions. The center trolley permits the use of the trolley wheel 
or bow for both city and suburban service. Many of our city 

systems, however, are so constructed that a bow »annot be used 
so that a separate trolley wheel will have to be employed for 
mixed systems. It is doubtful if suspending the trolley in the 
center would effect any economy in the trolley wheels required. 
The side-suspended trolley opens another advantage. It neces- 
sitates the use of a separate bow or trolley wheel for the high- 
tension part of the line, which has some advantages in safety 
of operation and also in the facility for changing over. The 
operation of both styles of suspension will be watched with in- 
terest. We are not yet in position to standardize one or the 
other. The frequency of hangers between the supporting cable 
is another point for study. Mr. Damon also suggests the use 
of separate transmission lines to each sub-station as being an 
improvement over a single set of wires from the power station 
serving all the sub-stations in multiple. From his company's 
experience, Mr. Armstrong was led to believe that the trouble 
with transmission lines increased with their mileage. While 
it gives a certain concentration of labor in the generating sta- 
tion it brings up the specious idea of eliminating the sub-station 
attendance. He wanted to suggest to Mr. Damon that on 
further operation of the road in question it may be found ad- 
visable to have a sub-station attendant even if there is no mov- 
ing machinery. While he would not have to be on hand con- 
stantly, still it would be advisable to have a man near a tell- 
tale device to cut switches and transformers in or out, etc. In 
conclusion, he hoped that at some future meetings papers would 
be presented stating the conclusions of experience in this work 
rather than what seemed to be the proper idea. 

The next speaker was Mr. Babcock, consulting engineer of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad. He said that in the West con- 
ditions were such that the first and third classes (moderate 
speed, inexpensive lines for country districts and electrification 
of steam railroads) mentioned in Mr. Damon's paper were the 
ones which would be encountered first, namely, comparatively 
inexpensive lines running through sparsely settled territory, 
with freight traffic forming the greater part of the earnings, 
and steam road work. Steam railroad men were exceedingly 
conservative on this subject. The question of line protection 
and insulation was a very vital one, especially on the Pacific 
Coast. It has been found that high-potential transmission lines 
can be operated in the interior and southern parts of California 
with comparatively little insulation, 1)ut in those sections where 
fogs are frequent, conditions are entirely different. As to 
operating above 3000 volts or 6000 volts, it becomes a question 
not only whether it is worth while, but how about leakage? 
The construction details presented in Mr. Varney's paper give 
a most beautiful line, but if the leakage he gives is to be car- 
ried out throughout the line in bad weather it is questionable 
how far one would get with this type. In one table Mr. Var- 
ney states there was a leakage of 6 kw on 5 miles of single- 
catenary construction. On 40 miles of double track this would 
mean a constant loss of 96 kw. In 500-volt work the constant 
losses are small, the greater losses occurring while the cars are 
moving. Consequently the higher voltage would also give 
losses while the car is moving. As to insulators, it was his per- 
sonal opinion that porcelain was the wrong material for over- 
head construction. With regard to the location of the trolley 
wire, from the steam railroad man's standpoint, great difficul- 
ties must be overcome in arriving at the proper clearances 
through densely crowded tunnels, snow sheds, bridges, etc. 
Referring to Mr. Damon's suggestion that high-tension lines 
should be carried around towns to insure the public safety, he 
remarked that 60,000-volt transmission lines in California were 
carried right through the towns. As to grounding, he said that 
when one of the low frequency circuits was grounded all the 
telephone bells in the district were set ringing, disorganizing 
the telephone service for miles around. 

Prof. Sheldon then read a long letter from Mr. Mailloux in 
which the writer called attention to the necessity of studying 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

methods for the efficient and convenient transmission of elec- 
trical energy in large quantities. He mentioned also his visit 
to Europe for the purpose of examining the high-tension lines 
there in use, saying that what he saw there, especially on the 
Spindlersfeld line, made him a firm believer in high-tension 
railways. He favored 6000 volts for a standard on interurban 
lines as against 3000 volts, and thought at least 15,000 volts de- 
sirable for steam roads. He said that, mainly on account of 
municipal restrictions, the projected European single-phase 
lines would operate on 2400 volts. He believed that the double 
catenary for keeping the wire from swinging probably will not 
justify the increased cost. As to current collection, it was his 
opinion that contact from al:)ove, like the Huber system, is bet- 
ter. Further details, with illustrations of late improvements 
in the Huber system, will be given by Mr. Mailloux in an 
early issue. 

Mr. Hammer made a few remarks relative to his trip two 
years ago to inspect the Valtellina line in Italy, which he de- 
scribed in a lecture given before the Franklin Institute, and 
which was published in the Street Railway Journal of May 
2, 1903. 

Mr. Varney, on taking the floor, said in reply to Mr. Bab- 
cock's criticisms on leakage, that the leakage mentioned in his 
paper occurred while the entire line was covered with wet 
snow. Another day when the line was comparatively clear 
from snow, but still coated with smoke, the leakage could 
hardly be detected. 

Prof. Sever referred to the last paragraph in Mr. Damon's 
paper, in which the suggestion is made that on interurban roads 
the trolley wire should be 20 ft. above the center of the track, 
and that for steam road electrification the height of the contact 
wire at the side of the tracl^ could be made standard at 16 ft. 
As Mr. Babcock said, steam railroad men guard their standard 
heights most rigorously. He instanced the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad, which keeps a constant watch at 
a crossing in Bridgeport, Conn., to see that the trolley wire of 
the electric railway at that point is never less than 21 ft. above 
the track. If in steam railroad practice any such distance as 
that is absolutely required then a considerable change will 
have to be made in the erection of the proposed overhead work. 
Furthermore, from a safety to life standpoint, it seemed to him 
that a trolley wire of 15,000 volts running under bridges and 
other accessible places with small clearance would prove very 
dangerous, particularly to the inquisitive small boy. The fire 
hazard must also be seriously considered in passing through 
populated centers. He indorsed strongly Mr. Armstrong's posi- 
tion on the use of a trunk line serving the sub-stations in multi- 
ple and on spacing the sub-stations closer than suggested by 
Mr. Damon. 



The Manchester (England) street railway committee has 
adopted a scale of charges for parcels, inclusive of the charge 
for delivery, for two areas, the "inside" and the "outside." The 
"inside" area includes the whole of the city of Manchester, the 
borough of Salford, and the township of Stretford as far as 
Warwick Road. The "outside" area includes the suburbs which 
are around the district thus outlined and within the tramway's 
circuit. Parcels are delivered to all parts covered by the 
scheme at intervals of not more than a quarter of an hour. The 
following are the charges for the two areas : Not exceeding 
14 lbs. , 4 cents inside, 6 cents outside; not exceeding 28 lbs., 
6 cents and 8 cents ; not exceeding 56 lbs., 8 cents and 12 cents ; 
not exceeding 112 lbs., 12 cents and 16 cents. Manchester, 
with Salford and Stretford, all included in the "inside" area, 
has a population of about 800,000 people. The "outside" area 
includes a number of suburban towns and villages. 


In the last issue a summary was given of the contents of the 
first three chapters of the extensive report on street railways 
for 1902 just published by the Census Bureau of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor. Chapter IV. of the report is 
devoted to capitalization, and discusses first some of the diffi- 
culties of determining the net amount of capital liabilities issued 
per mile of track, owing to the ownership of securities of one 
company by another, also to the common operation of lighting 
plants by railway companies. To overcome the former trouble, 
the census officials have deducted the value of the securities so 
held from the total amount, and in the case of ownership of 
lighting plants have indicated this fact by a foot note. Nu- 
merous statistics are given on this subject from which the fol- 
lowing table has been derived, showing the net capital liabili- 
ties per mile of track of full-time electric railway companies, 
without commercial lighting: 

TRACK: 1902* 


Lender $25,000 

$25,000, but under $50,000. 
$50,000, but under $75,000.. 
.$75,0(10, but under $100,000. 
$100,(11)0. l-,ut under $150,000 
$150,0(1(1, but under $200, 0(X) 
$2(JO,000, but under $300,000 
$300,000 and over 

Number of Companies 

Urban Centers, Population 




















* Exclusive of reports for 6 companies which failed to furnish this information. 

The report points out that various causes have tended to 
make the cost of ordinary overhead trolley railways higher in 
centers of more than 500,000 population than elsewhere. The 
traffic is much heavier per mile of track than in smaller places, 
and the road must, therefore, be equipped with more cars ; the 
expense for power houses and for car houses is much greater 
per unit of track than in cities where the traffic is less dense ; 
the track, being subjected to more severe strain than elsewhere, 
is in general more expensively constructed, with deeper and 
stronger foundations and heavier rails, and the cost of paving- 
is likewise greater. 

Perhaps the most important factor tending to increase the 
amount of capital expended in street railway construction in 
the great centers of population is the fact that there, more than 
anywhere else, public demand has compelled speedy adoption 
of improvements in methods, resulting in extensive recon- 
struction and replacement. It was mostly in the larger cities 
that horse railways were developed and abandoned. It was 
chiefly there, too, that cable traction superseded horse traction, 
only to be itself soon displaced in most instances by electricity. 
Changes in methods of operation in these cities have had, in 
many cases, to be accomplished without the interruption of 
traffic, thus increasing the cost of reconstruction. 

As the expense of constructing street railways has been 
greater in centers of more than 500,000 population than in those 
of any other class, so, doubtless, railways in centers of from 
100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants have cost more than those in the 
centers of the next smaller size, and the latter in turn more 
than railways in the smallest urban centers. Whether these 

April i, 1905.] 



variations in cost are sufficient to explain altogether the wide 
differences in the ratio of capitalization to trackage is a ques- 
tion that can not be fully discussed in this report. It may be 
observed, however, that the temptation to overcapitalize is 
stronger in the great cities, for the margin of earnings over 
operating expenses is greater in such cities than elsewhere. 
In smaller cities, or on interurban railways, the profits of the 
business are frequently scarcely enough to pay interest on the 
bare cost of construction. Under such circumstances the issue 
of securities beyond that cost would find ils motive almost 
solely in the hope of future increase in earning capacity. 

F I N .\ N C [ A L C) r I<: R .\T I ( ) N S 

Chapter V. is devoted to this sul)ject. Under general income 
account the following statistics as to percentage distril:)ution 
of gross income for electric surface lines is given : 






Part Time 


















On other debt 







Miscellaneous deductions 











* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

This is followed by two tables, one showing the percentage 
distribution of gross income of all operating companies, the 
other of the surface electric railways without commercial light- 
ing, both classified according to population : 




Centers, Population 










Gross income 








Operating expenses 
















Interest, total 








On funded debt 








On other debt 








Rentals of leased lines.... 







Miscellaneous deductions. 

























Urban Centers, Popul.ation 


Gross income 



Operating expenses 






Interest, total 



On funded deljt 



On other debt 



Rentals of leased lines 



Miscellaneous deductions. 




























































somewhat smaller proportionate payments for taxes, interest 
and dividends than do street railways as a whole, and thai, on 
the other hand, they show a very much larger proportionate 
payment for rentals. These differences are largely due to the 
fact that the elevated railways, which are all within the largest 
urban centers and which are excluded from the latter table, 
make relatively large payments for taxes, interest and divi- 
dends, but do not operate any lines under lease, and hence re- 
ported no rentals. The electric railways having cominercial 
lighting jdants are, f(.)r the most ])art, in the two classes of 
urljan centers of less than inhabitants. Companies 
with lighting plants show a larger proportion of interest and a 
smaller proportion of dividends than companies without light- 
ing plants. This is one explanation of the fact that in the last 
two urban groups the electric railway companies not furnish- 
ing commercial lighting show a smaller ])ro])()rtion of interest 
and a larger proportion of dividends than ajjpear when al! 
classes of companies are taken together. 

The next table shows the ratio of taxes to gross income, and 
to income less operating expenses, in the more important States. 
It will be seen that Michigan, Ohio and Indiana are the only 
States in the table in which the taxes were less than 5 per cent 
of the gross income. The lower ratio of taxes in these States 
is probably due in part to the large proportion of interurban 
railways, the taxation upon which is as yet less heavy than that 
upon street railways in cities: 

STATES: 1902 

Percentage of 
Taxes to — j 



Gross In- 
come, Less 


■ 13.6 
22 3 











Although statistics in regard to totals appear in elaboration 
in the census report, they are omitted largely from this ab- 
stract, partly because many of them appeared in the original 



Urban Centers, Population 








Fast , 






101 ).0 










Fron"; chartered cars.... 








From freight, mail and 








From sale of electric 

current for light and 








From miscel'ous sources 






2 6 


The report calls attention to the fact that these full-time 
electric surface railways in centers of 500,000 and over show 

rejiort and jjartly because analyses of them are more useful. 
For Ibis re.isdu the statistics of the division of operating earn- 
ings are given above in percentage distribution only for all 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

full-time electric surface companies, without commercial 
lighting : 

The following table shows, for all companies, the percentage 
which each subdivision of operating expenses bears to the total 
operating expenses: 


Total Op- 


Maintenance of ways and structures, total 8.5 

Track and roadway 5.7 

Electric, cable, etc., lines 2.1 

Buildings and fixtures 0.7 

Maintenance of equipment, total 11.7 

Steam plant 0.9 

Electric, cable, etc., plant 0.6 

Cars 5.4 

Electric, cable, etc., equipment of cars 3.7 

Miscellaneous 0.5 

Miscellaneous shop expenses 0.6 

Operation of power plant, total 16.2 

Wages 3.2 

Fuel 9.0 

Water 0.5 

Lubricants and waste 0.4 

Miscellaneous supplies and expenses 0.4 

Hired power 2.7 

Operation of cars, total 43.9 

Superintendence of transportation 1.8 

Wages of conductors 16.9 

Wages of motormen 17.3 

Wages of other car service employees 1.8 

Wages of car house employees 2.3 

Car service supplies 1.3 

Miscellaneous car service expenses 1.4 

Cleaning and sanding track 0.5 

Removal of snow and ice 0.6 

Miscellaneous, total. 18.1 

Salaries of general officers 2.1 

Salaries of clerks 1.6 

Printing and stationery 0.3 

Miscellaneous office expenses 0.5 

Storeroom expenses 0.2 

Stable expenses 1.0 

Advertising and attractions 0.8 

Miscellaneous general expenses 1.4 

Damages 5.3 

J^egal expenses in connection with damages 1.3 

Other legal expenses 0.7 

Rent of land and buildings 0.4 

Rent of track and terminals 1.0 

Insurance 1.5 

Wages, supplies and expenses incidental to electric service not else- 
where included 1.6 

Aggregate 100.0 

It will be seen from this table that almost one-fifth of 
the total operating expenses were devoted to the maintenance 
of way and equipment, while the operation of the power plant, 
of which cost of fuel is the most important item, required one- 
sixth of the total expenditure. A considerable number of street 
railways hire their elfectric current, either from other street 
railways, or, more often, from electric light companies, while, 
in a few instances, steam power is similarly hired. The ag- 
gregate expenditure for hired power in 1902 was about one- 
sixth of the expenditure of all companies for power. By far 
the most important class of expenditures is that designated as 
for "operation of cars," which amounted to 43.9 per cent of 
the total. The wages of conductors and motormen constituted 
more than one-third of the entire cost of street railway opera- 
tion. The item "superintendence of transportation" cannot, in 
the case of some railways, be accurately separated from the 
item "salaries of general officers and clerks," but these in- 
stances are not of sufficient importance to affect materially the 
totals for the country. 

A considerable part of the expenditure under the head "ad- 
vertising and attractions" consists of the cost of maintaining 
parks and other places of amusement. The revenue derived by 
street railway companies from such enterprises has been de- 
ducted and the item therefore represents only net expenditure, 
The most important of the miscellaneous expenses is that for 
damages, mostly in personal injury cases. No less than $7,- 
529,946 was paid by street railway companies for damages in 
1902, while the legal expenses connected with claims and suits 
for damages raised the total expense to $9,395,545, which was 
one-fifteenth of the total operating expenses of all street rail- 
way companies. 

The item "wages, supplies and expenses incident to electric 
service" was not reported in a uniform manner by all com- 

panies. It is intended to represent the expense peculiar to the 
production and distribution of electric current for light and 
power, as distinguished from expenses of the railway business 
proper. Some companies which sell light and power undertake 
to distinguish that part of their fuel and other power plant ex- 
penses, which is attributable to the lighting and power service, 
from that which is properly attributable to the railway opera- 
tion. Other companies do not make such a segregation, but 
place under the last subdivision in the account only such ex- 
penses as are connected strictly with the distribution of cur- 
rent for light and power, excluding those due to its generation. 

The percentage distribution of operating expenses of' full- 
time electric surface railway companies, without commercial 
lighting, classified according to population, is shown in the ac- 
companying table : 



Urban Centers, Population 










Operating expenses, total. 








Maintenance of ways 








Maintenance of equipm't 








Operation of power 








Operation of cars 















Wages, supplies and ex- 

penditures incidental 

to electric service, not 

elsewhere included.... 



* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

This table reveals considerable differences among the popu- 
lation groups in the distribution of operating expenses. The 
expense of maintaining ways aiid structures is relatively least 
in urban centers of more than 500,000 inhabitants, as might be 
expected from the small proportion of trackage in such centers 
to the total amount of traffic. For the same reason, on the 
other hand, the largest cities, in which, presumably, cars see 
more and harder service than in small towns, show a greater 
proportion of expenditure for maintenance of equipment than 
appears in any other group except the fast, long interurban 
railways, on which, by reason of the high speed maintained, 
cars are subjected to severe wear and tear. There is also a 
progressive increase in the proportion of expenses for the 
operation of power plant as we descend the scale of population 
of urban centers served. Other things being equal, the greater 
the density of traffic and the larger the scale on which the 
power plant is constructed, the lower will be the cost of power 
per unit of traffic. That the expense for the operation of cars, 
which consists chiefly of wages, is a smaller proportion of the 
total in urban centers of less than 100,000 inhabitants than in 
larger urban centers is due chiefly to the lower rates of wages 
paid in the smaller towns. The higher proportion of miscel- 
laneous expenses in urban centers of more than 500,000 in- 
habitants as compared with the other urban groups is chiefly 
attributable to the heavier damage expenses in such cities. 

Since peculiar interest attaches to the operations of street 
railways in large cities, the following has been prepared, which 
shows by percentages the distribution of operating expenses 
in detail for a group of seventeen selected companies, situated 
in ten of the largest urban centers in the United States. The 
companies included in the table are as follows : Boston Ele- 
vated Railway Company; Cleveland Electric Railway Com- 
pany ; Cleveland City Railway Company ; Interurban Street 
Railway Company and Third Avenue Railroad Company, of 
New York; Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company; United Rail- 

April i, 1905.] 



ways & Electric Company, of Baltimore; St. Louis Transit 
Company; Union Traction Company, of Philadelphia; Chicago 
City Railway Company ; Chicago Union Traction Company ; 
International Railway Company and Crosstown Street Railway 
Company, of Buffalo; Cincinnati Traction Company; United 
Railroads of San Francisco ; Jersey City, Hoboken & Paterson 
Street Railway Company, and North Jersey Street Railway 
Company, of Jersey City, Newark and vicinity. The aggregate 
operating expenses of these seventeen companies were $56,- 
809,980, or about two-fifths of the total for the United States. 


Percentage of total operating expenses assignable to: 

Maijitenance of ways and structures, total 8.1 

Track and roadway 

Electric, cable, etc., lines 2.2 

Buildings and fixtures 0.7 

Maintenance of equipment, total 12.8 

Steam plant 0.9 

Electric, cable, etc., plant 0.8 

Cars : 6.2 

Electric, cable, etc., equipment of cars 3.8 

Miscellaneous equipment 0.5 

Miscellaneous shop equipment 0.6 

Operation of power plant, total 12.7 

Power plant wages 2.7 

Fuel for power ''•2 

Water for power 0.5 

Lubricants and waste for power plant 0.2 

Miscellaneous supplies and expenses of power plant 0.3 

Hired power 1-8 

Operation of cars, total 17.3 

Superintendence of transportation 2.4 

Wages of conductors 18.8 

Wages of motormen 18.6 

Wages of other car-service employees 2.1 

VV'ages of car-house employees 2.2 

Car-service supplies 0.9 

Miscellaneous car-service expenses 1.3 

cleaning and sanding track 0.4 

Removal of snow and ice 0.6 

Miscellaneous expenses, total 19-1 

Salaries of general officers 1.1 

Salaries of clerks 1-4 

Printing and stationery 0.3 

Miscellaneous office expenses 0.4 

Storeroom expenses 0.2 

Stable expenses 1-4 

Advertising and attractions 0.1 

Miscellaneous general expenses 1.3 

Damages ^.8 

Legal expense in connection with damages 2.3 

Other legal expenses 0-7 

Rent of land and buildings 0.3 

Rent of track and terminals 0.6 

Insurance ^-^ 

A comparison of the distribution of expenses for these com- 
panies with that for all companies reveals a number of points 
of difference which are significant. 

Although operating ratios are somewhat misleading, the fol- 
lowing table is given showing the distribution in the several 
urban and interurban groups. As the report points out, a low 
operating ratio is often regarded as an indication of good man- 
agement, but this is not always the case. Thus a low operating 
ratio may mean higher fares, or less satisfactory service, or 
costly improvements, which materially lessen the expenses of 
transportation, but are not strictly profitable from the stand- 
point of the investor. 



Under 50 

50, but under 60. 
60, but under 70.. 
70, but under 80.. 
80, but under 90. . 
90 and over 

Number of Companies 





Urban Centers, Population 

























The next table shows the distribution of fare passengers in 
the same groups : 



Under 2 

2, but under 3. 

3, but under 4. 

4, but under 5. 

5, but under 6. 

6, but under 7. 
7 and over 

Number op Companies Reporting Operating Ratio 


50 Per 

50 Per 


60 Per 







60 Per 
70 Per 

70 Per 


80 Per 


80 Per 
90 Per 

90 Per 


110 I 146 








* Exclusive of reports for two railways carrying freight only; for sixteen 
which failed to furnish this information, and for forty fast, long interurbans. 

The following table gives the same division, but divided ac- 
cording to the number of passengers per mile of track: 



Number of Companies Reporting Operating Ratio 


50 Per 

50 Per 
60 Per 

60 Per 
70 Per 

70 Per 
80 Per 

Under 25,000 

25,000, but under 50,000... 
50,000, but under 100,000... 
100,000, but under 200,000. . 
200,000, but under 300,000. 
300,000, but under 400,000.. 
400,000 and over 













80 Perl 
90 Per 

90 Per 






* Exclusive of reports for two railways carrying freight only, for sixteen 
which failed to furnish this information, and for forty fast, long interurbans. 


♦Exclusive of reports for 16 companies which failed to furnish this information. 

The Chicago & Alton Railroad does not propose complacently 
to permit competing electric railway to get its suburban pas- 
senger business. The company has been quietly at work plan- 
ning for an interurban service over its lines, and now an- 
nounces that on April i there will be put into effect a schedule 
that will compare favorably as regards frequency of service 
with any on the electric lines. For this service special cars 
with a seating capacity of lOO have been built at a cost of 
about $7,000 each. A feature of this equipment is the pro- 
vision made for smokers, a compartment in each of the coaches 
being set apart for those who indulge. ' These cars will be 
coupled up as traffic demands, being run singly with a locomo- 
tive or in trains of two or more coaches. George J. Charlton, 
general passenger agent of the company, says that possibly in 
the future a gasoline motor coach may be used. The first of 
these new trains will be run between Dwight and Blooming- 
ton, a distance of 50 miles. On an average, stops will be about 
2I/2 miles apart. The depot platforms are being remodeled to 
accommodate the interurban coaches, which will be equipped 
with drop steps. Rates of fare on the interurban trains will 
be the same as on the electric lines, about 2 cents a mile. Reg- 
ular interurban mileage books of 100 coupons each will be 
issued. They will be good for bearer, and will be honored only 
on the interurban trains, not on regular local and through 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 


The new design of truck for electric railway car service, 
illustrated herewith, is of ])articular interest to railway me- 
chanical departments for the many advantages offered for use 
under heavy cars in combined city and high-speed interurban 
service. On account uf the short wheel base secured it is well 


adapted for congested city service, giving, it is claimed, equal 
if not better advantages than those of the maximum traction 
type of truck for city service ; and, at the same time, the many 
other important features incorporated and the general con- 
formity to the standards of the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion, render it unexcelled for high-speed service. 

This truck was built by the Peckham Manufacturing 
Company, Kingston, N. Y., primarily for use under the large 
new semi-convertible type of car recently adopted by the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company for its combined city and suburban 
service, as noted in the March 11 issue of this journal (page 
466). The requirements of the service in Brooklyn are pecul- 
iar and perhaps more exacting than will be found in any other 
city. This design embodies a careful study of the conditions to 
be met, and will, it is thought, meet the requirements in the 
most successful manner. The principal features of the design 
are shown in the accomi)anying engraving. 

The new design secures a particularly short wheel base (4 ft. 
10 ins.), embodying necessarily an arrange- 
ment of outside hung motors. In general fea- 
tures of construction it closely resembles the 
well-known principles so much used in steam 
railroad practice for passenger car trucks, with 
the exception of the omission of the usual 
equalizing bars. The side frames are of a 
patent combination, with a center truss rigidly 
secured to the pedestals and top frames ; this 
combination gives a double factor of safety, 
and, as designed without equalizing bars, gives 
the same spring base for the short wheel base 
truck as can be obtained in a wheel base run- 
ning from 60 ft. 6 ins. to 70 ft., wdiere the usual 
steam road type of construction is used. The 
weight of the car body is carried directly on two double elliptic 
springs which are seated on the spring plank, consisting of a 
channel iron and malleable iron seat suspended from swinging 
links. The swing links are so designed as to provide against 
racking of the car body on uneven track and when taking 
curves. The entire weight of both truck frame and car body 
is received upon the journal boxes by helical springs. 

These trucks are provided with an exceptionally strong and 

angle iron figured at a factor of safety of 6. These brake 
beams are suspended from the transoms by the special non- 
chattering type of brake hanger which was -invented by R. C. 
Taylor, mechanical engineer of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company. The brake beams are provided with shoe heads 
into which the beam is keyed, which facilitates the changing 
or renewing of shoes when same are worn out. The adjust- 
ment of brakes may be made either 
with a turn-buckle or with pins, as in 
steam railway practice. The truck 
bolster is provided with wearing 
pieces which wear against similar 
pieces on the transom channels, 
which thus allow for adjustment and 
insure an even braking at all times. 

In designing this form of construc- 
tion it has been the aim of the Peck- 
ham Company to eliminate cast steel 
or special forged side frames, and in 
particular to provide a construction 
with hardly a part to break that 
cannot be repaired in the ordinary 
car shop. It is noticeable that very 
few castings enter into the construc- 
tion of the truck. This design is 
known as the short wheel base type 
No. 25 M. C. B. truck of the Peckham 
Company. Four hundred of these are now being constructed 
for the new type of surface cars for the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company, which will be used in preference to the 
shorter cars mounted on maximum traction trucks, heretofore 
used exclusively by this company. This truck is meeting with 
general popular favor, and in addition to the order received 
from the Brooklyn Company several other large orders for this 
type have Ijeen entered by the Peckham Company. 



The Saginaw Valley Traction Company, of Saginaw, Mich., 
has received five fifteen-bench open cars from the G. C. Kuhl- 
man Car Company. The company owns and operates all the 
street railway lines in Saginaw and the interurban railway to 
Bay City. Riverside Park, a famous amusement resort in the 
vicinity of Saginaw, is owned by the company. Saginaw and 

desirable brake mechanism. The brake beams are made of 


Bay City are among the most important cities in the State, the 
former having a population of about 45,000, and is a prominent 
railway center, while the latter is one of the six principal lum- 
ber centers of the Northwest, with a population of about 30,000. 

The car illustrated was photographed on shop trucks, but all 
the cars were to take trucks of the Brill No. 27-G type. The 
length over the crown pieces is 28 ft. 8^ ins. ; width over the 
sills, 6 ft. 3 ins., and over the posts at the seat ends, 7 ft. J4 in. ; 
sweep of the posts, 5 ins. The side sills are 3^ ins. x 7 ins., 

April i, 1905.] 



plated by 7-in. x j/-in. steel, and the end sills are 2^ ins. x 
II ins. The round-corner seat-end panels, angle-iron bumpers, 
brake handles, platform and signal bells and radial draw-bars 
are all of Brill manufacture. 




The extensive plans for additional mileage which the London 
County Council has under way, and which have been described 
in these columns, have called for important extensions to its 
power generating equipment and have led to the placing of 
large orders for engines and generators. One of the latter has 
recently been completed at the works of the Electric Construc- 
tion Company, Ltd., of London and Wolverhampton, and is 
illustrated in the accompanying engraving. An idea of the size 


of the machine can be had by comparing the view of the iield 
frame with that of the man standing in the foreground. 

The contract given to this company includes four three-phase 
25-cycle generators, each designed to give a continuous output 
of 3200 K. V. A. at a speed of 94 r. p. m. This output is to be 
rated with a power factor of 94 per cent. The working pres- 
sure is 6600 volts and the current per phase is 280 amps. The 
machines will be called upon to give an overload of 25 per cent 
for two hours continuously. The field magnets are placed 
directly on the rim of the engine fly-wheel, the stored energy 
of which equals 11,000 ft. tons at normal speed. This com- 
pany is also constructing the complete fly-wheel. 

The Boston Elevated Railway Company began the operation 
of five-car trains on its elevated division during the rush hours 
of March 22. The first train left the terminal at Dudley Street 
at 4 p. m., and the service was continued at regular intervals 
until 6:30 p. m. It is estimated that the congestion of rush- 
hour traffic will be relieved at least 25 per cent by this addi- 
tional service, which will be a feature of daily operation here- 
after. To provide for the ].)oarding and leaving of the fifth car 
all the elevated and subway platforms were lengthened about 
45 ft. At Sullivan Square terminal the only change was the 
removal of a section of each of the two waiting rooms at the 
Charlestown end of the elevated floor. This alteration enables 
incoming and outgoing passengers to enter and leave the fifth 
car more easily, at the same time not interfering greatly with 
the accommodations of the waiting rooms on either side of the 
elevated track. At the Dudley Street ter- 
minal an extension of about 40 ft. was made 
on the Dudley Street end of the platform. 
The iron fences and other fittings have been 
extended in conformity with the additions. 
The extension of some of the subway plat- 
forms, notably those at Scollay and Adams 
Squares, presented considerable diiSculty in 
comparison with the elevated stations. In 
some places the addition to the platforms 
are narrow at best, on account of the lim- 
ited available space. The subway changes 
are not in the nature of permanent improve- 
ments, however, for in about three years, 
when the Washington Street Tunnel is com- 
pleted, surface cars will be restored to the 
present su!)way upon the removal of the ele- 
vated trains to the tunnel route. 

The use of the new type of elevated cars 
having pneumatically-operated doors, and 
no open platforms at the ends, has proved 
a great success. According to recent tests, 
about 25 per cent more passengers can be 
loaded or unloaded in a given time than 
can be handled on the original elevated cars 
with open platforms and swinging gates. 
The reduction in platform labor at stations 
is also a considerable item. Thus far it 
has appeared that the pneumatic doors are 
exceedingly safe for the public. Another 
improvement in the service has been etTected 
by the installation of additional block signals 
between some of the subway stations, so that delayed trains 
can approach more nearly to the platforms, filling up the gaps 
which otherwise would exist if very long blocks were used. 


Arrangements have been made whereby two of the Holland 
palace cars will be put into service on the Indianapolis & 
Northwestern, between Indianapolis and Lafayette, on April i. 
These cars will be used for limited service only, and will stop 
only at Zionville, Lebanonj Frankfort, Lafayette and In- 

The general ofiices of the Springfield (Mass.) Street Kail- 
way Company are lighted from the car houses adjoining liy a 
motor-generator set of about 15-hp capacity, consisting of a 
4-pole, 550-volt motor direct coupled to a 125-volt generator, 
compound wound and running 1200 r. p. m. The set occupies 
a floor space of 25 ins. x 74 ins., and requires little attention, 
generally a casual inspection once every hour or two by the car 
house employee in charge. It is run all night and stands in a 
small room at one corner of the car house. The power station 
is at the foot of Margaret Street, about 1.5 miles away, and as 
the lamps at times show the efi'ects of the fluctuating trolley 
voltage, it has been suggested that a more constant brilliancy 
would be secured by supplying the motor-generator through a 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

special feed-wire connected to the power station bus-bars only. 

A switch is provided at the car house for throwing the office 
lights upon the circuits of the United Electric Light Company 
in case trouble should occur with the motor-generator. 


The Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora Railroad, which was fully 
described in the Street Railway Journal of Dec. 24, 1904, 
has recently ordered through the Fisher Construction Company 
the beautiful parlor car shown in the accompanying illustra- 

The car has the Brill semi-convertible window system, which 
makes it equally suitable for summer and winter service. The 
window pockets, which are in the side roofs, do not materially 
alter the appearance of the interior or exterior, as the illustra- 
tions show, and one advantage of the arrangement is that pas- 
sengers may have the windows open as little or as much as 
they wish, according to the weather and the speed of the car. 
Curtains are provided for the windows, as well as silk draperies. 
The draperies, carpet and upholstering are in dark green, the 
ceilings are tinted light green and the woodwork is of mahog- 
any, finely carved and inlaid, the whole having a very har- 
monious and rich appearance. A toilet room and heater com- 


tions. This car is a product of the American Company, of St. 
Louis, which also furnished the other rolling stock for this 
railway, consisting of six 51-ft. combination passenger and 
baggage cars mounted on Brill 27-E-2 trucks, carrying four 
GE 67 motors. 

The parlor car is to be used for special trips, and an extra 
fare will be charged. It also may be chartered by parties for 
excursion purposes. A large number of passengers are pleas- 

partment are at one end of the car, and at the corners of these 
compartments are carved pillars united by an arch with leaded 
glass overhead. Mirrors in the sides of the compartments are 
of heavy beveled plate glass. A recessed dome and semi-em- 
pire form of ventilators with opalescent glass make a very 
effective deck arrangement. The windows and doors are glazed 
with heavy polished plate, and the windows in the vestibule 
have pockets in the wainscoting. The arrangement of incan- 


ure riders, and the success of the company's amusement resort 
near Plainfield, known as Electric Park, makes it evident that 
a car of this type, with its greater attractiveness and comfort, 
will prove a paying investment. If it seems desirable, at such 
times when all of the cars are taxed to their utmost capacity, 
this car will be furnished with smaller chairs than shown in 
the interior illustration and its seating capacity made practi- 
cally the same as an ordinary type of interurban car. Should 
there by a demand for it, the company will also install a buffet 
for the accommodation of special parties and for regular 

descents may be seen in the interior illustrations, and the con- 
tinuous parcel racks will also be noted. The interior woodwork 
of the vestibules and the platform doors are of mahogany. The 
platforms are 5 ft. from end panels over vestibules. They are 
dropped and supported by heavy angle-iron center timbers and 
are reinforced by outside knees. Protection is afforded to them 
by angle-iron bumpers of Brill manufacture. Other specialties 
bearing the same name are channel-iron draw-bars, "Dedenda" 
gongs, "Dumpit" sand boxes, conductors' bells and others. The 
trucks, which are also of this make, have 6-ft. wheel base and 
33-in. wheels. 

April i, 1905.] 



The general dimensions of the car are as follows : Length 
over the end panels, 38 ft. 8 ins., and over the crown pieces, 48 
ft. 8 ins.; width over the sheathing, 8 ft. 4 ins.; distance from 
center to center of the posts, 2 ft. 8 ins. ; thickness of the cor- 
ner posts, 3^4 ins., and of the side posts, 3^ ins. ; size of the 
side sills, 4% ins. x 7;54 ins.," and of the end sills, 554 '"s. x 
7^ ins. The sill plates on the inside of the end sills, to which 
the bases of the posts are secured, are 13 ins. x % in. The 
height of the tread of the lower step from the rail head is 16 
ins.; from tread to tread of the steps, iij4 ins. 


A new automatic coupler for interurban, elevated and street 
cars is being prepared for the market by the Washburn Com- 
pany, of Minneapolis, a well-known manufacturer of M. C. B. 
couplers for steam railroads. The Washburn coupler for elec- 


street Rj-.J..iilTi:il 


trie roads is made on the same general lines as the automatic 
M. C. B. coupler, with the necessary modifications which a 
swiveling draw-bar makes necessary. It couples and uncouples 
the same as this company's regular automatic coupler. Fig. i 
shows cross sections through this coupler and with dimensions, 

while Fig. 2 gives the outlines. For those not familiar with the 
Washburn coupler used on steam roads, it may be well to ex- 
plain that on this coupler the pin, or lock as it is frequently 
called, is arranged so that by raising it half way the knuckle is 
released for uncoupling. The lock can be left in this position if 
desired. If the knuckle is closed and it is desired to throw it 
open to make a coupling, the pin or lock is raised to the full 
height. By doing this the knuckle is not only unlocked, but is 
thrown open ready to make a coupling, so that it is unneces- 
sary to throw the knuckle around by hand. Coming now to the 
essential differences between this coupler and the M. C. B. 
coupler for steam roads, it should be noted that the steam road 
coupler is open at top and bottom, but that the electric coupler 
has a top and bottom wall, and also a bearing face on one side 
of the coupler, besides a lug on the knuckle, which forms a 
bearing face on the other side of the coupler. Thus, when the 
coupling is made, the couplers present to each other faces with 
considerable bearing surface, and which make the rigid joint 
that is necessary with swivel draw-bars. As the coupler does 

street Ry.,I" 


not have to follow M. C. B. lines exactly, it has been possible 
to add considerable strength to the coupler head and knuckle. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show the two forms of draft rigging designed 
for use with this coupler. In one of these the draft box is 
bolted directly to the car body, and in the other the swivel is 

Scnle 1 in.= 1 foot 

___ 1 




placed behind the draft box, and the draft box turns with the 
draw-bar. With the latter device the buffing and jnilling is 
straight on the spring, while on the former, when a coupler is at 
an angle, the thrust does not come directly against the spring. 
As regards the action in buffing and pulling, both types are the 
same. One spring serves to cushion both the buffing and the 
pulling. This spring is enclosed in a circular draft box. The 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

spindle from the draw-bar passes througli a follower in the 
front end of the box and another follower in the rear of the 
box, and screws into a nut located in a recess in the rear of the 
box. The spindle is screwed in by turning the spindle, as the 
nut cannot turn. The nut cannot therefore work loose without 
turning the coupler head. The device is easily assembled, as 
the bottom of the draft box is left open. It is assembled by 
putting in the front follower, then the rear follower, then the 
spring; after which the spindle is passed through and screwed 
into the nut. This is, of course, a more compact and simpler 
arrangement than is sometimes used on street cars with draw- 
bars having front and rear springs, one for pulling and one for 


The interesting views reproduced herewith were taken at 
Port Elizabeth, South Africa, of cars of the convertible type 
built by the J. G. Brill Company. One of the cars is shown in 
front of the handsome Public Libary and the other at one of 
the entrances to the Public Gardens. The city is one of the 
finest on the South African Coast, and is situated on Algoa 


The development of high-tension trolley lines has created 
the need for a type of strain insulator that will satisfactorily 
meet the new and more difficult requirements. With this de- 
mand in mind, the Locke Insulator Manufacturing Company, 
of Victor, N. Y., has brought out its No. 601 strain insulator, 
illustrated, which is 6 ins. high and 5)4 ins. in diameter, de- 
signed for voltages up to 8000. The company has also devel- 



Bay, on the southern coast, about 425 miles east of Cape Town. 
There is a fine harbor with excellent wharfage, and steam lines 
connect the city with important towns in the interior. The 
climate is sub-tropical, with a considerable rainfall during the 
wet season. The main streets of the city parallel with the 
water front are level, and have many fine business and municipal 
buildings, while the streets which run at right angles climb a 
series of grades to the higher levels, where the residential dis- 
tricts are reached. A high mountain range parallels the coast 
a few miles distant and forms a background to the city, which 
never fails to excite admiration when first seen from the deck 
of vessels approaching the harbor. 

The railway company is controlled by the Cape Town Elec- 
tric Tramways, Ltd., and the rolling stock consists of cars of 
the type shown in the pictures. The first lot was supplied by 
the Brill Company more than a year ago, and the second lot 
was received recently. It speaks well for the cars that they 
are unaffected by the alternating heat of the summer and the 

oped a smaller design strain insulator for 
voltages of 5000 and under, and finds that it 
is very useful in the construction of spans 
for trolley suspension ; in fact, this latter type 
has proved to be valuable in more places 
than the manufacturer anticipated. 

In this connection it might be of interest 
to note that the Locke Insulator Manufactur- 
ing Company has developed a complete line 
of strain insulators for tensions up to 35,000 
volts, and is developing a new design which 
will be capable of withstanding voltages of 
60,000 or more. The company has experi- 
mented considerably with these designs in 
regard to their mechanical strength, and finds 
that the larger insulators can be relied upon 
to stand a break-down test of approximately 
12,000 lbs. with the insulator supported by a 
pin passing through the middle and the strain 
applied around the middle wire groove. In 
connection with these insulators, the manu- 
facturer has developed a method of using them whereby 
almost any strain up to several tons may be applied with en- 
tire safety. 

A special despatch from Chicago to hand as the Street 
Railway Journal went to press said that the Chicago City 
Council had granted the Chicago General Railway Company 
the right to use automobiles in place of street cars. 


moisture-laden atmosphere of the rainy season. Two sizes of 
the cars are used ; those on double trucks measure 25 ft. 9 ins. 
over the bodies, and those on single trucks, 23 ft. 2 ins. The 
trucks are of the builder's "Eureka" maximum traction and 
No. 21-E. types, and the cars are furnished with seats, gates, 
sand boxes, bells, draw-irons, buffers and other specialties of 
the same manufacture. Both sizes of cars are arranged with 
seats for three passengers each at the corners, thereby giving 

April i, 1905.] 



ample aisle space near the door to prevent crowding. The seat- 
ing capacity of the shorter cars is thirty-two, and the longer 
cars thirty-six. Seats are provided for four additional passen- 
gers on the platforms, these seats being arranged to fold against 
the end panels. The platforms of the shorter cars are 4 ft. 
long, and the double-truck cars "have 4-ft. 3-in. platforms. The 
interiors are finished in dull cherry, with bird's-eye maple ceil- 
ings. The seats are upholstered in spring cane, and have backs 
of the step-over type so arranged that the 0]3erating levers at 
the aisle end do not come in contact with the bodies of seated 



The interesting rail-grinding and drilling machine illus- 
trated herewith has been adopted by the London County Coun- 
cil for the track maintenance of the tramways under its con- 
trol. This device, which is made by the Railway & Engineering 


Company, of Nottingham, England, is a gasoline-propelled, 
self-contained machine designed for grinding out the inequali- 
ties of tramway rails upon the site. It is also constructed for 
drilling holes in the rails in any position and for milling out 
the center slot in a conduit system when the same has become 
contracted by outside pressure. 

The frame is strongly braced, riveted together and mounted 
upon two pairs of wheels and mild steel axles secured to the 
frame by a cast-iron bearing bushed with gun metal. The 
petrol engine develops 12 hp at a normal speed of 1000 r. p. m., 
and is fitted with Sinmis-Bosch magneto electric ignition, a 
silencer, a circulating water tank with a circulating pump, and 
a gasoline tank. 

The gear casing which contains the gearing and the clutches 
is connected with the change-speed casing containing the gear 
to give two speeds of 4 m.p.h. and 6 m.p.h., respectively, in 
either direction. The change-speed gear and reversing clutches 
are operated by handles conveniently situated to suit the oper- 
ator's seat. The seat is arranged so that the driver may face 
the direction in which he wishes the machine to travel. 

The brake gear is arranged so that the cast-iron brake blocks 
may be held upon each ]iair of wheels at the same time that the 
brake is applied. This allows ample provision for control when 
traveling on severe grades. The grinding wheels are 10 ins. 
in diameter, made of carborundum or other similar material, 
and are of three widths, viz. : 2-in. wide for grinding face of 
rail, i-in. wide for grinding tip, and ^-in. or thereabouts to suit 
the groove of the rail. They are completely covered with a 
casing to prevent dust and water fiying while grinding. 

The wheels are mounted upon a spindle, carried by adjustable 
bearing, and connected by telescopic shafts and universal joints 
to the gear casing. The telescopic shafts and universal joints 
allow for the vertical movement of the slide and the transverse 
movement of the bearing, so as to permit each of the grinding 
wheels to be accurately adjusted to their work and allowing the 
o])eration of grinding to be performed on both rails at the same 

The longitudinal slide or saddle is arranged for carrying the 
vertical and transverse slides in a direction parallel with the 
rail, and which allows the grinding wheels to take a 2-ft. cut 
at one operation. The saddle is secured to the frame by vees, 
and is operated from either side of the carriage by hand wheels. 

The power for grinding is obtained from the gear in the gear 
casing, transmitted through the clutch to the shaft, and through 
gear wheels contained in a second casing to the gear in the 
bottom casing, and thence to the grinding wheels. The gear 
in the second casing, which is in the middle of the truck, is pro- 
vided with a clutch to disconnect the grinding gear when drill- 
ing or milling is required to be done. 

At the opposite end of the carriage to the 
gasoline motor is fitted a reducing gear casing 
containing an arrangement of geariilg, and on 
the top of which is fitted a swivel headstock 
to enable the flexible shaft to assume the posi- 
tion best suited for it to work with the least 
resistance when using the same for drilling 
and ruilling. The flexil)le shaft is provided 
with universal couplings at both ends. The 
universal coupling on the swivel headstock is 
protected by a semi-spherical bell of cast iron, 
and the outside casing of the flexible shaft is 
protected from mechanical damage by being- 
enclosed in an armored flexible tube. 

The automatic track drill is supplied with 
two twist drills % in. and i in. in diameter. 
The drill is operated by the flexible shaft 
through an instantaneous clutch arrangement, 
wdiich enables the operator to stop the drill 
without stopping the flexible shaft. The mill- 
ing cutter for opening out the center slot is mounted upon a 
compound slide to allow the cutter to be adjusted to its work. 
The power is applied by the same flexil)le shaft that is used 
for drillinsf. 


An extended paper on the status of electric traction for trunk 
line service in Great Britain, Ireland and Belgium is to be 
presented at the Washington meeting of the International Rail- 
way Association next May, by Ernest Gerard, inspector-gen- 
eral of the department of railways tests and telegraphs of Bel- 
gium. The paper contains some interesting statistics as to the 
increase in traffic on the Liverpool & Southport division of the 
Lancashire & Yorkshire Railroad. This section, which has 
23 miles of double track, was put in operation March 12, 1904, 
and while no higher speed is made by the express trains with 
electricity than with steam, the local trains cover the distance 
in thirty-seven minutes instead of in fifty-four. In addition, 
there are express trains in each direction every hour instead of 
four or five a day. There are also electric suburban trains 
every ten or twenty minutes. The total numlier of trains has 
been increased from 74 to 119. 

On the Mersey Railway the introduction of electric traction 
resulted in an increase of passengers from 2,884,770 in the 
second half of T902 to 4,153,800 in the corresponding half 
of T903. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 


It will be remembered that at the St. Louis convention of the 
American Street Railway Association, the president of the asso- 
ciation was empowered to appoint a committee of nine gentle- 
men to compose a special committee of the association to be 
known as "The Membership Committee." The number of 
members in the association at the time of the last convention 
was only 196, a very small proportion of the total railway com- 
panies in the country, and it was believed that if the advan- 
tages of belonging to the association could be pointed out to 
those companies who are not now members of it, a considerable 
increase could be secured. Mr. Ely has now announced the 
membership committee, which is as follows : H. H. Vreeland, 
president, New York City Railway Company ; C. S. Sergeant, 
vice-president, Boston Elevated Railway Company ; James F. 
Shaw, president, Boston & Worcester Electric Railway Com- 
pany; William A. House, general manager. United Railways & 
Electric Company, of Baltimore, Md. ; H. J. McGowan, presi- 
dent, Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company; W. Caryl 
Ely, president of the American Street Railway Association; 
James H. McGraw, Street Railway Journal, New York ; 
Daniel Royse, "Street Railway Review," Chicago; John J. 
Lane, secretary, New England Street Railway Club, Boston. 


As a result of its long experience in designing and construct- 
ing single-phase and polyphase transformers, the Brush Elec- 
trical Engineering Company, of London, has incorporated in 
them a number of charactertistic features, among which are 
the methods of interspacing and insulating the coils, and the 
means for the prompt replacement of injured coils. 

The primary and secondary coils are each wound inde- 


pendently on formers. The secondary winding is placed next 
to the core and the primary on the outside of the secondary. 
The insulation between secondary and iron, and between pri- 
mary and secondary, consists of special tubes. The primary 
winding is divided into several coils, each of which is separately 
taped with oiled linen. The insulation between layers consists 

of the finest paper, which projects beyond the end of each 
layer, thus insuring immunity from break-down through short- 
circuit between layers. Over the iron core is slipped a tube of 
insulation on which the secondary coil is directly wound. Over 
the secondary coil is then slipped another tube of insulation, 
and over this are slipped the primary coils, which are then 
connected up as desired. If spare coils and insulation tubes are 
kept in stock, a 
transformer can p~ 
readily be re- 
paired in an hour 
or two, and im- 
mediately placed 
in service. The 
cost of repairing 
the transformer 
is a very small 
item, only that 
part of the wind- 
ing that is actu- 
ally injured being 
replaced, whereas 
when transform- 
ers of numerous 
other designs are 
injured they must 
be returned to the 
factory and be 

completely rewound. The transformers are provided with a 
cast-iron case having radiating flanges for assisting in keeping 
the oil cool. The case is perfectly oil-tight, and is provided 
with a screw plug for emptying the oil when required. The 
core is built up of iron stampings .014 in. thick, carefully var- 
nished to insure individual insulation, and thereby to reduce 
eddy currents. The iron is selected with especial reference to 
its low hysteretic constant and non-ageing quality. The end 
supports of the core serve both for holding the laminations in 
place and for protecting the coils. 



The Dayton & Troy Electric Railway Company recently 
mailed a letter to each of its farmer patrons along the line be- 
tween Dayton and Tippecanoe City asking his opinion of a 
special market service which the company proposes to install. 
Hundreds of farmers in the district drive into the city on mar- 
ket days. The company proposes to run a special train on these 
days to be known as the "Marketmen's Special." It is planned 
to have the train arrive in Dayton before the opening of market 
and return after market closes. The company offers low rates 
for hauling market produce, and free storage room will be fur- 
nished at the company's freight station for market stands when 
not in use. Large hampers with lids and locks will be furnished 
for use in bringing stock to market. These will be transported 
free when accompanied by a passenger holding the marketmen's 
ticket. In winter, danger of freezing will be eliminated by 
heating the car. Whether or not this service will be installed 
depends upon the attitude of the patrons whom it is intended to 
serve. Meetings will be held at two or three points along the 
line when the proposition will be formally put to them. 

On April i the Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway Company 
will inaugurate an express and parcel delivery service between 
Syracuse and the villages of East Syracuse, Liverpool, Onon- 
daga Valley and Solvay. Express cars for the service have 
been built in the* company's own shops. Edward F. DeGraw, 
formerly with the American Express Company, has been made 
traffic manager for the freight department of the system. 

April i, 1905.] 





In the Dec. 5, 1903, issue of this paper the writer discussed 
the question of the hability for injuries sustained in boarding- 
moving cars. A somewhat related question is that of the liabil- 
ity of a street car company for injuries to persons in the street 
who intend to become passengers, but have not actually at- 
tempted to enter the car. A recent decision by the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts (Duchemin vs. Boston Ele- 
vated Ry. Co., 71 N. E., 780) treats with great ability the ques- 
tion. Who are passengers? It is held, very soundly we 
think, that the technical relation of carrier and passenger does 
not commence until a person has touched the step, or the hand 
rail, or some other part of the car, with the purpose of board- 
ing it. The Massachusetts court shows that the relation of 
passenger cannot exist piecemeal. The railway company is not 
bound to protect a departed or intending passenger from as- 
saults of passersby in streets. There must be some time fixed 
for the inception of the relation in all its aspects and with all 
its consequences, and the moment when the intending passen- 
ger first takes hold of the car would seem to be the proper point 
at which to draw the line. 

Nevertheless, the abstract distinction between a passen- 
ger and a non-passenger may not be as practically im- 
portant as at first blush it would appear. In the Massa- 
chusetts case the declaration alleged that as the car ap- 
proached plaintiff he went toward it for the purpose of enter- 
ing it, having given the motorman notice of his pvu'pose so to 
become a passenger, and that as he was about to get on the 
car the trolley pole fell, striking a sign upon the car, and the 
pole and sign struck the plaintiff, he being in the exercise of 
due care and the defendant negligent. The trial court had in- 
structed the jury that the plaintiff was entitled to rely upon 
the technical status of a passenger and therefore the company 
owed him the obligation of extraordinary care of a common 
carrier. Conceding that this instruction was erroneous, and 
that a reversal of the judgment in favor of plaintiff was there- 
fore correct on this ground, the fact still remains that a street 
railway company owes reasonable care to any pedestrian in the 
street, and, further, that the practical situation of the plaintiff 
was necessarily different from that of an ordinary pedestrian. 
Although he was not technically a passenger, he unquestion- 
ably had the right, as an intending passenger, to approach so 
near the car that he was liable to be injured by the falling- 
trolley pole. This consideration would bear very cogently, 
perhaps conclusively, upon the issue of his freedom from con- 
tributory negligence. The fall of a sign and trolley pole upon 
a person rightfully standing within their reach might result 
from neglect of reasonable and ordinary care, and be action- 
able, even at the suit of one who was not a passenger. 

Nor would any distinction exist between a passenger and a 
non-passenger on the score of burden of proof. On Dec. 13, 
1902, the doctrine res ipsa loquitur was discussed in this place. 
That rule, as will be remembered, is that, under certain cir- 
cumstances, the mere happening of an event itself raises the 
presumption of negligence, so that the burden is not on the 
plaintiff to prove, but on the defendant to disprove, negligence. 
This doctrine has been quite extensively administered in cases 
of accidents on steam and street railways, where the casualty 
occurred through derailment, or defects of machinery, as the 
facts are difficult of ascertainment by the plaintiff, but are, or 
should be, within the special knowledge of the defendant. It 
is probably that in many jurisdictions it would be held that 
where a person intending to become a passenger is injured by 
such a casualty as the fall of a trolley pole, a presumptive case 
of lack of ordinary care is made out, and the burden is cast 
upon the defendant of affirmatively proving due crre. A re- 
cent well considered decision in the Supreme Court of Ne- 

* Conducted by Wilbur Larremore, of the New York Bar, 32 Nassau Street, 
New York, to whom all correspondence concerning this department should be 

braska (Lincoln Traction Co. vs. Webb, 102 N. W., 258) tends 
strongly in favor of such view. It holds, as do all well consid- 
ered authorities, that the rule res ipsa loquitur may not be re- 
sorted to in cases of accident, when the condition of the ma- 
chinery remains normal, and there is merely a dispute of fact 
whether the plaintiff fell from the car at a standstill or the car 
was negligently started before he had fair opportunity to 
alight. The Nebraska decision does, however, in harmony with 
the Federal courts and many State courts, squarely hold that 
the presumption of negligence, if it is to be indulged so as to 
shift the burden of proof from the plaintiff to the defendant, 
must originate "from the nature of the act, not from the nature 
of the relation between the parties." In such view the tech- 
nical question whether the plaintiff was or was not a passen- 
ger would be immaterial. In Griffin vs. Manice (166 N. Y., 
188) it was held by the New York Court of Appeals, in a case 
of injury to a person through the fall of a passenger elevator 
in an office building, that the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur would 
apply, although the court expressly refused to class the pro- 
prietor of the elevator as a common carrier, and as such, re- 
sponsible for extraordinary care^ ^ 

ALABAMA. — Street Railways — Carriers — Passengers — Creation 
of Relation — Riding on Platform — Contributory Negligence — 
Admissibility of Evidence — Comparative Negligence. 

1. In an action against a street railway company for injuries sus- 
tained by a passenger owing to cars becoming uncoupled because 
of defective couplings, it appearing that the couplings used were 
the same as those used at a time when a witness was employed by 
defendant, it was proper to permit him to be asked how often in 
his experience couplings had become uncoupled or broken loose. 

2. Where a train of street railway cars was so crowded inside 
tlie cars as not to admit of others entering, but it continued to stop 
at each stopping place, and others were allowed to get on, a per- 
son who got on the car and stood outside the vestibule was a pas- 
senger, though he had not been seen by the conductor, and though 
his fare had not been collected. 

3. The fact that a passenger on a street car assumes a dangerous 
position does not alter his character as a passenger, or alter the 
degree of care that the carrier owes to him. 

4. Where a passenger on a street car, which was so crowded that 
he could not enter the car proper, stood on a projection outside of 
the vestibule, and was injured owing to a car in the rear of that 
on which he was being carried riding up onto the rear of such car 
owing to the breaking- of a defective coupling, the question whether 
plaintiff was guilty of contributory negligence which proximately 
contributed to his injury was one for the jury. 

5. The question of the carrier's negligence in failing to provide a 
safer coupling was one for the jury. 

6. The doctrine of comparative negligence does not obtain in 

7. In an action for injuries, any want of care, however slight, 
on the part of the injured person, contributing proximately to 
cause of injury, defeats his recovery. — (Birmingham Ry., Light & 
Power Co. vs. Bynum, 36 S. Rep., 736.) 

ARKANSAS. — Street Railroads— Collision with Team — Negli- 
gence — Reciprocal Duties — Presumption — Imputed Negligence 
— Burden of Proof — Res Gestje — Instructions. 

I. Instructions leaving it to jury to determine the facts, and de- 
claring that certain facts, if found, constitute actionable negli- 
gence, are proper, such facts being such that in reason and fairness 
there can be no difference of opinion as to the conclusion to be 
drawn from them. 

;■■ The duty of using ordinary care to prevent the collision in a 
street of a team and street car is reciprocal. 

3. In case of collision between a team and street car, the test 
of negligence in the rate of speed, sounding of gong or bell, look- 
out to be kept, etc., in the absence of statutory regulations, is 
whether that was done which a reasonably prudent man should 
do imder the circumstances.' 

4. It is not negligence per se to drive a team along a street rail- 
way track ; but the person so doing should keep a lookout, though 
not required, as matter of law, to keep a constant lookout to the 

5. In case of collision between a street car and team there is no 
presumption as to whether it was caused by the negligence of the 
driver of the one or the other. 

6. Failure to sound the gong or bell of a street car is not negli- 
gence as to one struck thereby, who had actual knowledge of the 
car's approach. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

7. The contributory negligence of the driver of a private team 
struck by a street car is not attributable to one riding as his guest 
or companion, he having no authority or control over the person 
with whom he is riding. 

8. The burden as to proof of contributory negligence is on de- 
fendant, unless it is shown by plaintiff's evidence. 

9. In an action for collision between a team and street car, there 
being a question of fact whether the motorman knew, or by the 
exercise of ordinary care might have known, that the wagon was 
in a dangerous position, instructions as to the duty of the motor- 
man in stopping, or checking the speed of the car, and ringing the 
gong, are erroneous in making the fact of the proximity of the 
wagon to the railroad track, and not the knowledge of the fact by 
the motorman, the criterion of his negligence. 

10. Statements of a witness made several minutes after a street 
car collision, and after the car had left, are not admissible as part 
of the res gestae, but merely to contradict the witness. 

11. There is no negligence on the part of the motorman of a 
street car, where, while the wagon with which the car collides 
occupies a position enabling the car to pass it, the motorman on the 
car approaching from the rear rings the gong, and those on the 
wagon can hear the warning by the exercise of ordinary care and 
attention, and after this the wagon is driven suddenly in front 
of the car, and so close to it to make it impossible to stop the car 
liy the exercise of ordinary care and reasonable effort. 

12. Each party is entitled to an instruction announcing the law 
applicable to the evidence as introduced in his behalf. — (Hot 
Springs St. Ry. Co. vs. Hildredth ; 82 S. W. Rep., 245.) 
CONNECTICUT. — Carriers — Injuries to Passengers — Alighting 

from Car — Negligence — Contributory Negligence — Practice — 
Default — Burden of Proof. 

1. In an action for personal injuries, the admissions by defendant 
of the averments of the complaint, by suffering a default, imposes 
upon defendant the burden of either disproving its alleged negli- 
gence, or of proving contributory negligence on the part of plaintiff. 

2. One who alighted from an electric car, after the announce- 
ment of the conductor that the terminus of the road had been 
reached under the belief that the car had stopped, and while its 
motion was practically imperceptible, was not guilty of contributory 
negligence, in fact or in law. 

3. It is the duty of a company operating an electric railroad to 
afford passengers a reasonably safe opportunity to alight from the 

4. Whether the acts and conduct of the conductor of an electric 
car in calling out the name of the station, and leaving the platform 
and putting up the fender, amounted to an invitation to a passenger 
to leave the car, was a question of fact. 

5. In an action against an electric railroad for injuries to an 
alighting passenger, evidence held sufficient to support a finding of 
negligence of the conductor, in calling the name of the station, and 
otherwise indicating that it was time for passengers to alight, and 
that plaintiff was justified in believing that it was intended that 
she should alight. — (El wood vs. Connecticut Ry. & Lighting Com- 
pany, 58 Atlantic Rep., 751.) 

CONNECTICUT.— Street Railroads— Injury to Child on Track 
• — Contributory Negligence — Degree of Care Toward Infants 
— Findings — Review. 

1. A child about eight years of age may be guilty of contributory 
negligence precluding a recovery for injuries received. 

2. Where, in an action against a street railway company for 
running over a child about eight years old, defendant proved that 
the child was guilty of contributory negligence in running in front 
of an approaching car, plaintiff, in the absence of proof that the 
injury was wantonly inflicted, could not recover substantial dam- 

3. The defense of contributory negligence on the part of a child 
about eight years of age is not established by proof that the child 
failed to act with the prudence required of an adult under the 
circumstances, but it must be shown that he failed to exercise the 
care reasonably to be expected of children of similar age and ex- 
perience under the circumstances. 

4. Findings on questions of fact are not reviewable on appeal. 

5. The same degree of care is required toward infants as toward 
adults, but the conduct which comes up to that degree of care when 
exercised toward adults may fall short of it when exercised to- 
ward infants under the same circumstances. — (Rohloff vs. Fair 
Haven & W. R. Company, £8 Atlantic Rep., 5.) 
DELAWARE. — Street Railways — Collision with Team — Duty in 

Approaching Crossing. 
The motorman of a street car, and likewise the driver of a 
team, in approaching a crossing, must, where the line of vision is 
obstructed, use increased care and caution in proportion to such 
conditions. — (Dungan vs. Wilmington Citv Ry. Company, 58 At- 
lantic Rep., 868.) 

GEORGIA.— Non-Suit— Street Railroads— New Trial— Instruc- 
tions — Injury to Traveler — Presumptions. 

1. While the allegations of the petition as to negligence were 
somewhat vague and indefinite, the defendant did not demur, and 
the evidence for the plaintiff made out her case as laid sufficiently 
to withstand a motion for a non-suit. 

2. Grounds of a motion for a new trial complaining of the refusal 
of the court to charge stated contentions of the complaining party, 
but which do not show that any written requests to charge were 
submitted to the trial judge, will not work the grant of a new trial 
unless the instructions referred to were demanded. 

3. The charge of the court, instructing the jury to determine 
whether the motorman of the defendant's car saw the frightened 
condition of the horse which was alleged to have run into the plain- 
tiff's buggy, and failed to stop or check the car, while not aptly 
worded, is not of itself ground for a new trial. 

4. There is no merit in a ground of a motion for a new trial com- 
plaining that the court, in giving a legal and pertinent charge, failed 
to charge in connection therewith a contention of the complaining 
party which was also applicable to the case on trial. 

5. The plaintiff's buggy was run into by a frightened horse draw- 
ing another buggy, and she was injured. A car of the defendant 
was passing at the time. She did not allege in her petition that the 
fright of the horse was originally caused by any act of the de- 
fendant, or that the car was running too fast or with any unusual or 
unlawful noise, but merely that, after seeing the frightened condi- 
tion of the horse, the motorman failed to stop his car, thereby 
aggravating the fright of the horse and causing him to run away. 
Held, no presumption of negligence arose against the defendant up- 
on proof of the injury, but it was incumbent upon the plaintiff to 
prove negligence as alleged. It was therefore error to give in 
charge to the jury the provisions of Civ. Code 1895, Sec. 2321. — 
(Atlanta Ry. & Power Co. vs. Johnson, 48 S. E. Rep., 389.) 
GEORGIA. — Street Railroads — Injury to Passengers — Evidence. 

I. The estimates of the witnesses as to the rate of speed varied. 
Some placed it at 6 miles an hour, which was lawful ; others, ar 
more than 15 miles an hour, which was in excess of that alleged to 
1)6 allowed by ordinance. There was no contradiction of the testi- 
mony that the plaintiff and two other passengers were jerked and 
hurled from their seats while the car was rounding a sharp curve. 
The physical facts were of more evidentiary value than the opinions 
of non-experts. Under the circumstances, estimates that the speed 
was not improper were insufficient to overcome the presumption 
arising from the fact of the injury, and the verdict for the de- 
fendant was contrary to law. — (McEwen vs. Atlantic Ry. & Power 
Company, 48 S. E. Rep., 391.) 

GEORGIA. — Comparative Negligence — Pleadings as Evidence — 

1. Under the evidence the jury might fairly infer that the de- 
fendant was negligent in running its cars. If the plaintiff and the 
defendant were both negligent, the former can recover, unless his 
negligence was equal to or greater than the negligence of the de- 
fendant, or unless he could, by the exercise of ordinary care, have 
avoided the consequences of the defendant's negligence. The 
latter question is, under the plaintiff's evidence, unexplained, a 
close one, and should have been submitted to the jury. 

2. Where the plaintiff introduces in evidence a paragraph of the 
defendant's answer, part of which is in his favor and part against 
him, the plaintiff is not estopped to rebut the parts which are 
against him, nor is the jury bound to take them as true. In such 
case the jury may, for sufficient reasons, believe a part of the ad- 
missions and disbelieve the other part ; this being a question 
purely for the jury. 

3. It was error to grant a non-suit. — (Christian vs. Macon Ry. 
& Light Company, 47 S. E. Rep., 924.) 

ILLINOIS. — Street Railways — Crossing Accident — Negligence — 
Contributory Negligence — Question for Jury — Instructions — 
Excessive Damages — Remittitur. 

1. In an action against a street railway company for injuries 
sustained by plaintiff because of a collision between a car and the 
wagon which he was driving, the question of defendant's negli- 
gence held one for the jury. 

2. In an action against a street railway company for injuries 
sustained by plaintiff owing to a collision between a wagon which 
he was driving and a car, the question of plaintiff's contributory 
negligence held one for the jury. 

3. The determination of the Appellate Court on questions of fact 
is conclusive on the Supreme Court. 

4. In an action against a street railway company for injuries 
sustained by plaintiff owing to a collision between a wagon which 
he was driving and a car, the court instructed that in determining 
the amount of plaintiff's damages the jury had the right to take 
into consideration "all the facts and circumstances in evidence," 
the nature and extent of his injuries, etc. Held, that the instruc- 

April i, 1905.] 



tion was not erroneous, because it told the jury that they might 
take into consideration all the facts and circumstances. 

5. An appellant cannot complain of conduct of counsel in mak- 
ing remarks to the jury, where the attention of the trial court was 
not called to the remarks by a specific obtection, and an exception 

6. Remittiturs are allowable in actions ex delicto in the trial 
court to such sum as would seem not excessive damages. 

7. Remittiturs are allowable in actions ex delicto in the Appellate 
Courts to such sum as would seem not excessive damages. — (Chi- 
cago City Ry. Company vs. Gemmill, 71 N. E. Rep., 43.) 

ILLINOIS.— Carriers— Street Railroads— Injuries to Passengers 
—Time to Alight — Actions— Evidence— Non-Experts — Speed 
—Bodily Condition — Hypothetical Questions — Statements to 
Physicians — Rebuttal — Offers of Compromise — Instructions — 
Requests — Intermediate Appeal — Questions of Fact — Review 
by Supreme Court. 

1. A judgment for plaintiff, affirmed by the Appellate Court, 
cannot be reversed on a further appeal to the Supreme Court as 
against the weight of the evidence, there being some competent 
evidence in the record fairly tending to prove plaintiff's case. 

2. Where, in an action for injuries to a passenger on a street 
car, defendant introduced evidence that on an occasion after the 
accident, in the presence of plaintiff and two other women, plain- 
tiff's husband stated that the accident was due to plaintiff's fault, 
to which plaintiff did not reply, and plaintiff in rebuttal was asked 
whether she ever had such a conversation in the presence of such 
women, and answered, "No, sir; I remember two women," and on 
being asked what took place stated that such women told her they 
came to settle with her for $200, and that she could get more than 
that amount, but it would take four or five years before her case 
came up, plaintiff's testimony was not objectionable as referring 
to a different conversation from that testified to by defendant's 

3. Evidence of such conversation having been first offered by 
defendant, plaintiff was entitled to prove the balance, though it 
tended to show an offer of compromise. 

4. Where a question asked of a witness was not answered, and 
no objection was interposed to the asking of the question, and no 
exception was noted to any ruling thereon, the asking of such 
question and the remarks of the court with reference thereto were 
not reviewable on appeal. 

5. In an action for injuries to a passenger of a street car while 
she was attempting to alight, evidence that she asked the con- 
ductor to let her off at the place where she started to alight, and 
that he promised to do so, was admissible. 

6. In an action for injuries to a passenger a non-expert witness 
may testify as to the speed with which the car was started. 

7. Non-expert witnesses cannot testify that plaintiff, after the 
injury complained of, was in a nervous physical condition. 

8. In an action for injuries to a passenger, statement made by 
her to physicians during actual treatment and in immediate con- 
nection therewith, though made after the commencement of suit 
to recover for such injuries, are admissible. 

9. In asking hypothetical questions of a medical expert counsel 
may assume, within the limits of the testimony, any state of facts 
claimed to be justified by the evidence, and have the opinion of 
the expert on the facts so assumed, and, if all the relevant facts 
are not included, questions including them may be propounded on 

10. In an action for injuries to a passenger while attempting to 
alight from a street car, admission of evidence of plaintiff's hus- 
band that plaintiff made complaint after walking a considerable 
distance, without stating what the complaint was, or being allowed 
to give his opinion as to the nature thereof, was not reversible 

11. In an action for injuries to a passenger, an instruction as to 
the degree of care required of a carrier of passengers was not 
error for failure to state the care required of the passenger, which 
was sufficiently set forth in other instructions. 

12. An instruction that the preponderance of the evidence "is 
not alone to be determined by the number of witnesses" testifying 
to a particular state of facts, and naming several of the elements 
which the jury should consider in determining where the pre- 
ponderance lay, was not objectionable on the ground that it omitted 
the element of the number of witnesses testifying to any particular 
fact or state of facts. 

13. In an action for injuries an instruction that while, as a mat- 
ter of law, the burden of proof is on the plaintiff to prove her case 
by a preponderance of the evidence, yet if the jury find that the 
evidence preponderates in her favor, though but slightly, it will 
be sufficient for them to find the issues in her favor, was proper. 

14. An instruction defining reasonable care to be such care as 
persons of ordinary prudence and intelligence would ordinarily 

exercise for their own safety was not prejudicial to defendant m 
including the element of "intelligence" as well as "prudence." 

15. An instruction that if the jury believe from the evidence 
that any witness had willfully sworn falsely to any material ele- 
ment of the case, or had knowingly exaggerated any fact or cir- 
cumstances material to the issues for the purpose of deceiving, 
misleading, or imposing on the jury, "either as to the origm of 
plamtiff's alleged ailments, so far as, from all the evidence, you 
believe they existed, or as to the nature and extent of the alleged 
injury, or as to the manner of the alleged accident in question," 
the jury may reject the entire testimony of such witness, except 
so far as he is corroborated by other evidence, etc., was properly 
modified by striking out the part quoted. 

16. Requested instructions, not based on any evidence m the 
record, are properly refused. 

17. It is not error to refuse requested instructions substantially 
covered by other instructions given.— (Chicago City Ry. Company 
vs. Bundy, 71 N. E. Rep., 28.) 

INDIANA.— Street Railways— Injuries to Pedestrian— Minors- 
Contributory Negligence— Trial— Instructions— Weight of 
Evidence— Assumption of Facts— Cars— Equipment— Brakes- 
Modern Pattern. 

1. An instruction that the preponderance of evidence is not nec- 
essarily on the side of a fact on which the greater number of wit- 
nesses have testified, or on which the greater amount of evidence 
is produced, but is with that evidence which convinces the jury 
most strongly of its truthfulness ; that "preponderance of evidence" 
means the weight of evidence ; that the evidence given on any fact 
which convinces most strongly of its truthfulness is of the greater 
weight, irrespective of the number of witnesses or the amount of 
evidence on the other side— was not objectionable as invading the 
province of the jury. 

2. In an action for personal injuries to an infant, an instruction 
that it was the duty of a street railway company to run its cars 
with due regard to the rights of infirm, aged persons, and children 
of tender years ; that these persons have the right to use the streets, 
and the company is liable if it does not use ordinary care, in pro- 
portion to the danger, to prevent injury to the various classes- 
was correct. 

3. In an action for personal injuries to an infant, an instruction 
that a child under three years of age could not be guilty of con- 
tributory negligence, and that it was the duty of all persons, in 
the operation of machinery, etc., to take this rule of law into con- 
sideration, and that defendant, in the operation of its street cars, 
could not avoid its liability by showing that the action of the child 
contributed to the injury, if he was under three years of age, was 
not erroneous because not containing any supposed state of facts 
establishing liability. 

4. The instruction correctly stated the law. 

5. An instruction that the jury must decide the case on the evi- 
dence and in accordance with its preponderance, while objection- 
able for the use of "its," could not be presumed to mislead the 
jury or harm the appellant. 

6. An instruction complained of stated that it might be presumed 
that a person on the street railway track on which a car was ap- 
proaching would leave the track before the car reached him, and 
that one approaching a track will not attempt, to cross it unless 
he has sufficient time, but that such presumption did not apply to 
a child not three years old, and, as to such child, the person con- 
trolling the car must make sure that the child will be free of the 
track before the car reaches him. The next instruction stated that, 
where persons were using or crossing the street railway tracks, the 
motorman must keep his car so under control that he might stop 
it quickly in case of sudden danger, and that this was particularly 
true as to children of tender years. Held, that the instruction 
complained of did not make the street car company liable in case 
of unavoidable accident. 

7. An instruction that a street car company should not use obso- 
lete cars, that are difficult to control, or without good equipment 
to stop, and if by such use an injury is inflicted, when a more 
modern or complete car, such as is generally used, would not have 
caused the injury, the company is guilty of neglect, but that this 
rule does not require the company to use the most recent pattern 
or kind of car and brake manufactured, but to use such a pattern 
or kind as is in general use in cities or towns of the size where it 
is used, was correct. 

8. In an action for injuries to a child, an instruction that the 
fact that the wife of the plaintiff may have been guilty of negli- 
gence, in not preventing the child from going on or into the street, 
would not prevent the plaintiff recovering, if the motorman, "after 
he became aware of the danger of the child," could have avoided 
injuring him by the use of such care as the dangerous position of 
the child and its age required him, under the circumstances, to 
exercise, was not objectionable as discrediting the defendant's 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

theory that the child was on the track, immediately in front of the 

9. There was no such assumption of any fact in the instruction 
as would mislead the jury. 

10. There was no error in refusing an instruction completely 
covered by an instruction given. — (Indianapolis St. Ry. Company 
vs. Schomberg. (No. 4895.) 71 N. E. Rep., 238.) 

INDIANA. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger — Complaint — Suffi- 
ciency — Proximate Cause — Servants — Scope of Employment — 
Instructions — Burden of Proof— Preponderance of the Evi- 
dence — Res Ipsa Loquitur. 

1. In an action against a street railway company for injuries to a 
passenger, the , complaint alleged that defendant negligently rati its 
car at a dangerously high rate of speed into a switch, off the track, 
and against a pole, throwing plaintiff to the floor and against a 
stove, injuring him. Held to sufficiently allege that defendant's 
negligence was the proximate cause of the injury. 

2. An, averment, in a complaint against a street railway com- 
pany for injuries to a passenger, that the defendant, through and 
by its servants in charge of the car, negligently ran the car, etc., 
sufficiently alleged that the servant in charge of the car was acting 
in the scope of his employment. 

3. In an action for personal injuries, a statement in an instruc- 
tion that the rule that plaintiff could not recover for any aggrava- 
tion of his injuries caused by his own neglect did not depend in any 
way on plaintiff's financial condition, or his desire to earn money, 
was improper, even though plaintiff had testified that he "was not 
a millionaire." 

4. A street railway company is not free from liability for an ac- 
cident to a car, caused by a stone on the track, unless it exercised 
the requisite care in running its car and avoiding the danger caused 
by the presence of the stone. 

5. A presumption of negligence on the part of the carrier arises 
from an injury to a passenger. 

6. If the evidence on any question is evenly balanced, the de- 
cision of the jury on that question must be against the party hav- 
ing the burden of proof. 

7. An instruction that, if all other things were exactly equal in 
all respects, the witnesses of equal intelligence and credibility, 
having equal opportunities of knowledge, testifying with equal 
candor, intelligence, and fairness, the weight of the evidence would 
be considered to be on the side having the greatest number of wit- 
nesses, even if erroneous, was harmless, where no such situation 
existed in the case. 

8. In an action against a street railroad company for injuries 
to a passenger alleged to have resulted from excessive speed of the 
car, and in which there was testimony as to its speed, refusal to 
strike from plaintiff's testimony the expression, "They were going 
so fast," was harmless. 

9. In an action for personal injuries, testimony that the in- 
jury would be aggravated by riding on a locomotive, did not harm 

10. In an action for personal injuries it was competent to prove 
expressions of pain and suffering or indication of such condition 
by groans or cries, and that plaintiff after the injury "complained 
of his side." 

11. Admission of such evidence, even if erroneous, would not 
justify a reversal. — (Indianapolis St. Ry. Company vs. Schmidt. 
vNo. 20,524.) 71 N. W. Rep., 201.) 

, KENTUCKY.— Street Railroads— Bicycles— Contributory Negli- 
gence — Instructions. 
Plaintiff, who was riding a bicycle alongside defendant's street 
car track, was injured by falling against the side of a passing car, 
which approached him from the rear. Plaintiff was not on the 
track at any time, and as the car approached was not in danger, 
so long as he continued his course ; and the motorman testified 
that as he approached he sounded the gong, and that plaintiff 
appeared to draw further away from the side of the track, and that 
the front end of the car passed him in safety. Held, that plaintiff's 
danger was not an obvious one, and hence an instruction that, if 
the motorman saw plaintiff's peril in time to have avoided injur- 
ing him, but failed to do so, defendant was liable, not withstand- 
ing plaintiff's contributory negligence, was properly refused. — 
(Shaw vs. Louisville Ry. Company, 81 S. W. Rep., 268.) 
KENTUCKY.- — Carriers — Street Railway — Injury to Passenger — 
Starting Car — Passenger Alighting — Instructions — Evidence- — 

1. In an action against a street railway company for injuries to 
a passenger, evidence held sufficient to show that plaintiff was in 
the act of alighting from the car when it started. 

2. Where a passenger on a street car was injured by the sudden 
starting of the car while she was alighting therefrom, defendant 
was liable for the injuries, though the car had not stopped for the 
purpose of discharging passengers, if the employees in charge of 

the car started it when they knew, or by the exercise of proper 
care could have known, that a passenger was attempting to alight. 

3. In an action against a street railway company for injuries to 
a passenger, it was error to refuse instructions defining the kind 
of care which defendant- owed to plaintiff, and the kind of care 
which she should exercise for her own safety. — (Houghton vs. 
Louisville Ry. Co., 81 S. E. Rep., 695.) 

KENTUCKY. — Street Railways — Trespassers on Cars — Children 
— Duty to Discover — Evidence. 

1. A child, though non sui juris, riding on the step of the rear 
platform of a street car, on the side which is not in use, and across 
which is a closed gate, is a trespasser, to whom the street railroad 
and those in charge of the car owe no duty of discovering his 

2. In an action to recover for injury to a child trespassing on the 
rear step of a street railway car, testimony that the point where 
plaintiff got on the car was in a thickly settled portion of the city, 
and that many children congregated thereabouts, and had often 
trespassed on defendant's cars theretofore with the knowledge of 
the employees, was properly excluded. — Monehan vs. South Cov- 
ington & C. St. Ry. Company, 78 S. W. Rep., 1106.) 

MAINE. — Street Railways — Country Crossfngs — Contributory 
Negligence — Traveler. 

1. The conditions of a country crossing of an electric railway in 
some respects more nearly resemble the crossings of steam rail- 
ways than they do the situation in city streets, where persons and 
teams are constantly traveling across and upon the tracks. 

2. If the traveler about to cross the track cannot see an ap- 
proaching car on account of an intervening bank, he cannot, there- 
fore, in the exercise of ordinary prudence, assume that it is im- 
possible for a car to be behind the bank. 

3. In conditions of known peril, prudent men are vigilant for 
their own safety ; and one who drives into a place of known peril 
as he would into one of assured safety, doing nothing whatever to 
safeguard himself or to ascertain if the danger be imminent, does 
not exercise the measure of ordinary care which the law requires. 
— (Robinson vs. Rockland, T. & C. St. Ry., 58 Atlantic Rep., 57.) 
MAINE. — Street Railway Company — Rights and Duties — Collision 

with Traveler — Speed of Cars — Due Care — Contributory and 
Contemporaneous Negligence. 

1. A street railway company has the lawful right to operate its 
railway in the location where it has been placed, and run its cars 
singly or in trains upon the track; but it is its duty to do so, hav- 
ing due regard to the safety, not only of travelers upon the street, 
but of those who may have occasion to cross the track in driving 
out from the yards of houses situated along the railway. 

2. The speed at which a car or train may properly be run, the 
kind of control over it, and the degree of watchfulness imposed 
upon those in charge must depend to some extent upon the sur- 
rounding conditions, such as the nearness of the track to the side 
of the street and to the houses, the likelihood of persons driving 
out from the yards, and whether the driveways are so situated 
that persons driving out over them can see or learn of the approach 
of cars in season, with due care to avoid collision. The railway 
company and its servants have a right to assume that all such 
persons will themselves be in the exercise of ordinary care. 

3. It is the duty of a street railway company at all times to use 
due care in view of apparent dangers, and those which may rea- 
sonably be expected, so to regulate the speed of its cars, so to 
have them under control, and so to be on the lookout for a team 
about to cross that those in the teams, if they themselves are in 
the exercise of due care, shall not be put in jeopardy. 

4. The person in charge of the car must exercise due care and 
judgment, and the movements of the car must be regulated with 
reference to the apparent situation. If it be apparent that a col- 
lision is likely to occur, it is the duty of the servant in control of 
the car to be ready to use, and to use, if necessary, and when 
necessary, all practicable means to prevent it. 

5. Applying the foregoing rules to the evidence in this case, 
held, that the jury were warranted in finding that the defendant 
was negligent. 

6. But the evidence also shows that the plaintiff was clearly 
negligent, and that his neglicence contributed to the injury, and 
in such a case, where the plaintiff is guilty of contributory negli- 
gence, he must fail, unless it appears further that after the plain- 
tiff's negligence, independent of and distinct from any prior negli- 
gence of his own, the defendant was negligent, and that this negli- 
gence was the proximate cause of the plaintiff's injury. It must 
appear at some point of time, in view of the entire situation, in- 
cluding the plaintiff's negligence, the defendant was thereafter 
culpably negligent, and its negligence the latest in the succession 
of causes. 

7. Held, that the defendant's negligence was not subsequent to 
and independent of the plaintiff's contributory negligence, but that 

April i, 1905. J 

Street railway journal. 


it was contemporaneous with it, and operated to produce the re- 
sult in connection with the plaintiff's negligence, and not inde- 
pendently of it; that the plaintiff's negligence actively continued 
from a point about 20 ft. from the railway track, where he -first 
had opportunity to see the approaching train of the defendant, 
which was not more than 200 ft. away, to the point of collision ; 
and that it was operative to the last moment, and contributed to 
the injury as the proximate cause. 

8. The doctrine of prior and subsequent negligence is not ap- 
plicable when the negligence of the plaintiff and that of the de- 
fendant are practically simultaneous. — (Butler vs. Rockland T. & 
C. St. Ry., 58 Atlantic Rep., 776.) 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Street Railways— Passengers — Persons 
Approaching Cars. 
I. A pedestrian on the highway, who, for the purpose of board- 
ing it, is approaching a street car stopped to receive him as a pas- 
senger, is not, before he actually reaches the car, entitled to the 
rights of a passenger, even so far as concerns defects in the car, 
in respect of the extraordinary degree of care due passengers from 
common carriers, and the railway owes him no duty other than 
that it owes to any person on the highway. — (Duchemin vs. Bos- 
ton Elevated Ry. Company, 71 N. W. Rep., 780.) 
MASSACHUSETTS.— Carriers— Passengers— Existence of Rela- 
tion — Failure to Pay Fare — Street Railroads — Death by 
Wrongful Act — Due Diligence — Construction of Statute. 

1. Pub. St. 1882, c. 112, Sec. 212, giving a civil remedy for 
death by wrongful act, applies only to steam railroads. 

2. A passenger on a street car ceases to be such on failing to 
pay a second fare when due. 

3. St. 1886, p. 117, c. 140, declaring that if, by reason of the 
negligence or carelessness of a corporation operating a street rail- 
way, or unfitness or negligence of its servants, the life of a pas- 
senger, or of a person being in the exercise of due diligence and 
not a passenger, is lost, the corporation shall be liable in damages 
to be recovered in an action of tort, is to be construed as if the 
proceeding were by indictment, as was the case in all the preced- 
ing statutes on the same subject, and the same proof of due dili- 
gence is required under this statute as would be required in a 
proceeding by indictment. 

4. Where plaintiff's intestate was carried from defendant's 
street car in an unconscious condition, and laid by the side of the 
track, and afterwards run over by a car and killed, he was not in 
the exercise of due diligence within the meaning of St. 1886, p. 
117, c. 140, authorizing the recovery of damages from a street 
railway company for negligence causing the death of any person 
not a passenger, being in the exercise of due diligence. — (Hud- 
son vs. Lynn & B. R. Company.) 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Personal Injury— Release— Fraud— Evi- 
dence — Objection Not Made Below — Damages. 

1. Plaintiff, after testifying, in regard to a release signed by her, 
that defendant's agent gave her an order on a physician, and then 
handed her the paper to sign, saying to her, "Sign that slip of 
paper, so that I can show it to the company, so they can see I have 
sent you to a doctor," and that she signed it without seeing any- 
thing on it, and without knowing that she was making a settlement, 
may testify that just after she signed the paper the agent told her 
to come to him after she was well, and he would settle all her 
claims ; this having a bearing, at least, on her claim of fraud. 

2. The objection that witness' answer was not responsive may 
not be made for the first time on appeal. 

3. Evidence, in an action for personal injury to a woman forty 
years old, held sufficient, as to the likelihood of her climacteric oc- 
curring before she should fully recover, to take to the jury the 
question of its being an element of damages. — Keefe vs. Norfolk 
Suburban St. Ry. Company, et al., 70 N. E. Rep., 46.) 
MASSACHUSETTS.— Street Railroads— Negligence— Collision- 
Contributory Negligence — Question for Jury — Damages — Evi- 
dence — Expert Testimony. 

1. One driving along a street is bound, on turning onto a parallel 
street railroad track, to look to ascertain whether a car is approach- 
ing him from behind. 

2. Where one drove on a street railway track to avoid an ob- 
stacle, it was not his duty to turn off the track in order to avoid a 
car coming from behind, until he had passed the obstacle, and was 
aware of the approach of the car. 

3. In an action against a street railway for injuries sustained by 
plaintiff, owing to a collision between a car and plaintiff's wagon, 
held, that it was a question for the jury whether plaintiff was 
guilty of contributory negligence in driving on the track, and 
whether defendant was guilty of negligence in the operation of the 

4. Where in an action against a street railroad for injuries sus- 
tained by one riding on a wagon, owing to a collision between the 
wagon and a car, plaintiff testified that he did not interfere with 

the driving, but trusted himself entirely to the driver, he had a 
right to have the question whether the driver exercised due care 
submitted to the jury, the evidence warranting that course. 

5. In an action for injuries claimed to have caused appendicitis, 
a physician testified that he had practiced six years, that he had 
performed operations for appendicitis from 100 to 200 times, and 
that his practice was mostly surgical. Held, that he was qualified 
to testify as an expert as to whether, in his opinion, plaintiff's 
injuries could have caused appendicitis. — (Sullivan vs. Boston Ele- 
vated Ry. Company, Knox vs. Same, 71 N. E. Rep., 90.) 
MINNESOTA.— Personal Injuries — Excessive Damages. 

Action to recover damages for personal injuries resulting from 
the admitted negligence of defendants in the operation of a street 
car system. Held, that the verdict is excessive, and a new trial 
order, unless respondent consents to a reduction in the amount 
thereof to $3,500. — (Wadleigh vs. Duluth St. Ry. Company et al., 
100 N. W. Rep., 104.) 

MISSOURI. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger— Negligence — Jury 
Question — Instructions — Appeal and Error. 

1. In an action against a carrier for injury to a passenger from 
the negligent starting of the car while the passenger was endeavor- 
ing to alight therefrom, evidence examined, and held sufficient to 
establish a prima facie case entitling plaintiffs to go to the jury. 

2. In an action against a carrier for injuries to a passenger, 
where the court charged the jury that if they found from the evi- 
dence the facts therein hypothesized, which were the constitutive 
facts alleged in the petition, there was liability, and to so deter- 
mine, an objection that the court thereby submitted a question of 
law to the jury to be determined as a question of fact is hyper- 

3. In an action against a carrier for injuries to a passenger, 
where the instructions given for plaintiff and defendant in their en- 
tirety submitted every issue clearly and explicitly, an objection 
by defendant that a particular instruction given for plaintiff was 
calculated to mislead the jury as to the decisive issue is untenable. 

4. In an action for personal injuries to a married woman, a 
charge authorizing the jury to allow a reasonable compensation for 
any permanent injury or impairment of her strength, is not cause for 
reversal, where the verdict, considering the extent and nature of 
the injuries sustained, was moderate.— Abbitt et al. vs. St. Louis 
Transit Company, 81 S. W. Rep., 484.) 

MISSOURI. — Street Railroads — Injury to Person Attempting to 
Board Car — Contributory Negligence — Question for Jury — 
Duty of Employees in Charge of Car — Conduct of Counsel — 
Improper Remarks — Duty of Court. 

1. Whether a person attempting to board a street car moving at 
a slow rate of speed is guilty of contributory negligence, preclud- 
ing a recovery for injuries occasioned by the sudden increase of 
speed, is for the jury. 

2. That a street car was not carrying passengers, but was pro- 
ceeding to a shed for the night, did not make a person attempting 
to board it guilty of contributory negligence, unless he knew, or 
by ordinary care could have known, that the car was not carrying 

3. The employees in charge of a street car are not chargeable 
with the duty of preventing a person from negligently attempting 
to board the car while moving. 

4. The failure of the court, in expressing its disapproval of ob- 
jectionable remarks of counsel in his argument to the jury, to 
use sufficiently emphatic language to destroy any impressions re- 
sulting therefrom, is reversible error. — (Leu vs. St. Louis Transit 
Company, 80 S. W. Rep., 273.) 

MISSOURI. — Street Railroads — Crossings — Injuries — Speed — 
Contributory Negligence — Avoiding Injury — Evidence. 

1. In the absence of an ordinance limiting the rate of speed of 
street cars in a city, evidence that the car by which plaintiff was 
injured at a crossing ran down a slope in a thinly settled portion, 
at a speed of from 15 to 20 miles an hour, and slowed down to 
from 8 to 10 miles an hour when it approached the crossing, was 
insufficient to show negligence as a matter of law. 

2. Plaintiff attempted to cross a street railway track at a cross- 
ing as the night was growing dark, and as she entered the street 
on which the car ran she had a plain view in the direction from 
which the car approached for 1200 ft. The car was large, and 
lighted by electricity, and also had a headlight. Plaintiff's wagon 
was not lighted, and the headlight only lighted up the track for 
from so to 75 ft. in front of the car. The car could have been 
stopped, at the rate of speed at which it was going, within about 
75 feet. Held, that since plaintiff could have seen the car and 
avoided the injury much sooner than the motorman could have 
seen plaintiff's wagon in a position of danger, plaintiff was not 
entitled to recover on the ground that by the exercise of ordinary 
care the motorman might have seen plaintiff's peril in time to 
have averted the injury. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

3. Though the motorman of a street car could have seen plain- 
tiff at the time she drove into the street from a side street when 
she was 22 ft. from the track, and when he was 1200 ft. from the 
crossing, he was entitled to assume that plaintiff at that time and 
distance would also see the car, and stop before getting into a 
position of peril. 

4. In an action for injuries at a street railroad crossing, evidence 
reviewed, and held to show that plaintiff was guilty of contrib- 
utory negligence as a matter of law. — (Petty vs. St. Louis & M. 
R. R. Co., 78 S. W. Rep., 1003.) 

MISSOURI. — Street Railways — Personal Injuries — Collision with 
Vehicle — Contributory Negligence — Question for Jury — Driv- 
ing on Track — Lights. 

1. A teamster has a right to drive on a street railway track if 
in doing so he does not unnecessarily interfere with the operation 
of cars on the^ track. 

2. It was the duty of a street railway company to have its car 
so lighted as to be seen a safe distance by plaintiff, who was driv- 
ing on the street, on a dark night, or to sound the gong or give 
warning of its approach. 

3. In an action against a street railway company for injuries to 
plaintiff, evidence that on a very dark night plaintiff was driving 
in the street on the "left track of the street railway at a rapid 
speed, when he met and collided with a street car, did not show 
contributory negligence as a matter of law, but the question was 
for the jury. — (Buren vs. St. Louis Transit Company, 78 S. W. 
Rep,, 680.) 

NEBRASKA. — Street Railroads — Injury to Person on Track- 
Directing Verdict — Contributory Negligence. 
I. In an action by an administratrix to recover damages for the 
death of the decedent, alleged to have been caused by the negli- 
gence of the defendant, it is held, upon an examination of the 
record, that the court rightfully directed a verdict for the de- 
fendant because of the contributory negligence of the deceased. 
• — (McLean vs. Omaha & C. B. Ry. & Bridge Company, 100 N. W. 
Rep., 935-) 

NEW JERSEY. — Discovery — Accounting — Relief in Equity. 

A bill filed by complainants, attorneys of this State, against a de- 
fendant, a street railway company, set forth that one John Meffert 
had been injured by the tort of the defendant, and had a right of 
action against it for damages for his injuries; that he had retained 
complainants to settle with said company, or to prosecute an ac- 
tion for him for said damages ; that, in consideration of their 
services to be performed, he had assigned to complainants 50 per 
cent of whatever might be recovered by suit, settlement, or other- 
wise ; that complainants gave notice to said company of such as- 
signment, and thereafter commenced an action in behalf of John 
Meffert against it ; that pending the action the company settled 
with Meffert for a sum of money, the amount of which complain- 
ants had not discovered, and paid the agreed-on amount, and re- 
ceived from Meffert a complete release of his claim. It there- 
upon prayed for discovery, for an accounting of the money so paid, 
and for a decree for the payment by defendant to complainants of 
SO per cent thereof. 

On demurrer to the bill for want of equity, held, that the bill 
stated no grounds on which the relief prayed could be decreed. — ■ 
(Weller et al. vs. Jersey City, H. & P. St. Ry. Company, 57 Atlan- 
tic Rep., 730.) 

NEW JERSEY. — Street Railroads — Injury to Passenger — Evi- 
dence — Contributory Negligence — Question for Jury. 
I. A passenger upon a crowded trolley car in a city street, de- 
siring to alight therefrom, and being unable to communicate with 
the conductor, because of the crowd, reached the motorman, and 
he, in response to the request of the passenger, put on his brake 
and slowed down the car, whereupon the passenger, while the car 
was moving slowly, proceeded to step through the gate, which was 
open, and down upon the step, awaiting his opportunity to alight, 
when by a sudden jerk of the car he was thrown upon the ground, 
one foot going under the wheel, whereby he sustained serious in- 

At the trial of a suit for damages against the company, these 
facts appearing, the court was requested to direct a verdict for the 
defendant on the grounds of contributory negligence, which re- 
quest was refused by the trial judge. 

Upon review it was held that the action of the passenger did not 
constitute negligence per se, and whether he was negligent or not 
was a question for the jury, and that there was no error in the 
ruling. — (Paganini vs. North Jersey St. Ry. Company,, 57 Atlantic 
Rep., 128.) 

NEW JERSEY.— Street Railroads— Collision with Carriage— Ex- 
cessive Damages. 
I. It is the duty of a motorman upon a street railway, when ap- 
proaching an intersecting street, to have his car so far under con- 
trol that he will not endanger the safety of other persons, on foot 

or in vehicles, engaged in the lawful and customary use of the high- 
way in question. 

2. In an action for damages for personal injuries growing out of 
a trolley accident, the defendant sought a new trial on the ground of 
excessive damages. 

If the disability resulting from the injuries was likely to be per- 
manent, the damages would not be regarded as so excessive as to 
warrant an interference with the verdict. But it appearing that the 
trial was brought on so soon after a surgical operation on the patient 
that sufficient time had not elapsed to enable the physicians to de- 
termine as to whether the operation would result in her complete 
or partial recovery — a result which they regarded, however, as 
highly probable — and it thereby appearing that justice had not been 
done by the verdict, it was held that, in the exercise of its sound 
discretion, it became the duty of the reviewing court to set aside 
the verdict and grant a new trial. — (Searles et al. vs. Elizabeth, P. 
& C. J. Ry. Company, 57 Atlantic Rep., 134.) 
NEW JERSEY.— Trial— Verdict— Mistake— Correction. 

Where the jury fixed on the sum of $1,000 as plaintiff's compensa- 
tion, but allowed a further $200 under the belief that, to entitle 
plaintiff to costs in that sum, there must be an allowance to him 
therefor by the jury, the verdict should be reduced in that amount. 
— (Toal vs. North Jersey St. Ry. Company, 58 Atlantic Rep., 172.) 
NEW JERSEY.— Non-Suit— Denial— Street Railroads— Frighten- 
ing Horses — Appeal from District Court. 

1. Refusal to non-suit for failure of proofs is not error, if the de- 
fect was supplied by evidence taken in the progress of the cause. 

2. In the trial of an action by the owner of a horse and wagon 
against a trolley company for damages arising out of a' runaway 
accident caused by the frightening of his horse by some construc- 
tion cars being propelled upon the streets of a city, the acts of al- 
leged negligence relied upon by the plaintiff were the propelling in 
the streets of a car of unusual appearance, calculated to frighten 
horses, and the negligent conduct of the motorman at the time. 
At the close of the plaintiff's case, a non-suit was asked on the 
ground that the plaintiff's witnesses agreed that the horse did not 
show any fright until the cars came within a few feet of the horse, 
and that the motorman had the car under control, and stopped it 
before passing the place where the horse stood, and that the use of 
these cars upon the street at that point was not uncommon. The 
motion was refused. Later in the trial the motorman testified that 
he saw the horse begin to show fright, while the cars were 50 yards 
away, and that he at once stopped the car. Another witness tes- 
tified that the dirt car at which the horse became frightened was 
usually run in the rear, but this time it was in front, of the con- 
nected cars. Upon review it was held that such error, if any, in the 
refusal to non-suit, was cured by the later testimony, which made 
the question one for the jury. 

3. In order to maintain an appeal from a district court under the 
act providing for such appeals (P. L. 1902, p. 565), the record 
brought up must show, in addition to the other requirements of 
the act, a case either agreed upon or settled by the judge, includ- 
ing the determination or judgment of the court, and the copies of 
the case required to be furnished upon the argument must also 
show that these requirements have been complied with, or the ap- 
peal is Ifable to dismissal. — (Esler vs. Camden & Suburban Ry. Co., 
58 Atlantic Rep., 113.) 

NEW JERSEY. — Street Railways — Passengers — Personal Injuries 
— Getting on Car. 

Where plaintiff, wishing to board defendant's street car, signaled 
for the motorman to stop, and the car slowed down almost to a 
standstill, and, while plaintiff was in the act of stepping on, the mo- 
torman called to him to take the next car, and immediately quick- 
ened the speed of the car, throwing plaintiff off, the jury was justi- 
fied in finding negligence on the part of defendant, and that there 
was no negligence on the part of the plaintiff. — (Schmidt vs. North 
Jersey St. Ry. Company, 58 Atlantic Rep., 72.) 
NEW YORK. — Carriers — Death of Passenger — Street Cars — Neg- 
ligence — Evidence — Sufficiency. 

In an action against a street railroad for death of plaintiff's de- 
cedent, alleged to have resulted from the negligence of the street 
railroad at the time of decedent's attempt to board a car, evidence 
examined, and held insufficient to support a verdict for plaintiff. — 
(Fremont vs. Metropolitan St. Ry. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 

NEW YORK. — Master and Servant — Personal Injuries — Street 
Railways — Rules Limiting Work — Employers' Liability Act. 
I. Defendant street railway company had rules relating to opera- 
tion of its trains, forbidding the pushing of cars except in cases 
of accident, and then requiring a man on the rear platform. An- 
other rule required the speed of a train to be regulated so that it 
could be stopped within the distance the motorman could see ahead. 
Decedent was injured while coupling cars and making up trains, at 
a station, by another employee on the north car of another train 

April i, 1905.] 



backing it southward into defendant's train. In an action to recover 
for decedent's death on the ground of negligence in failing to 
provide proper rules for the making up of trains, the court in- 
structed that, as a matter of law, the above rules applied to the 
movement of cars in making up trains, but left the question of the 
sufficiency of the rules to the jury. There was no evidence that 
other rules that would afford greater safety were in use under sim- 
ilar circumstances by other roads, nor were experts called to show 
the necessity or practicability of other rules. Held, that it was 
error to submit to the jury the question of the sufficiency of the 

2. As the employers' liability act (Laws 1902, p. 1748, c. 600) cre- 
ates no new liability for the failure of an employer to make proper 
rules and regulations for the safety of employees, an action for such 
failure is based on the common law. 

3. Employers' Liability Act (Laws 1902, p. 1750, c. 600) Sec. 3, 
providing that an employee shall be presumed to have assented to 
the necessary risks and no others, and defining what such risks in- 
clude, and making the question of employee's understanding of such 
risk a question for the jury, being of general application to all ac- 
tions by servants against masters for negligence, applies to an action 
for damages for negligence for failing to make proper rules and 
regulations for the safety of employees. — (Ward vs. Manhattan 
Ry. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 758.) 

NEW YORK. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger — Dangerous Con- 
dition Caused by Mob. 
Plaintiff, after purchasing a ticket of defendant railroad com- 
pany, started toward his train, to reach which it was necessary to 
pass up a stairway, at the foot of which defendant maintained 
ticket-chopping boxes. These were located on the floor of a bridge 
over which defendant had no control, its only right there being to 
maintain the boxes. The public had a right to pass over this part 
of the bridge. Before plaintiff reached the boxes he was stopped 
by a crowd which was held in check by a chain which had been 
placed cross the foot of the stairway, owing to a blockade on the 
elevated road above. The boxes were fastened to the cement floor 
by braces and bolts, and had been in the same position for several 
years. Plaintiff moved toward the stairway with the crowd, which 
had broken the chain and pushed over one of the boxes, stumbled 
over the fallen box, and was injured. The box was so strongly 
fastened that the bolts had torn through the wood, which was in 
good condition. Held, that defendant was guilty of no negligence. 
— Wagner vs. Brooklyn Heights R. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 

NEW YORK. — Street Railways — Personal Injuries — Assault by 
Conductor — Scope of Employment — Evidence — Sufficiency. 

1. In an action against a street railway company for assault by 
a conductor on a boy trespassing on the cars, no request being made 
that the court should submit the question as to whether the con- 
ductor was acting within the scope of his employment, the ques- 
tion was not raised by defendant's motion for dismissal after the 
close of all evidence, on the ground that, if plaintiff's claim was 
true, the conductor's act was willful and without the scope of his 

2. Testimony of a street car conductor that there was a rule 
making it his duty to prevent boys from catching on cars, and that 
his purpose in what he did was to remove the plaintiff from the 
car, was sufficient to justify a finding that his act in assaulting a 
boy who was on, or attempting to get on, defendant's car, was with- 
in the scope of his employment. — (Llewson vs. Interurban St. Ry. 
Company, 88 New York Suppl., 816.) 

NEW YORK.— Street Railways — Injury to Workmen Near Track 
— Contributory Negligence. 

Where plaintiff, working on a street, in putting up a fence 
along a trench which was being dug, was obliged to be danger- 
ously near a street railway track, to the knowledge of the motor- 
man of the car which struck him, the company is not entitled to 
an instruction, in an action against it for the injury, that he was 
required to be vigilant to look for cars and avoid them at the time 
of their passage. — (Hennessey vs. Forty-Second St., M. & T. Ave. 
Ry. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 728.) 

Freedman, P. J., dissenting. 
NEW YORK. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger — Negligence — Evi- 
dence — Sufficiency. 

In an action against a street railroad for injuries alleged to have 
resulted from the negligent starting of a car as plaintiff was at- 
tempting to board it, evidence examined, and held insufficient to 
support a verdict for plaintiff. — (Mullarkey vs. Interurban St. Ry. 
Company, 88 New York Suppl., 6gg.) 

NEW YORK. — Street Railroads — Injuries to Passenger — Signal 
by Another Passenger. 
A street railroad company is not liable for injuries to a pas- 
senger caused by the premature starting of the car in consequence 
of a signal given to the motorman by another passenger. — (Mc- 

Donough vs. Third Avenue R. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 

Ingraham, J., dissenting. 
NEW YORK.— Street Railroads— Injuries to Passenger While 
Alighting — Negligence — Evidence — Sufficiency. 

A judgment for plaintiff for injuries alleged to have been sus- 
tained by the starting of a street car while she was in the act of 
alighting after it had stopped on her signal will be reversed, be- 
cause against the weight of the evidence, where she had no wit- 
nesses, and two apparently disinterested witnesses — a lawyer and 
a policeman— testified that she alighted while the car was moving 
at about the regular rate of speed, and where she was otherwise 
contradicted.— (Maloney vs. Metropolitan St. Ry. Company, 88 
New York Suppl., 638.) 

O'Brien, J., dissenting. 
NEW YORK.— Street Railways— Injuries on Streets— Contribu- 
tory Negligence — Burden of Proof — Right of Way — Proof of 

1. Sending a case against a horse railway company for injuries 
to a person on the street to the jury on the sole question whether 
the driver was negligent in driving his horse at a gallop was error, 
as it relieved plaintiff of the duty of establishing freedom from 
contributory negligence. 

2. Between the blocks of a city a street railway has the para- 
mount right of way over a pedestrian. 

3. Proof of damages for injuries should be taken only to the ex- 
tent of supporting the claim as itemized in the bill of particulars. 
— (Lejoune vs. Dry Dock, E. B. & B. R. Company, 86 New York 
Suppl, 749.) 

NEW YORK. — Courts — Interpreter — Appointment — Personal In- 
juries — Accident to Child — Contributory Negligence — Age of 
Child — Absence of Evidence — Estoppel to Rely On — Dismissal 
of Complaint — Failure to Procure Interpreter — Remandment 
to Calendar. 

1. At common law, and in the absence of statute, the court has 
the right, and it is its duty, to appoint an interpreter, when neces- 
sary, without the consent of the opposite party. 

2. In an action for personal injuries to a child defendant cannot 
contend, in support of a judgment for dismissal ; that the evidence 
showed that plaintiff was guilty of contributory negligence, and 
that there was no testimony as to his age which would exonerate 
it from the consequences of such negligence, where defendant itself 
prevented the introduction of the testimony of the child's mother 
as to its age by its refusal to consent to the employment of an 

3. In an action for injuries to a child, where sufficient evidence 
had been given to carry the case to the jury on the question of de- 
fendant's negligence, it was error for the court to dismiss the com- 
plaint, and especially on the merits, before plaintiff had presented 
all his evidence and closed his case ; and, if the presentation of 
such evidence was rendered impossible by failure to obtain the 
services of an interpreter, the trial should have been suspended, 
and the case remanded to the calendar. — (Mennella vs. Metropoli- 
tan St. Ry. Company, 86 New York Suppl, 930.) 

NEW YORK. — Street Railroads — Injuries at Crossing — Actions 
— Instructions — Contributory Negligence. 

1. Where, in an action for injuries to plaintiff in a collision 
with a street car as plaintiff was driving across the track at a 
crossing, it appeared that the wagon and the car came together 
without any increase in the speed of either from the time when 
plaintiff was 10 or 15 ft. from the track and the car was 50 ft. 
away, an instruction that if plaintiff's horse was walking, and the 
car was 50 ft. away, plaintiff had a perfect right to undertake to 
cross the track, if the car was going at a reasonable rate of speed, 
was prejudicial error, as withdrawing from the jury's considera- 
tion both the question of defendant's negligence and plaintiff's 
contributory negligence. 

2. Where the driver of a vehicle attempted to cross a street rail- 
way track at a crossing, with his horse going at a walk, from a 
point within 10 or 15 ft. of the rail, when the car was approach- 
ing, 50 ft. distant, the question of plaintiff's contributory negligence 
was not a mere question of arbitrary measurement, but was a ques- 
tion of fact, depending somewhat on the conditions at the time 
plaintiff actually drove on the track, when he might possibly have 
avoided the accident, and when it may have been too late for de- 
fendant's motorman to have prevented a collision. — (Binsell vs. 
Interurban St. Ry. Company, 86 New York Suppl, 914.) 

NEW YORK.— Municipal Court— Failure of Proof— Dismissal. 

Under Municipal Court Act, Laws 1902, p. 1561, c. 580, Sec. 248, 
subd. 4, providing that an action shall be dismissed, with costs, 
without prejudice to a new action, where the plaintiff does not 
prove his cause of action, it was error for the court, in an action 
for negligence, to refuse to permit plaintiff to discontinue on his 
failure to prove defendant's negligence, and to order a dismissal of 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

the complaint. — (Mills vs. Interurban St. Ry. Company, 88 New 
York Suppl., 361.) 

NEW YORK. — Street Railroad — Injuries to Pedestrians — Con- 
tributory Negligence. 
Plaintiff, while attempting to cross a street, was struck by the 
rear end of one of defendant's cars as she was standing on the 
crosswalk about 2 ft. from the track while the car was rounding 
a curve, and was thrown to the ground in front of one of the 
wheels of a truck approaching behind her in such a manner that 
the wheel passed over her arm. Before leaving the curb, plaintifif 
saw the car from 140 to 150 ft. away, the distance from the curb 
to the car track being about 16 ft. Held, that plaintiff and de- 
fendant's motorman were both required to exercise the same de- 
gree of care, and that such facts tended to show that both erron- 
eously believed the plaintiff was in a place of safety, and that, if 
their miscalculation was negligent, it was joint negligence of both, 
for which plaintiff was not entitled to recover. — Kaufman et ux. 
vs. Interurban St. Ry. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 383.) 
NEW YORK — Carriers — Passengers — Injuries While Alighting — 
Notice to Conductor. 
A passenger cannot recover for injuries sustained in alighting 
from a street car by reason of the car starting forward after hav- 
ing stopped, in the absence of any notice to the conductor of the 
passenger's intention to alight. — (McCarthy vs. Interurban St. Ry. 
Company, 88 New York Suppl, 388.) 

NEW YORK. — Street Railroads — Crossings — Collision — Vehicles 
— Injury to Drivers — Contributory Negligence. 
Plaintiff, while driving across a car track, stopped his truck 
squarely on the track with a car approaching him not more than 30 
ft. distant, to enable a loaded truck approaching him at right angles 
to pass ahead of him. Had plaintiff not stopped, he could have 
passed in front of the truck and cleared the car ; and his only ex- 
cuse for stopping was that the other truck was loaded, in conse- 
quence of which he stopped to give it the right of way. Held, that 
plaintiff was guilty of contributory negligence, precluding a re- 
covery for injuries in a collision between his truck and the car.— 
(Heinz et al., vs. Union Railway Company of New York City, 88 
New York Suppl., 392.) 

NEW YORK.- — Carriers — Injuries to Passenger — Actions — In- 
structions — Limitation to Facts — Degree of Care Required. 

1. Conceding that a charge, in an action for injuries to a pas- 
senger, that defendant was bound to exercise the highest degree 
of care for the safety of its passengers, did not state a rule of uni- 
versal application, defendant, on excepting thereto, should have 
requested an accurate limitation on the language used to the facts 
of the case. 

2. The rule that a motorman and conductor engaged in the 
operation of a car are held only to reasonable care applies as to 
teams on the street, but does not apply as to passengers in the car. 
— (Zvonik vs. Interurban St. Ry. Company, 88 New York Suppl., 

NEW YORK. — Carriers — Passengers — Street Railways — Contrib- 
utory Negligence — Boarding Moving Cars — Actions — -Verdict 
— Presumption — Instructions. 

1. Whether plaintiff, who was injured while attempting to board 
one of defendant's trolley cars while it was in motion, but had 
slackened in speed for him to get on, was guilty of contributory 
negligence, was a question for the jury. 

2. In an action for injuries to a passenger attempting to board a 
trolley car the verdict must be deemed to have been based on a 
finding which included the hypothesis suggested by the court in 
its charge which would sustain the claim of negligence. 

3. In an action for injuries to one attempting to board a moving 
street car, a charge that, if the car slowed down to permit plaintiff 
to get on, it was for the jury to say whether the motorman saw 
him, and slowed down in response to his signal, and then started 
without giving him a reasonable time to get safely on the car, and 
that, if the motorman saw plaintiff getting on, but nevertheless 
started off, it would be negligence, but if the motorman did not see 
him getting on, and did not see his signal, and had no reason to 
apprehend that he was going to get on, although he had slowed 
down and started off again, that would not be negligence, was 
sufficiently favorable to defendant. — (Clinton vs. Brooklyn Heights 
R. Company, 86 New York Suppl., 932.) 

OHIO. — Trial — Instructions — Injury to Employee — Directions of 
Foreman — Discretion of Employee — Contributory Negligence. 

1. A special charge to the jury requested by a party to an action, 
which is based on the assumption that a material fact exists in the 
case, but which fact is in dispute between the parties, is properly 

2. In the trial of an action brought by an employee against a rail- 
way company to recover for injuries sustained by the explosion of 
a car heater on a passenger coach while he was attempting to thaw 
out the frozen water pipes while the car was standing in the yards 

of the company, and where the evidence tends to prove that the 
heater was without a steam gage, to the knowledge of the employee, 
and that the explosion was caused by the use of a solid plug in the 
drum of the heater, instead of a safety valve, which plug was put 
in by the employee a few days before the explosion by direc- 
tion of his superior, and where the evidence further tends to 
prove that the employee was an experienced foreman of car 
repairs, and familiar with the system of heating used on said 
car, and with the proper method and means of thawing out the 
water pipes when frozen, and where the only order from the super- 
ior was a telegram to get the car ready for use, to charge the jury, 
without further explanation, that "if you find at the time of the 
explosion, and for several days prior thereto, there was no safety 
valve in the drum of the Baker heater in car 22; that said safety 
valve had been removed and replaced by a solid plug, and that 
Rigby knew of these facts when he attempted to thaw out said 
heater at the time of the explosion complained of; and, further, 
if you find that said explosion resulted wholly from the fact that 
said drum had a solid plug, instead of a safety valve — then Rigby 
would nevertheless be entitled to recover in this action, if you find 
by a preponderance of the evidence that, in attempting to thaw 
out said heater as he did, he was acting in obedience to a positive 
order of his superior; that a person of ordinary prudence would, 
under the circumstances, have obeyed such order; and that in obey- 
ing such order he used ordinary care" — is misleading and erroneous. 

3. Where the superior, while absent, sends an order to an em- 
ployee to perform certain work or duty, but leaves to such employee 
the selection of the means and manner of performing the service, 
the doctrine of Van Dusen Gas & Gasolene Engine Co. vs. Schelies, 
55 N. E., 998, 64 Ohio St., 298, does not apply. — (Northern Ohio 
Ry. Co. vs. Rigby, 68 N. E. Rep., 1046.) 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Street Railroads — Collision— Negligence- 
Contributory Negligence. 

1. A driver of a carriage saw, on approaching a double-track 
street railway, cars approaching from both directions, and drove 
across the far track a short distance ahead of the car on such track, 
and then pulled onto the other track, so as to meet the other car, 
moving at a moderate speed, head on, and was injured by the 
collision. Held, that he was guilty of contributory negligence. 

2. In action for injuries by collision with a street car, evidence 
held to show no negligence on the part of the street car company. — 
(Lyons vs. Union Traction Company, 58 Atlantic Rep., 118.) 
PENNSYLVANIA.— Railroads— Person on Track— Nonsuit. 

In an action to recover for personal injuries, the evidence 
showed that plaintiff was drunk and disorderly on defendant's 
street car, that he was put off and fell, and ran after the car, and 
was still running when it got out of sight; and that on the return 
trip he was run over, when ^'ing on the track in the dark, about 
600 feet from the point wherfe he had been ejected. Held, that the 
company was not liable. — Johnson vs. Chester Traction Company, 
58 Atlantic Rep., 153.) 

PENNSYLVANIA. — Injury to Employee — Assumption of Risk. 

1. An employee contracting for the performance of hazardous 
duties assumes a risk incident to the obvious dangers thereof. 

2. Where a motorman on a single-track road was injured, while 
attempting to replace at night the trolley, which had slipped from 
the wire, thereby extinguishing the lights of the car, by being struck 
by the following car, it was the result of the risk of the employ- 
ment, for which defendant was not liable, though the single track 
was operated without signals. — (Simmons vs. Southern Traction 
Company, 57 Atlantic Rep., 45.) 

RHODE ISLAND.— Street Railways— Injury to Person Waiting 
for Car — Negligence — Evidence — Previous Accidents. 
I. In an action for injury to plaintiff, while waiting to board 
defendant's street car, by the falling of a piece of an electric lamp 
situate over the street and struck by the trolley slipping from the 
wire as the car was rounding a curve, evidence that such lamps 
had previously been broken under like circumstances is relevant 
and material on the questions of notice and consequent negligence. 
— (Nelson vs. Union R. Company, 58 Atlantic Rep., 780.) 
RHODE ISLAND.— Carriers— Street Railroads— Strike Sympa- 
thizers — Injuries to Passengers — Operation of Road — Danger 
— Notice — Actions — Historical Facts — Judicial Notice. 
I. Plaintiff was a passenger on a street car running between 
two towns, and was injured by being struck by a stone thrown 
from one of a mob of strike sympathizers. A strike had been on 
for some days, accompanied with violence ; but the mob had been 
suppressed in one of the towns, and cars were running regularly 
at the time. There was no indication of danger either to plaintiff 
or the motorman as the car passed, until the stones were thrown, 
except the presence of a large number of people on the street. 
Policemen were present, and, though the preceding car had been 
stoned, such car was not in sight of the motorman of the car on 
which plaintiff rode at the time, and the stoning thereof was un- 

April i, 1905.] 



known to him. Held, that the evidence was insufficient to show 
notice to defendant that it was dangerous to run cars there by 
reason of the mob, and hence defendant was not liable. 

2. In an action for injuries to a passenger on a street car by 
stones thrown by strike sympathizers, the court would take judicial 
notice of the historical fact that on a certain date, which was the 
date of the injury, the governor had ordered a military force to 
the town in question to preserve order and restrain violence to- 
ward the property and employees of the street railway company, 
and had issued a proclamation calling upon all persons riotously 
assembled to disperse. 

3. Where a passenger on a street car was injured by stones 
thrown by strike sympathizers, the fact that on the morning of the 
day the injury occurred the governor had ordered out the militia 
to restrain violence toward the property and employees of the 
street railway company, and had issued a proclamation calling 
upon all persons riotously assembled to disperse, was not notice 
to the street car company that it was dangerous to run its cars, 
but was rather an invitation to operate its road under the protec- 
tion of the militia. — (Bosworth vs. Union R. Company, 58 Atlantic 
Rep., 982.) 

RHODE ISLAND. — Carriers — Injuries to Passengers — Derail- 
ment — Res Ipsa Loquitur — Evidence. 

1. An injury to a passenger by the derailment of a street car is 
of itself prima facie evidence of negligence on the part of the 
railroad company, which the latter is bound to rebut by proof that 
the accident was not due to the carelessness of its employees, in 
order to escape liability. 

2. Where a passenger was injured by the derailment of a street 
car at a curve, alleged to have been caused by the excessive speed 
of the car when entering the curve, evidence of experiments con- 
ducted under similar conditions for the purpose of determining 
whether the car would leave the track at the same curve when 
running at its maximum speed was admissible. 

3. A passenger on a street car was injured by derailment on a 
dark evening. There was evidence that at the time of the occur- 
rence a strike was in progress among the carrier's employees, and 
that obstructions had been placed on the track at various points, 
and several witnesses testified that the derailment was accom- 
panied by a jolt as if an obstruction had been run over. A spike 
was picked up from the track near the place of the accident, which 
had the appearance of having been run over, and it was also 
proved that the car running at its maximum speed could not 
have been derailed at that point by its speed. Held, that the evi- 
dence sufficiently rebutted the presumption of negligence arising 
from the happening of the accident.— (Cheetham vs. Union R. 
Company 58 Atlantic Rep., 881.) 

TENNESSEE.— Street Railroads— Pe rsons on Street — Injuries — 
Negligence — Definition— Ordinances — Reasonableness— Vio- 
lation — Negligence Per Se — Contributory Negligence — Ques- 
tion for Jury — Instructions — Requests. 

1. An instruction defining negligence as the neglect to use ordi- 
nary care or skill toward a person to whom the defendant owes 
the duty of observing ordinary care and skill, by which the plain- 
tiflf, "without negligence on his part proximately contributing to 
produce the accident," has suffered injury to his person, while ob- 
jectionable for containing the clause quoted, was not prejudicial to 
defendant on that ground. 

2. Though the act of a person in crossing or driving along the 
side of a street car track in front of a car near enough to be struck 
might have been negligent, yet, if the motorman observed such 
negligence, or could have observed it by the use of ordinary care, 
when the peril of the collision became imminent, and might have 
avoided its effect by due care in time to prevent an accident, and 
failed to do so, the railway company would be liable for injuries 
sustained in such collision. 

3. Where city ordinances required drivers of street cars to keep 
a rigid lookout for all teams, etc., on or moving toward the track, 
and to stop cars in the shortest time and space possible on the first 
appearance of danger, and limited the speed of cars to 15 miles per 
hour, a violation of such ordinances was negligence per se, which 
would render the company liable, if such negligence was the proxi- 
mate cause of the accident. 

4. A city ordinance requiring street car drivers to keep a rigid 
lookout for teams, persons, etc., on or moving toward the track, 
and, on the first appearance of danger to such a team or person, to 
stop the car in the shortest time and space possible, should be con- 
strued to require the car to be stopped only when it is perceived 
that a collision is imminent, and, as so construed, was not objec- 
tionable as unreasonable. 

5. Where, in an action for injuries to plaintifi^ by being struck by 
a street car approaching him from the rear while he was driving 
along the street sufficiently near to the track to be struck, there was 
no evidence that the motorman applied the brakes in order to pre- 

vent a collision, but only that he sounded the gong and reversed 
the current when he was so near that a collision was unavoidable, 
it was error for the court to charge that if the motorman failed to 
apply the brakes and sound the gong, or give other signal and use 
other means in his power to stop the car and prevent an accident, 
when danger became imminent, he was guilty of negligence, since 
whether, in the exercise of ordinary care, he was required to use 
any particular appliance or appliances to stop the car, was for the 

6. While the question of contributory negligence in an action for 
injuries is always one of fact for the jury, the trial judge, in a 
proper case, may instruct the jury that particular conduct on the 
part of the plaintiff would be negligence per se. 

7. In an action for injuries to the driver of a vehicle by being 
struck by a street car approaching him from the rear, evidence as 
to plaintiff's contributory negligence held to require the submission 
of such question to the jury. 

8. In an action for injuries, an instruction permitting the jury, in 
its discretion, to consider plaintiff's contributory negligence in miti- 
gation of damages, in case such negligence was the remote cause 
of the accident, was erroneous, since such was the jury's duty as a 
matter of law. 

9. In an action for injuries, it was error for the court to refuse 
to charge that if the jury believe from the evidence that plaintiff 
was guilty of negligence which, combined with defendant's negli- 
gence, produced the accident, so that both acts constituted the 
proximate cause of the injury, then the negligence of the plaintiff 
however slight, would bar recovery. 

10. Requested instructions covered by the general charge may 
be properly refused. — (Memphis St. Ry. Company vs. Haynes, 81 
S. E. Rep., 374.) 

TEXAS. — Carriers — Alighting Passengers — Negligence — Instruc- 
tions — Assumption of Facts. 

1. In an action for injuries to a street railway passenger, it was 
not error for the court to assume in its charge that plaintiff v/as a 
passenger, although he had not paid his fare when he sought to 
alight, where the evidence was uncontroverted that plaintiff boarded 
the car intending to pay his fare, and had the money with him to 
do so. 

2. In an action for injuries to a street railway passenger while 
alighting, it was not error to assume in the charge that defendant 
was guilty of negligence in not stopping the car, where the un- 
contradicted evidence showed that the signal to stop was given, 
and the speed of the car was first lessened, and then began to in- 
crease. — (Dallas Rapid Transit Ry. Co. vs. Payne., 78 S. W. Rep.. 

TEXAS. — Street Railway — Collision with Team — Contributory 
Negligence — Burden of Proof. 
Plaintiff's boy, twelve years old, while driving a closed milk 
wagon having a window in front and a door on each side, was in- 
jured by an electric car running on E. Street striking the wagon 
at a street crossing. Plaintiff's evidence was that the car was going 
with unusual speed. The boy testified that when on E. Street he 
looked out of the front and sides, and saw and heard no car, and 
did not know of its presence till it struck. He also stated that there 
was nothing to obstruct his view, and that if he had been keeping 
a lookout he would have seen the car. Held, that plaintiff's evi- 
dence did not present contributory negligence as a matter of law, 
which was necessary to make improper a charge that the burden of 
proof on the issue of contributory negligence was on defendant. — 
(El Paso Electric Ry. Co. vs. Kendall, 78 S. W. Rep., 1081.) 

TEXAS. — Carrier — Duties to Passengers — Instructions. 

1. An instruction, in an action against a carrier for injury to a 
passenger, that it was defendant's duty to provide reasonably safe 
cars, and to cause them to be operated in a reasonably safe man- 
ner, is erroneous, it being its duty only to exercise a high degree of 
care to furnish safe cars, and operate them safely. 

2. Error in an instruction is not cured by its being followed by 
instructions in conflict therewith. — (Citizens' Ry. Co. vs. Sinclair, 
8i S. W. Rep., 329-) 

TEXAS. — Carriers — Street Railways — Injuries to Passengers — 
Damages — Excessiveness. 
Plaintifl's wife, a passenger on a street car, was injured by flames 
emanating from a burning house close to the tracks by the motor- 
man negligently propelling the car past the same. Her face was 
burned and blistered about the left eye, causing inflammation to 
set in and the eye to close, which continued for a considerable 
period. She did not know the extent of the fire, and when she felt 
the flames she darted down between the seats in an endeavor to 
protect herself and infant son, and in so doing wrenched and 
strained her back. Held that a judgment in favor of the plaintiff 
for $900 damages was not excessive. — (Citizens' Ry. Co. vs. Jones, 
81 S. W. Rep., 558 ') 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

TEXAS. — Carriers — Street Cars — Injuries to Passengers — Plead- 
ing — Allegations of Negligence — Evidence — Instruction. 

1, Where, in an action for injuries to a passenger, the case was 
tried on a second amended petition, which alleged negligence in 
general terms, which would have been sufficient if alleged in the 
original petition, it was not defective by reason of the fact that the 
original and first amended petition alleged specific acts of negli- 
gence, since, under the general allegation, plaintiff was entitled to 
prove any negligence, including that previously alleged. 

2. In an action for injuries to a passenger, the fact that he has 
knowledge of the particular act of negligence which caused the in- 
jury does not require him to allege such act specifically, nor de- 
prive him of the benefit of the rule that in such action a petition 
alleging negligence in general terms is sufficient. 

,3. Where, in an action for injuries to a passenger on a street 
car, plaintiff and another witness testified that at the time of the 
accident the rear end of the car was elevated, and when it fell back 
it was derailed, an instruction that if plaintil? was injured by the 
"wreck and derailment," and such "wreck and derailment," if 
any, was the result of defendant's negligence, and was the proxi- 
mate cause, etc., plaintiff was entitled to recover, was not objec- 
tionable on the ground that there was no evidence authorizing the 
court to submit the question of plaintiff's injury by reason of the 
"derailment" of the car. — (San Antonio Traction Company vs. 
Williams, 78 S. W. Rep., 977-) 

WASHINGTON.— Wrongful Death— Carriers— Street Railroads 
— Passengers — Operation of Cars — Crowding — Riding on 
Front Platform — Contributory Negligence — Duty of Carrier 
— Providing Seats — Evidence — Witnesses — Experts — Instruc- 
tions — Damages — Excessiveness. 

1. Where a passenger on a street car was killed by being thrown 
from the front platform, on which he was standing, as the car 
was alleged to have rounded a curve at a high rate of speed, a 
witness, who had been a motorman over the same line for six 
or seven months, was familiar with the speed of cars, and the road 
throughout its entire length, and was acquainted with the partic- 
ular curve, and who stated that, in his judgment, the car was 
running through the curve at the time of the accident at between 
7 and 8 miles an hour, was competent to state at what rate of 
speed the car ought to have been run into the curve in order to 
be operated with safety to passengers thereon, and whether a 
speed of 6 or 8 miles an hour was safe. 

2. Where, in an action for death of plaintiff's husband, plaintiff 
had been associated with him in the business and kept the books, 
she was entitled to testify as to her husband's earnings in his 
business, independent of the books so kept. 

3. In an action for death, evidence as to decedent's earnings im- 
mediately prior to his death was admissible as tending to show his 
earning capacity. 

4. In an action for death of a passenger by being thrown from a 
street car as it rounded a curve, evidence as to the experiments 
subsequently made with the same car, running through the same 
curye, was incompetent, where the conditions were not similar to 
those existing at the time of the accident, though more favorable 
to decedent's case. 

5. Where evidence offered as to the results of experiments was 
excluded, remarks of the court with reference thereto, stating the 
reason why he thought the same inadmissible, were harmless. 

6. An objection that remarks of the court on the exclusion of 
evidence were objectionable cannot be reviewed on appeal in the 
absence of an exception thereto taken at the trial. 

7. While it is not negligence per se for a street car company to 
fail to furnish a seat for each of its passengers, where seats are 
not furnished, and passengers are permitted or required to stand 
on cars, greater care is required in the operation thereof than 
where all of the passenges are provided with seats. 

8. It is not negligence per se for a pasenger on a street car to 
ride or stand on the platform. 

9. Where, at the time deceased boarded a street car from which 
he was subsequently thrown, there was but little standing room in- 
side the car, and a seat in the front vestibule, which was 7 ft. 
9 ins. long, was occupied by four persons, two of whom nearest 
deceased being ladies, and two or three other passengers were 
standing on the front platform, it was not error, in the instruc- 
tions, to assume that there was evidence that deceased was com- 
pelled to stand on the car or on the platform. 

10. Where, in an action for death of a passenger by being 
thrown from the front platform of a street car, plaintiff alleged 
negligence, in that the car was run at a high and dangerous rate 
of speed through a curve, and that defendant failed to provide 
railings or gates to prevent passengers from falling or being 
thrown from the cars, it was not error to refuse to charge that 
the company was not bound to provide gates, and, if deceased en- 

tered the car on the front platforrri, the fact that there was no 
gate closed behind him would not constitute negligence, and to 
charge that if deceased was permitted to ride on the platform, 
and defendant negligently failed to provide any gate, railing, or 
other protection, and thereby the car was rendered unsafe, and de- 
fendant permitted the car to become overcrowded, and permitted 
deceased to be crowded by other passengers on the platform, and 
the car ran into a curve at the place of the accident at a high rate 
of speed, without warning to deceased, causing him to be thrown 
therefrom, plaintiff was entitled to recover. 

II. In an action for death of plaintiff's husband, it appeared that 
deceased had been in the photograph business for ten years, during 
which time his accumulations consisted of a small building on 
leased land, used as a photograph gallery, in which plaintiff and 
deceased lived, together with a photographer's equipment and sup- 
plies. Platintiff and her husband had no children, and plaintiff 
had been with her husband in the business, which earned a net 
annual income of $2,000. Plaintiff continued the business after 
her husband's death, but her earnings therefrom were not shown. 
Held, that a verdict of $20,000 for the death of her husband was 
e.xcessive, and should be reduced to $10,000. — (Halverson vs. 
Seattle Electric Company, 77 Pac. Rep., 1058.) 

WASHINGTON. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger — Release — 
Fraudulent Representations — Jury Question — Defense — Return 
of Amount Paid for Release — Verdict— Damages. 

1. In an action against a street railroad for injuries to a passen- 
ger caused by a collision, to which the company pleaded a release 
by plaintiff, who was also an employee of the defendant at the 
time of the injuries, evidence examined, and held that whether the 
release was obtained by fraudulent representations of the defend- 
ant's physician and representatives was a question for the jury. 

2. Where a release of a claim for injuries caused by negligence is 
obtained by fraud, the release is no defense to an action for dam- 
ages caused by the negligence. 

3. Where, at the time of fraudulency obtaining a release of a 
claim for injuries caused by negligence, a sum of money is paid 
as the purported consideration of the release, the return of the 
sum so paid prior to bringing an action for damages for the negli- 
gence is not necessary to the maintenance of the action; an allow- 
ance by the jury of the sum paid in returning the verdict being 

4. Where an employee of a street railroad is injured while riding 
as a passenger on its lines, and a release of a claim for damages is 
procured from him by fraudulent representations of the defend- 
ant's representatives, the fact that he was induced to continue in 
the service of the defendant after the release was obtained — the 
defendant paying him his wages all the time — does not militate 
against his recovery of damages for the injuries. — (Bjorklund vs. 
Seattle Electric Co., 77 Pacific Rep., 727.) 

WISCONSIN. — Carriers — Injuries to Passengers — Time to Alight 
— Premature Start — Actions — Instructions — Verdict — Weight 
of Evidence — Review. 

1. In an action for injuries to a passenger by the alleged pre- 
mature starting of a street car while she was endeavoring to alight, 
a verdict in favor of plaintiff, sustained by the trial court, held not 
so contrary to the weight of evidence as to justify reversal of a 
judgment based thereon. 

2. Where, in an action for injuries to a passenger, the court 
positively charged that if plaintiff undertook to leave the car after 
it had started and when it was in actual motion she could not re- 
cover, an instruction that if a reasonable stop was made, if plaintiff 
had given no notice that she desired to alight, if after the car started 
it occurred to plaintiff that she ought to have gotten off, when she 
attempted to alight while the car was in motion, and by reason 
thereof she fell off and was injured, she could not recover, was not 
objectionable as including elements not necessary to be passed on 
to acquit defendant of liability. — (Champane vs. La Crosse City Ry. 
Co., 99 Northwest Rep., 334.) 

WISCONSIN.— Street Railroads— Death by Wrongful Act— Col- 
lision at Crossing — Willful and Wanton Injury — Evidence — 
Sufficiency — Pleading — Proof. 

1. In an action against a street railway company for wrong- 
fully causing the death of plaintiff's intestate, by wantonly and 
willfully causing its car to collide with his vehicle, drawn by a 
runaway team across a public crossing, evidence examined, and 
held to require submission to the jury of the issue as to defendant's 
wantoness and willfulness. 

2. Where plaintiff in an action for wrongfully causing death 
alleges that it was caused by defendant's wanton and willful mis- 
conduct, he cannot recover on proof of mere negligence. — Wilson 
vs. Chippewa Valley Electric Ry. Company, 98 N. W. Rep., 536.; 

April i, 1905.] 




(From Our Regular Correspondent.) 

A welcome announcement which has recently been made, is that 
the City & South London Railway has at last received powers, and 
has, in fact, placed contracts for the construction of the extension 
of its railway from Islington to Euston. Most of the readers of 
this paper are probably aware that Euston Road accommodates the 
termini of the three most important railways extending northward 
in Great Britain, namely, the London North Western Railway sta- 
tion at Euston Square, St. Pancras station of the Midland Railway 
Company a little further to the east, and almost adjoining that sta- 
tion, just a little further to the east. King's Cross station of the 
Great Northern Railway Company. Most of the readers of this 
paper also probably know that from any part of London to the 
vicinity of these important railway stations there has been prac- 
tically no possibility of getting transportation, except by cabs, as a 
'bus journey to that vicinity is altogether too tedious, and in many 
cases implies numerous changes. The City & South London Rail- 
way, the first tube railway in Great Britain, had a sphere of useful- 
ness when it was constructed from the Bank southward to its ter- 
minus at Clapham. It increased its usefulness when it got its 
extension to Moorgate, and again made a distinct step in advance 
when it secured its extension from Moorgate to the Angel at 
Islington. There would have been no great object, however, in 
going to Islington had it not been for the hope that some day the 
company would be able to get an extension to Euston, so as to 
place the city portion of London, and the whole of the southern 
portions of London served by this railway, in connection with this 
important railway center in Euston Road. The company should 
therefore be heartily congratulated upon this distinct advance in the 
right direction, and it might also be pointed out that when this ex- 
tension is completed it will also be extremely useful for passengers 
from the North going further south (and vice versa), as there are 
exchange stations at London Bridge for the London, Brighton and 
South Coast and the South Eastern Railways, and also at the 
Elephant and Castle for the Chatham & Dover Railway. The 
scheme will serve to materially improve the transportation prob- 
lem of London, and in a year or two, when the other electric rail- 
ways and tube railways which are now under construction are com- 
pleted, London will have little to be desired in the matter of rapid 
and cheap transportation. 1 

The Birmingham Corporation Tramways has inaugurated an- 
other of its tramway routes, which has been recently converted 
from steam haulage to electrical overhead system. The new cars 
are. of the usual type, and are constructed to carry twenty-six pas- 
sengers outside and twenty-two inside, but on closer examination 
it is found that they possess certain novelties. The car rests upon 
the Conaty Lycett patent radial truck which, it is claimed, is prac- 
ularly effective in negotiating sharp corners. They have aiso been 
fitted with Raworth's patent regenerative control system, which is 
claimed regenerates and returns about 20 per cent of the power 
when the car is traveling down hill. 

The booming of the motor omnibus still continues, and as sug- 
gested in my letter of last month, this booming was the prelude to 
the flotation this month of, at least, two motor omnibus industrial 
companies with capital varying from £100,000 to £500,000. There 
is no doubt, however, but that the amount of booming which this 
industry has had in the press lately, has had an appreciable effect 
upon the tramway committees of various cities, and many of them 
are considering the adoption of the motor omnibus in some modi- 
fied form. Some of the smaller schemes for the adoption of elec- 
tric cars have even been postponed until a more thorough investi- 
gation has been made into the costs of operation of motor omni- 
buses, and it looks as if one or two would be abandoned in favor 
of the omnibus. Even in one of the sections of London where the 
trams are controlled by the Shoreditch Borough Council, though 
the cars are operated by the North Metropolitan Tramways Com- 
pany, the question of motor omnibuses is receiving great attention, 
while in Liverpool also one of the members of the City Council has 
brought forward a motion urging that the Tramways Committee 
should consider and report upon the desirability of introducing self- 
propelled motor cars and omnibuses to work in conjunction with, 
or apart form, the present system of electric cars. This action has, 
of course, aroused the Liverpool press to interview the engineers in 
Liverpool who are supposed to be experts in traction affairs. One 
of the advocates of the motor 'bus places the cost of operating an 
electric tramway from 6d. to yd. per mile, while he claims that a 
motor omnibus can be operated at gd. per car-mile. He takes also 
the tramway receipts as averaging about lod. per car mile, while he 
claims that motor omnibuses earn isd. per car mile. 

Another titanic battle is now being fought out before the special 

committee appointed by the House of Lords regarding the subject 
of electric power supply for the whole of the City of London. Re- 
cently, two companies have been organized for the purpose of sup- 
plying electric energy in bulk to London, the more important of 
which is the scheme of the Administrative County of London & 
District Electric Power Company. We have already referred to 
this company in this column, and it has evidently been promoted 
by those gentlemen who have been interested largely in the Tyne- 
side Electrical Supply Company, which has made such a great suc- 
cess of the business of supplying power to the various shipbuilding 
industries on the River Tyne. This company proposes to set up 
large generating stations at Greenwich, Silvertown and Fulham, 
and claims that as these stations will be of enormous capacity, and 
will be equipped with the very latest type of apparatus, they will be 
able to produce current and sell it at such low cost that even the 
already existing municipal authorities and private companies will 
find it to their advantage to buy their current from them. The 
company has a capital of £5,000,000, and is prepared to bind itself 
to sell electric current to the whole of London and neighboring 
areas at a maximum schedule of from slightly over three farthings 
a unit to three halfpence, and they also bind themselves not to pay 
more than 8 per cent dividends until the price of power has been 
reduced below this schedule. Naturally both of the bills referred 
to above are being vigorously opposed before the special committee, 
and it is stated that 257 petitions have been lodged against the two 
bills referred to above and one or two others of minor importance. 
There are at present in the County of London some fifteen Borough 
Councils and thirteen private companies engaged in the supply of 
electric energy, and among them there is invested at present some- 
thing like £16,500,000. The London County Council is also natur- 
ally interested in these bills, and is lending all its weight to oppose 
them, regarding these bills as a serious menace to existing and fu- 
ture electrical supply undertakings, and making the broad claim 
that the Council itself should be the authority for generating elec- 
tricity in bulk in London. 

The annual staff dinner of Dick, Kerr & Company, Ltd., of 
London, was held this month at the Holborn Restaurant, John 
Kerr, Esq., M. P., the chairman of the company, occupying the 
chair. After the usual loyal toasts, Mr. Kerr proposed the toast 
of the staff, which was replied to by Mr. W. Rutherford, manager 
of the company, and Mr. J. Conner, manager of the works at Pres- 
ton. The toast, Dick, Kerr & Company, Ltd., was proposed by 
Mr. J. B. Concannon, who is well known in connection with many 
tramway enterprises, the response being made by Mr. R. H. Prest- 
wich, chairman of the Electric Railway & Tramway Carriage Works. 
The toast to the visitors fell to Mr. D. C. Ellis, one of the directors 
of the company, and was replied to by Mr. Tom G. Clare. 
Though not on the toast list, perhaps the most important toast of 
the evening, judging by its reception, was the toast of Mr. G. Flett, 
managing director of the company, which was proposed in very 
warm and affectionate terms by Mr. Concannon. In responding, 
Mr. Flett stated that he considered the success which Dick, Kerr 
& Company had achieved in the past few years, since it had entered 
the electrical manufacturing business, to be directly traceable to the 
unanimity in the work of the staff, and if any credit extended to 
him it was in having been able to surround himself with such an 
efficient staff. He made the interesting statement also that he con- 
sidered that though in the past few years, and especially the past 
year, the competition in this business in Great Britain had been ex- 
tremely keen, he looked for it to be even keener for the next year 
or so, after which it is to be hoped that things would take a better 
course. Sandwiched in between the speeches was a most enjoyable 
programme of song and natural magic, etc., which enabled every 
one to pass a very pleasant evening. 

The 'contract for the extension of the London United Tram- 
ways which comprises two distinct sections has been awarded to J. 
G. White & Company, of London. The first section is in Kingston, 
Surbiton, Maiden and Wimbledon districts. The total route length 
of this line is about io!4 miles, and the length of single track is about 
i8>)4 miles. The second section is in Hanwell and Brentford, 
starting from a junction with existing tramways in High Street, 
brentford. The route length of these lines is about 2-5^ miles, and 
the length of single track s% miles. The amount of this contract 
is about £165,000. The track will consist generally of No. 3 B. S. 
rails, with cross girders spaced 9 ft. apart throughout, and the 
joints are supported by anchors of H section, secured to the rails 
with bolts and clips. The concrete underbed is 6 ins. thick finished 
off with a layer of I in. fine concrete, and over this a floating coat 
of I in. cement and sand to form bed for wood paving. The over- 
head construction is span wire throughout; the poles being 33 ft- 
long, and the ornamental character of the remainder of the L. U. 
T. will be preserved on the new sections. The trolley wire will 
be No. 00 B. & S. gage grooved copper wire, and will be supported 
•by mechanical ears. The height of the trolley wire above rail 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 

level will be 23 ft., which is greater than is usual, owing to special 
London conditions. 

A question was recently put to the President of the Board of 
Trade whether, under the proposed electrical equipment on the 
District Railway, there will be only one motorman to each train, and 
whether, having regard to the safety of the public, he would take 
steps to secure that there be two motormen to each train. Mr. 
Gerald Balfour says in his printed reply that he is informed by 
the railway company that every electrical train, whether of seven, 
four or three cars, on the District Railway would, in addition to 
the motormen, have one or more men who would be thoroughly in- 
structed in the control of the motors. He adds that the ef¥ect of 
the withdrawal of the motorman's hand from the lever would be 
simply to cut off the current and stop the train. As a further pre- 
caution, if a train passed a signal set at danger, it would be in- 
stantly stopped through the automatic application of the brakes. 
He saw no reason to take any action in the matter. 

In answering a question in the House of Commons relative to ac- 
cidents from the live third-rail on electric railways, Mr. Gerald Bal- 
four, president of the Board of Trade, stated that on the Lanca- 
shire & Yorkshire and London & North-Eastern railways, nine 
fatal and twenty-two non-fatal accidents have occurred through 
contact with the electrically-charged rail, including eight fatal and 
eight non-fatal accidents to trespassers, and one fatal and eleven 
non-fatal accidents to railway servants. No accidents from contact 
with the rail in question have been reported to the Board of Trade 
on any of the other lines which have recently been equipped for 
the use of electrical power in place of steam, and no such fatal ac- 
cident has, it is believed, occurred on any of the tube railways. 
The number of non-fatal accidents of this description on tube rail- 
ways, some of which have been opened now for a considerable pe- 
riod, cannot be given, as no separate record of such accidents has 
been kept, but the number, if any, must be very small. Recom- 
mendations as to the steps to be taken to prevent the occurrence of 
accidents of this character have been made from time to time to the 
railway companies and have been adopted by them ; and the matter 
is dne that receives unremitting consideration from the inspecting 
officers of the department in the execution of their duties. 

An amicable arrangement has now been arrived at by which the 
St. Annes and Lytham Tramways Company will obtain running 
powers over certain portions of the Blackpool Corporation's lines. 
In the first instance, it may be remembered, the company applied 
for running powers generally in Blackpool, and stated that it par- 
ticularly wished to go along the promenade as far as the North 
Pier. The corporation, however, intimated that it would strongly 
resist any such demand. After somewhat lengthy negotiations, the 
result is that satisfactory limitations have now been agreed upon. 
The company has not been granted running powers on any portion 
of the Promenade. It will, however, be given the use of the Sta- 
tion-road line on an annual rental of £250 a year. It will thus be 
able to "pick-up" from the Promenade opposite the Victoria Pier, 
and this concession should lead to a very big increase in 

The completed portion of the system of electric tramways in 
course of construction by the Pontypridd District Council was re- 
cently opened for traffic. 

Mr. Ernest Hatton has been appointed general manager of the 
New Castle Corporation Tramways. Mr. Hatton came from Wal- 
lingford, and laid down a system of tramways in Liverpool at the 
age of twenty-three years. He went from Liverpool to Birken- 
head, and thence to Salford at the time when the Salford Corpo- 
ration took over the horse tramways from a company. He trans- 
ferred the whole system without the assistance of any expert into 
the present electrical system, building car sheds and placing the 
overhead equipment. ]\Ir. Hatton expects to be able to save the 
Newcastle Corporation a very large sum of money by changes in 
its present method of operation. 

Mr. William Grant, manager of the Rotherham Corporation 
Tramways, has been appointed manager of the tramways of Ayr. 

The Board of Trade has issued a new regulation in regard to 
the adoption of top covers on narrow-gage tramcars. The Board 
points out that it will not approve of such tops on cars run on 
tracks measuring 3 ft. 6 ins. or less in width. Among tramway 
managers the matter is regarded very seriously, and the Executive 
Committee of the Municipal Tramways Association had the sub- 
ject under consideration in Birmingham a day or two ago, and 
decided to make a strong representation to the Board of Trade in 
reference to the new regulation. 

A Parlimentary Return recently issued on Tramways and Light 
Railways is of interest in showing how electric traction is super- 
seding steam and horse working on the roads. The return gives 
the following table, which relates to an electric period, as compared 
with 1898, which was a maximum steam period, and 1879, which 
was almost wholly a horse period: — 


Capital expenditure per mile of single 




track open : 




11 nQi\ 





Percentage of net receipts to capital out- 




Percentage of working expenditure to 




Passengers carried per mile of route open. 










Amount paid in relief of rates out of 

profits of undertakings worked by local 

authorities £207,087 Not given. Not given. 

The number of undertakings dealt with is 312, of which 162 be- 
long to local authorities, who have spent £28,060,524 thereon in 
connection with 1147M miles open for traffic. Of tramways and 
light railways, other than belonging to local authorities, there were 
150, on which £18,390,920 had been spent, for 692 miles of road. 
The total mileage was thus 1840, and of this no less than 1462 miles 
were worked electrically, io8j4 miles by steam, and 235^ miles 
by horses. Passengers to the number of 1,799,342,673 were carried 
during the year 1903-4, and the gross receipts were £8,604,834. 
Expenses came to £5,692,774, leaving £2,912,110 as net revenue. 

The Stirling Town Council, which has been considering for a 
considerable time proposals to acquire the existing tramway be- 
tween Stirling and Bridge of Allan, has decided that the time was 
not opportune for putting upon the ratepayers of Stirling the large 
responsibility which such an imdertaking would involve. The 
Council agreed to give every facility to any private company that 
might take up the work. A. C. S. 


[From Our Regular Correspondent.^ 

Although the Paris Metropolitan Railway was opened for ser- 
vice on July 19, 1900, the official inauguration was held last month, 
that is, on March 11, 1905. However, late inaugurations have the 
advantage that at them facts instead of unrealized hopes can be 
discussed. On Saturday afternoon March 11, a special train draped 
with flags, and brilliantly illuminated, proceeded the whole length 
of line 3, transporting some 400 passengers, among whom were 
the minister of public works, presidents of the municipal and gen- 
eral councils, prefect of the Seine and prefect of police, the prin- 
cipal administrative and executive officers of the Metropolitan Rail- 
way Company, and the various deputies and senators of the Seine 
department. A visit was also made to the St. Fargeau work- 
shops of the company. Everything passed off satisfactorily. The 
train was composed of the new multiple-unit train control equip- 
ments, some 90 of which have been furnished recently by the 
French Thomson-Houston Company. The minister of public 
works distributed a number of decorations and medals among the 
principal officers of the Metropolitan Company. 

The question of repurchase of the French railways by the State, 
which comes up periodically with change of governments, has 
again come to the front. The minister of public works has given 
an evasive answer regarding his views, awaiting the conclusions of 
a committee appointed to report on the question. M. Rouvier, the 
new head of the French Government, has already made known his 
unfavorable views regarding the repurchase. The matter has es- 
pecial interest to the Ouest Railway, which would be the first to 
come under the new regime. 

In Italy on the other hand, the repurchase of the principal rail- 
ways by the State has already formed the basis of a project now 
before the Italian Government. The scheme includes the acquisi- 
tion of three out of four of the principal railways, the Mediterra- 
nean, the Adriatic and the Sicilian, of a total length of 10,560 km. 
The total expense, including a credit for putting the lines into 
proper state of repair, is estimated to be about $200,000,000, which 
the government expect to be able to liquidate without having re- 
course to a loan. The Italian press is not very enthusiastic over 
the scheme, which must, however, be finally decided within the 
next four months, at which date the contracts with the railway 
companies terminate. 

Meanwhile, in France, the various steam light railways and 
tramways, of which there is a considerable number, are gradually 
being replaced by electric power. The steam line between Ver- 
sailles and Meulun is about to be transformed and extended as is 
also the steam line between Paris and Versailles. The decision to 
electrify the Paris-St. Germain line was reached some months ago. 
All these are well established light steam railways, built many 
years ago, and all paying fair dividends under the present regime. 

In a general way the electric tramways are maintaining their 

April i, 1905.] 


dividends for the past year, and in some instances are increasing 
them. Very few have as yet held their annual meetings, as these, 
as a rule, occur during the end of March, or in April. The Rouen 
Tramways Company has increased its dividend from 5 to 6 per 
cent, and it is anticipated that several other provincial tramways 
will follow suit. 

The Metropolitan Railway, of Paris, receipts for the present 
year exceed those of the same period of 1904 by Frs 1,391,700, and 
it has carried over eight million passengers more than the corre- 
sponding period of 1904. This is, however, not surprising in view 
of the opening of line 3. The average daily number of passengers 
transported exceeds 450,000. 

Recently the Metropolitan Company has been cited before the 
courts for permitting overcrowding on its cars, and the court 
found that the company, in the person of the "chief d'exploitation," 
were in principle culpable of negligence in the matter. The case 
was of course a test one by the municipal authorities. 

In Italy the continued activity in respect to the formation of new 
societies and companies for electric traction calls for attention. 
More than one rather important scheme has been approved by the 
government, which has given substantial support to the promotion 
by means of an annual subsidy per kilometer, varying from 3000 to 
4000 liri, for the term of 70 years. Needless to add, these lines are 
to be operated by electric traction. 

The direct current 6oo-volt line existing between Gallarate and 
Barese is to have its track doubled over a portion of its length, 
owing to traffic exigencies. Another notable event is the final 
completion of the Varese-Luino three-phase line, which has long 
been deferred owing to various complications. Trial trains have 
been run over the line and the inauguration will probably take 
place in the near future. On the Milan-Monza line, where accu- 
mulators were employed for some years to run a series of cars on 
this line, the experiment has been definitely abandoned, as finan- 
cial results were not encouraging. The Edison electric tramway of 
15 km long serving this route aided considerably in bringing this 
decision about. Finally, the line from Naples-Resino, of a length 
of 35 km, has been successfully inaugurated. M. V. 



Through the courtesy of Malcolm J. McLeod, commissioner of 
labor of Michigan, the Street Railway Journal has been per- 
mitted to make extracts from the report of the department on 
street railways, which is now in press. The information solicited 
by the department covered the names of lines, location of offices, 
names and addresses of managers, capital stock, whether road is 
operated in city or is interurban in character, number of miles 
measured as single track, number of miles that are interurban, 
amount expended for permanent improvements during the past 
year, receipts from passenger traffic in past year, receipts from 
foreign traffic during same time, all other receipts, number of 
cars, both passenger and freight, price of single fare and rates 
when purchasing tickets, whether transfers were given, total num- 
ber of passengers carried during the year, and average fare for 
each passenger carried. In addition to this a classified list of em- 
ployees is given, with the average hours worked per day for 
each class and the average number of hours constituting a day's 
work. The financial statistics are all given in the aggregate. The 
report is the first of its kind ever published in relation to the rail- 
ways of the State. 

The statistics show there are 25 separate electric railways now 
being operated in the State. These have a total of 1158 miles of 
single track. The capital stock of the companies is given at 
$34,075,000, of which $1,600,000 is reported as preferred stock. The 
actual value of the roads with their equipments approximates 
$45,000,000. Last year 18 of these lines spent $1,682,718 for per- 
manent improvements, 10 of them extending their lines to the ex- 
tent of over 62 miles. 

During the year 151,001,029 passengers were carried on these 
lines, the sum of $6,581,275 being received for passenger traffic 
alone. The average rate of fare for all passengers carried was 
.04 1-3 each. During this same period the receipts from freight 
traffic were $229,612, and $99,314 was received from other sources, 
making the total receipts of the 25 lines $6,910,201. 

The combined lines operate 1494 cars, of which 1352 are for pas- 
senger traffic. In furthering the conveniences of travel 17 of the 
lines give transfers, the lines that do not being the ones operating 
outside the cities, or where the lines are continuous, so that a 
transfer is not needed. On five of these lines transfer tickets 
are given where one transfer has already been made. On most 
of the interurban or county lines tickets are sold at the rate of 
one and one-half cents per mile, but on almost every line reductions 
are made when tickets are purchased in bulk. Then, too, special 

school tickets, laborers tickets, etc., are a feature of a numlier of 

At the time the canvass was made the lines were employing in 
the aggregate 5144 people who were paid an average daily wage 
of $i.8g, ranging from $4.16 for a division superintendent to $1.12 
for the most common labor. Among the classified employees the 
wages of a large per cent are computed by the hour, none of the 
classifications averaging more than 11 hours per day, the average 
of the entire canvass being slightly above 10 hours for each day. 
The statistics show that approximately 50 per cent of the receipts 
of the electric lines in Michigan is paid for the labor they employ. 

A partial canvass of the electric roads of the State made in 1895 
showed the aggregate capital stock of all the companies was less 
than $8,000,000. There were operated at the time 400 miles of 
track. The annual receipts of all the companies were reported at 
$2,231,468, while their indebtedness approximated $11,000,000. At 
that time 1865 employees were canvassed, 75 per cent of the num- 
ber conductors and motormen. Although this large per cent were 
of the better paid employees, the canvass showed that the average 
per diem received by all employees was only $1.69. 


It is reported from Kalamazoo that the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company has been awarded the contract for 
equipping the Grand Rapids & Kalamazoo Valley Electric Rail- 
way. This road is to be sixty miles in length. The board of di- 
rectors of the company is composed of W. H. Patterson and Frank 
Henry, of Kalamazoo ; E. J. Anderson, of Plainwell ; B. B. Kelsey 
and George Heffron, of Grand Rapids. 


The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Employees' Association is giving 
to its members and their friends at the East New York club house, 
an entertainment the like of which has never before been at- 
tempted in street railway association work. It is a vaudeville 
show for each evening during the week commencing Monday, 
March 27, with the special matinee on Saturday for the children 
of the members. Professional talent only has been engaged. 

The main floor of the club house is so arranged that there are 
a lecture room with 500 permanent sittings, a gymnasium, and a 
game room, fitted with billiard, pool, card and checker tables. In 
designing the building the wise provision was made for temporary 
partitions to separate these rooms from each other. For such oc- 
casions as the present one the partitions are removed and tempo- 
rary sittings placed on the gy-mnasium and game room floors, giving 
a total seating capacity of 1000. In addition to these is a permanent 
stage, also complete scenery and a drop curtain, all the property of 
the association. This makes possible the staging of almost any 
kind of a theatrical show. 

Promptly at 8:15 each evening, the entertainment is begun. 
There are nine sketches, consuming in all 3 hours 15 minutes for 
th.eir presentation. In them appear the best talent the metropoli- 
tan section has to ofifer. First there is an overture on the piano. 
Following this is a sketch entitled ".A.11 the Comforts of Home." 
"The Wonder" then does some truly wonderful things on a tight 
rope, and two colored artists appear in a musical sketch. Here 
the programme is varied by the telling of funny stories, several of 
which are puns on the company management. "Clancy's Second 
Job" follows. After this come two acrobats in a special feature. 
They are followed by "The Professor's Courtship," and "The Fel- 
low Who Looks Like Me," both of which are v\'ell acted. The en- 
tertainment is closed by a series of moving pictures. On Satur- 
day afternoon there is to be a special matinee for the children, at 
which it has been arranged to have a novel contest on the stage 
among young folks from the audience. To the winner will be 
awarded a valuable prize, the form of which is yet to be decided. 

The expenses of this entertainment will all be defrayed from a 
special entertainment fund of the association, out of which were 
paid the school expenses. Like all of the attractions of the asso- 
ciation, this one is w^ithout cost to the members. Each employee 
is entitled to two tickets, and as a special favor the company has 
arranged for free transportation to and from the club house by 
attaching to each ticket two coupons good for passage over the 
elevated or the surface lines. 

Geo. F. Wolfram, trainmaster of the Brooklyn Bridge division, 
Ilenry Pistor, superintendent of the Bergen Street division, and 
Geo. W. Edwards, the secretary of the association, arc the com- 
mittee in charge of the entertainment. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 


R. D. Apperson, of Lynchburg, Va., confirms the report that he 
and his associates have purchased the Montgomery Traction Com- 
pany, of Montgomery, Ala. All the stock and bonds of the com- 
pany have been taken over, and new officers have been elected as 
follows: R. D. Apperson, president; Charles R. Miller, secre- 
tary and treasurer. The deal really was consummated March i, 
but announcement of its completion was not made until a few 
days ago. On Feb. 25 the company went into the hands of a re- 
ceiver. On March 16 the receiver was discharged, and Mr. Ap- 
person assumed formal control of the property. W. H. Ragland 
was appointed general manager, and C. C. Hogshead, superin- 
tendent. Important plans for betterments are already well laid. 
Five miles of additional double-track line have been contracted for. 
An order has been placed with the J. G. Brill Company for four 
38-ft. convertible cars, each to be equipped with four GE 67 motors 
and air brakes. It is planned to build a car shed, repair and paint 
shop as soon as a suitable sight can be obtained. The present 
equipment of the road will be entirely overhauled. Park improve- 
ments also are contemplated. At Pickett Springs a skating rink 
and other attractions will be installed. Mr. Apperson, who ne- 
gotiated the purchase, is president of the Lynchburg Traction & 
Light Company, Lynchburg Water Power Company, Roanoke 
Railway & Electric Company, Petersburg Gas Company, and the 
Columbia Gas Light Company. 



The officers of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway Company 
on March 17 celebrated the opening of train service from that 
road over the Metropolitan Elevated tracks into the heart of Chi- 
cago. The actual beginning of this service was on March 11. The 
officers of the company invited a number of newspaper men, elec- 
tric railway men and others to take a trip over the company's line, 
leaving the downtown terminal of the Metropolitan Elevated on 
Fifth Avenue, near Jackson Boulevard at noon. The guests found 
a dining car ready to serve luncheon, and the meal began as soon 
as the train started. The guests sat down to what was probably the 
most elaborate meal ever served on an electric railway dining car. 
It was nothing of the buffet lunch order, but a substantial luncheon 
of seven or eight courses of the best the market affords. Had it 
been served in the evening at a downtown restaurant, followed by 
after dinner speaking, it would have been called a banquet. The 
train consisted of two cars — the dining car for the guests and 
one of the company's ordinary motor cars, which furnished the 
power and served the purpose of a kitchen and supply car. The 
dining car is arranged for use either as a parlor or dining car for 
special parties, and it is not unlikely now that the road has a down- 
town terminal some kind of a dining car service will be given, so 
that members of the golf clubs near Wheaton can leave Chicago at 
12 or I o'clock and secure a buf¥et lunch on the way out. The 
special train went first to Aurora, then back to Eola Junction, then 
to Batavia, where the power house was visited, and then to Elgin. 
From Elgin back to Wheaton, a run of sixteen miles, was made 
in 17 minutes. 

The object of the excursion was to celebrate the opening of 
through car service to the downtown district of Chicago. For- 
merly cars of this road stopped at Fifty-Second Avenue and trans- 
ferred passengers to the elevated cars. The running of cars down 
town without change has resulted in an immediate and decided in- 
crease in the receipts, and rneans the making not only of this rail- 
way property, but of the suburban territory adjacent to it. 

The officers of the road who were present in person to enter- 
tain the guests were: President L. J. Wolf, of Cleveland; General 
Manager Edwin C. Faber ; Superintendent of Transportation Joseph 
O'Hara, and Auditor C. E. Flenner. The Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated Railway Company, which is the road over which the 
A. E. & C. Railway secured its terminal facilities, was represented 
by General Manager H. M. Brinckerhoff and Chief Engineer W. 
S. Menden. Colonel Bliss, attorney for the Chicago City Railway, 
and Theodore Stebbins, general manager for the receiver of the 
Appleyards roads in Ohio, were among the guests. 

It was, of course, a proud day for the officers of the A. E. & C. 
Railway when they were able to take a party from the heart of 
Elgin to the heart of Chicago in less time than they could have 
been taken by the competing steam railroads, and surrounded by 
comforts equal to those found on the best limited trains of the 
steam railway trunk lines running between New York and Chi- 
cago. The special car on which this party was taken attained a 
speed of over sixty miles per hour as comfortably as any railroad 
train in the world. 

The London firm of J. G. White & Company, Ltd., has secured 
the contract for the conversion of one of the oldest mule roads in 
South America into an up-to-date electric traction system, viz., 
the Tramway Rural, which system was operated in and around 
Buenos- Aires, the principal city in the Argentine Republic, by 
Lacrozc Brothers. The present road is about twenty-five miles 
long. It will be considerably extended. The White interests re- 
cently opened offices in Buenos-Aires. The orders will be placed 
through London, and those that come to this side will be handled 
through J. G. White & Company, of New York. The White in- 
terests have also secured an important contract for the building of 
another extensive electric traction system in South America, they 
having been awarded the contract for the construction and re- 
construction of 82.7 km of single track in Montevideo, capital of 
Uruguay. The work includes permanent ways construction, over- 
head, underground and overhead feeder system; remodeling of 
stations for workshops and cars ; erection of power house ; build- 
ing equipment of power^ station for generating 1950-kw, rolling 
stock, consisting of 70 convertible cars, 20 open cars, and one flat 
car and all accessory and contingent work which may be required 
to equip the whole system complete and ready for operation. The 
contract for the rails has already been allotted to the United 
States Steel Products Export Company, which handles the foreign 
business of the LInited States Steel Corporation. The cars will 
probably be purchased abroad. 

The value of the entire Montevideo contract is about $1,825,000. 




The Charleston & Summerville Railway Company, of which Og- 
den Edwards, of Troy, Ohio, is president, and Col. George Tupper, 
of Summerville, secretary and treasurer has entered into a con- 
tract with the Southern Electric Construction Company, of which 
Gen. Warner, of Gainesville, Ga., is president, and J. W. Davis, of 
Troy, Ohio, secretary and treasurer, to build an electric railway in 
Charleston, therefrom to Summerville and in Summerville, being 
about twenty-five miles in length. The power house is to be lo- 
cated at some point between Charleston and Summerville. The 
capacity of the plant will be 1500 kw. There will be six motor 
cars equipped with at least 200-hp motors. There will also be 
twelve trailers, two mail and express cars and two small modern 
freight and package cars. 


Another of the Appleyard properties in Ohio has been placed in 
a receiver's hands. It is the Urbana, Bellefontaine & Northern 
Railway, and the appointment was made as a result of a suit 
brought by bondholders, who stated that the interest due Feb. i, 
1905, had been defaulted. The receivers are J. G. Schmidlapp, of 
Cincinnati, and Myron H. Wilson, of Cleveland, who are acting as 
receivers for the other properties. 

Suit in foreclosure of the mortgage given to secure an issue of 
$500,000 bonds on the Central Market Street Railway Company 
has been brought by the New York Trust Company, trustee for 
the bonds. The property is already in the hands of receivers. 

All claim of Mr. Appleyard to an interest in the Ohio River & 
Western Railway, the steam road which he proposed to electrify, 
has been eliminated. The Hamby-Mooney syndicate, which owned 
the property, said that Mr. Appleyard never paid for his interest 
and they have been fighting for the property. Recently Mr. Apple- 
yard transferred his claims to Charles K. Lawton, of Boston, who 
held the stock as collateral on a loan. Last week Mr. Lawton ef- 
fected a compromise with the former owners and they now con- 
trol the property without opposition. There is nothing now to in- 
dicate that the road will be electrified. 

W. B. McKinley, of Champaign, 111., head of the so-called 
McKinley syndicate, has issued a circular to the effect that the 
majority of holders of notes and unsecured indebtedness have re- 
quested the following committee to act in reorganizing the Dayton, 
Springfield & Urbana, and the Columbus, London & Springfield 
lines; Wm. B. McKinley, chairman; A. E. Lochen, of Boston, sec- 
retary; O. T. Martin, of Springfield, counsel. All notes and evi- 
dences of indebtedness are to be deposited with the Union Savings 
Bank & Trust Company, of Cincinnati, by April i. 

As outlined elsewhere in this issue, all the construction material 
used in the building of the Appleyard lines is to be sold by order 
of the court on April 4. 

April i, 1905.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 630 


The Toledo Interurban Construction Company has awarded to 
the Allis-Chalmers Company the contract for the complete equip- 
ment of the new power house of the Toledo, Port Clinton & Lake 
Side Railway at Port Clinton, Ohio, including two 1280-hp 
Reynolds-Corliss engines, two 800-kw a. c. generators, two 50-kw 
d. c. generators, and one 400-kw a. c. rotary converter, all of Bul- 
lock type ; two Tomlinson barometric condensers, and boilers, 
pumps, heaters, etc. The contract calls for the completion of the 
plant in every detail by or before July i, and is noteworthy from 
the fact that of the very varied equipment to be furnished, the 
greater portion will be constructed in the manufactories of the suc- 
cessful bidders. Bullock railway motors have been in successful 
operation on this road for some time past. 

Arrangements have been made to have the extension of the rail- 
way completed as far as Marblehead, and cars put in operation to 
that place from Toledo by the date specified. It is planned to run 
cars the entire length of the line — from Toledo to Lakeside — in two 
hours. Power for that portion of the road already in operation is 
being taken at present from a rotary converter used as a generator 
in the temporary power plant at Genoa, but the better facilities 
which will be afforded for distributing power equally over the en- 
tire system, and other conditions, make Port Clinton a more de- 
sirable point, and upon completion of the plant there the one at 
Genoa will be used only as a sub-station. Another sub-station is 
temporarily located below Oak Harbor. 

— ^♦h, 


Ford, Bacon & Davis, of New York, engineers for the Nash- 
ville Railway & Light Company, of Nashville, Tenn., inform the 
Street Railway Journal that it is proposed to build a new car 
house and machine shop in Nashville. The shop will be used only 
for repair work. 



Dr. H. B. Rockwell, of Cleveland, who formerly conducted a 
similar organization in New England, is forming in Ohio an asso- 
ciation of the city and interurban railway companies to be known as 
the Railway Adjusting Bureau. He proposes that various roads 
pool their interests in the matter of accidents so that the resulting 
losses shall be divided among all the members of the association. 
The plan will cover claims for ejectments and other similar claims 
that might be brought against a road. L is also the intention to 
have an inspection bureau for the purpose of improving and stan- 
dardizing roads which constitute the bureau. The contract pro- 
vides that each road shall pay into the bureau annually an amount 
equal to 35^ per cent of its gross earnings for that period. All 
claims will be paid from this fiuid, and at the end of the year the 
amounts remaining after the expenses of the bureau have been 
paid will be returned to the companies in the form of dividends. 
Any company whose losses in a year shall exceed its assessment 
will not be entitled to share in dividends. In other words, the 
roads which have the largest claims receive the smallest profits. 
The fund in the treasury will not be reduced below $50,000. It is 
provided that not more than $40,000 shall be paid in settlement of 
claims from any single accident, and that not more than $7,500 
shall be paid by the bureau in settlement of any one claim. The 
bureau will be managed by an executive committee selected by the 
companies, and a treasurer appointed by the committee shall be 
custodian of the funds. 

The bureau will retain the services of e.x;pert adjusters, detec- 
tives, attorneys, physicians, and will take charge of all cases, re- 
lieving the company of all expense connected with an accident. 
The scheme is particularly advantageous for small roads that can- 
not afford the services of expert adjusters. It also relieves them of 
the possibility of a disastrous accident which might be so ex- 
pensive as to result in their financial embarrassment. The 
inspection bureau would have a tendency to improve the standard 
of all roads interested. Dr. Rockwell has presented his plan to 
the managers in Ohio and outlined it before a recent meeting of 
the Ohio Interurban Railway Association. He has the endorse- 
ment of such men as Henry A. Everett, F. T. Pomeroy, Warren 
Bicknell, C. W. Wason and other prominent Cleveland managers, 
and has obtained contracts from six or seven roads in this district. 
However, the plan will not become operative until companies hav- 
ing gross receipts aggregating $2,000,000 shall have become iden- 
tified with the bureau. 


C. A. Alderman, of Springfield ( )hio, receiver for the Great 
Northern Construction Company, which built all the Appleyard 
properties ii: Ohio, is offering for sale all the construction equip- 
ment used in building these lines. The sale will be held six miles 
north of Urbana, Ohio, on the Urbana, Bellefontaine & Northern 
Railway, April 4, at 10 a. m. The property consists of two loco- 
motives, a stationary engine and pump, a steam shovel, twenty 
center dump cars, five flat cars, two push cars, twelve small dump 
cars, shovels, picks, mauls and other material; also a railroad 
parlor car fitted with buffet and berths and upholstered in leather. 


In the Detroit "United Weekly" for March 22, is reproduced in 
its entirety "Come Along," the prize song of the Detroit United 
Railway Company. In addition to this the company has had 
printed for distribution copies of the song in standard music sheet 
size. These latter are in appropriate dress. There is a drawing 
in outline presumably of a supposititious scene along a trolley line, 
the crest of the hill being topped by cottages, while at the foot is 
the "babbling" brook. A reproduction in colors of a standard in- 
terurban car conveys the idea of what "Come Along" is all about. 
This is directly in tfie center of the page. In the lower left hand 
cover is a likeness of Paul H^offichter, the composer of the song. 

The piece is written in the key of C. As it is in three-quarter 
time, it is an excellent waltz, and would become distinctly popular 
for this reason alone. The setting on the whole is excellent. The 
chorus runs like this: "Come along, ding dong; hear the clanging 
gong. All aboard for a ride on the trolley. Let us sing aloud 
with the merry crowd; Come along, come along and be jolly. The 
rich and poor are on a par on the trolley," etc., etc. 


A. H. Smith, general manager of the New York Central & Hud- 
son River Railroad, after a trip of inspection of the Rome, Water- 
town & Ogdensburg division on March 22, said in an interview at 
Syracuse that the company is planning to electrify the portion of 
the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg along the Black River from 
Carthage to Watertown, and thence to Sacketts Harbor on Lake 
Ontario. Mr. Smith was accompanied in his tour of inspection by 
A. T. Hardin, chief engineer of maintenance of way, and a pre- 
vious inspection of the territory had been made by C. Loomis 
Allen, general manager of the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railroad. 

Mr. Smith says that it is the purpose of the company to sub- 
stitute electricity for steam as motive power at an early date on 
such portions of the system as are best adapted to it, leaving the 
general plan of electrification for short haul business for later 
development. It is understood that power for the electrified por- 
tions of the R. W. & O. in Jefiferson County will be developed from 
Black River water power. Among the towns and cities to be 
served by the improved system will be Carthage, West Carthage, 
Black River, Watertown and Sacketts Harbor. 


Indiana interurban men were greatly interested in a report dur- 
ing the past week that the erection of a mammoth power generat- 
ing plant is projected in the heart of the Indiana coal field to fur- 
nish power to traction lines in Central and Southern Indiana at a 
rate much lower than the present one. The erection of such a 
plant was once before suggested, but this time the interurban men 
are encouraged because of the character of the Eastern men who 
are back of the project, and are only waiting the assurance that 
enough electric power can be sold to put the enterprise through. 

The plan of the promoters is to buy a large tract of coal land in 
Green or Sullivan County and to erect the power house on this 
land. The coal mined would be directly at hand. The power 
house would be erected so that additional capacity could easily be 
had. The estimated cost of the plant, wires and poles is $1,000,000. 
It is known that Eastern capitalists have had two experts in In- 
diana for two weeks or more, and while they are reticent con- 
cerning details, traction men have indulged the presumption con- 
cerning the cause of their presence. The new company would also 
contract to furnish small cities and towns and many of the adja- 
cent coal mines with electric power, and light. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 


Paul Winsor has been appointed chief engineer of motive power 
and rolHng stock, exercising general supervision over the mechani- 
cal and electrical engineering of the Boston Elevated Railway 
Company and the work of the department of motive power and 
machinery and the department of wires and conduits, reporting 
tu the vice-president. John W. Corning, having charge of the elec- 
trical engineering and records of the department of wires, will 
hereafter report direct to the chief engineer of motive power and 
rolling stock. C. H. Hile has been appointed assistant to the vice- 
president, and James P. Boyden has been appointed acting super- 
intendent of wires. John Lindall has been appointed assistant 
superintendent of motive power and machinery, and will give 
special attention to the care and maintenance of trucks, wiring, 
motors and the electrical apparatus of all cars, both surface and 
elevated. Clark W. Doty has been appointed acting general fore- 
man of shops, elevated lines. 


The sum of $300,000 has been voted by the Aldermen of New 
York to provide for temporary relief in the handling of the 
crowds using the Manhattan terminal of the elevated lines oper- 
ated from Brooklyn over the Brooklyn Bridge. Four nev/ train 
platforms, three platform additions, and a full set of new stairways 
to serve them, besides more space on the mezzanine floor, are to 
be built. The two existing main platforms for elevated and 
bridge trains are to be extended 75 ft. eastwardly towards Brook- 
lyn. These two extensions will go out beyond the present train 
shed in the form of inverted Vs. Both will be covered. The ex- 
isting terminal platform between the switching tracks is to be ex- 
tended about 20 ft. easterly, and slightly widened. Hung on the 
north and south sides of the present shed will be long galleries, 
roofed over, and supported by brackets above the roadways. These 
two galleries will be 14 ft. wide, and will feed trains opposite the 
present loading platforms. New side platforms are to be built 
outside the present terminal switching tracks from a point op- 
posite the end of the central platform, to the westerly end of the 
train shed. These platforms will be 25 ft. in width, and will over- 
lap the easterly side platforms about 60 ft. They will also extend 
about 78 ft. outside the present train shed across Park Row. The 
total length of these platforms will be 275 ft. There will be nine 
new flights of stairs, two for each of the new side platforms, ex- 
cept on the southerly side of the present terminal tracks, where 
there will be three. Several of the existing stairways are to be 


A continued hearing on the Boston & Providence situation was 
held at the State House in Boston, March 22, by the legislative 
committee on street railways. Howard C. Forbes, of Boston, a 
consulting engineer, opposed all the special bills seeking charters 
and the right to take private land by eminent domain. He stated 
tliat he represented interests desiring to form the Boston & Provi- 
dence Interurban (Electric) Railroad under the general railroad 
law, and that his project is blocked while this legislation is pending. 
He claimed that the two underlying ideas of the seventeen meas- 
ures before the committee are: 

1. Operating cars at railroad speeds under a street railway law. 

2. A high-speed railway running partly upon the highways and 
partly upon private land. He opposed the bills on the grounds that 
they are not in the interest of public safety ; that they would not 
supply the kind of rapid transit which the people want ; that they 
would tend to block the development of a better interurban service ; 
that they are unnecessary legislation, and that certain of them are 
special legislation. 

Mr. Forbes then discussed the subject of interurban railways at 
length, stating that they occupy a position midway between the 
street railways and the steam roads, combining the advantageous 
features of each and serving the public well through frequent cars, 
cheap fares, high speed and local stops en route. He emphasized 
the characteristics of the lines operating between cities in the 
Middle West, also handing the committee descriptions of the line 
between Seattle and Tacoma, and the Wilkesbarre & Hazleton road 
as printed in the Street Railway Journal. He urged that the 
line to be built between Boston and Providence should not be per- 
mitted to be a combination street-and-private-right-of-way line, 
largely on the ground that the numerous highway crossings, curves 
and street running would be dangerous. The interurban road f;ir- 
nishes the people with a kind of transportation which they have not 

had before. An irresistible demand for this kind of service pre- 
vails throughout the country. Economically, it has already in the 
West become a great factor in the development of the country and 
in the production of wealth. It offers to the people greatly in- 
creased facilities for inter-communication. It causes people to 
travel more than they previously did, and thereby creates a large 
portion of its traffic. Every community that it touches is bene- 
fited, and in the end the competing steam roads gain more than 
they lose through competition. Mr. Forbes closed by saying that 
the steam roads have not furnished the so-called "interurban" ser- 
vice, although they have had at least ten years' opportunity to do so. 
They will not furnish such service, nor do they intend that anyone 
else shall. Such a policy is out of harmony with the public interest. 

John Balch Blood, consulting engineer, of Boston, then urged 
the necessity of building a line that would stand for years as an 
example of the best high-speed practice in the field of interurban 
railway work. He prohibited the use of streets and strongly ad- 
vocated the abolition of grade crossings. To his mind there are no 
insuperable engineering difficulties in the way. 

The principal arguments in opposition from the steam railroads 
were presented by W. H. Coolidge, of the Boston & Maine, who 
took the ground that electric railroads should not be granted the 
privileges accorded steam roads without the corresponding re- 

■ *^ 


The important announcement is made that the Chicago City Rail- 
way Company has adopted as its standard hand brake for all new 
rolling stock, the Peacock brake, made by the National Brake Com- 
pany, Inc., of Buffalo, N. Y. The initial order alone calls for the 
equipment of 100 cars, requiring 200 brakes in all. That the Pea- 
cock brake is rapidly displacing the old-time hand brake on many 
railways, both large and small, is evidenced by contracts lately re- 
ceived from the Rhode Island Company, of Providence, the Con- 
necticut Railway & Lighting Company, the Des Moines City Rail- 
way Company, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, etc. 



The opposition being made by the representatives of the New 
York & Port Chester Railroad against the New York, Westchester 
& Boston Railroad, to prevent it from building its four-track electric 
line through the Bronx and Westchester County under the fran- 
chise secured from the New York Board of Aldermen, came before 
Attorney-General Mayer in Albany on Monday, March 27, on an ap- 
plication to begin a taxpayer's action to have the charter of the 
New York, Westchester & Boston Company declared invalid. 

The petitioner is Anthony Stumpf, of Bronx Borough. In be- 
half of the application it was asserted that the charter of the com- 
pany had lapsed in 1882, and that the special act of the legislature 
secured in 1903 did not rehabilitate it. It was also asserted that the 
company was never duly incorporated, as its certificate filed with 
the Secretary of State did not have attached, as required by law, 
the declaration that 10 per cent of its capital had been paid in. 

Samuel Untermyer and Charles A. Collin appeared as attorneys 
for the petitioner, and Edward Lauterbach, William B. Horn- 
blower, George S. Graham and J. T. Richards for the New York, 
Westchester & Boston. The latter attorneys impugned the motive 
of the petitioner and recited that he had attempted to hurt the 
credit of the company by certain publications. 

It was argued that the New York, Westchester & Boston had se- 
cured in 1903 the passage of two laws by the legislature which 
made its charter valid. The banking firm of Dick & Robinson took 
up the question of the financing of the construction of the road 
and employed as counsel to advise them as to the validity of its 
charter, John G. Johnson and George S. Graham, leaders of the 
Philadelphia bar, and W. B. Hornblower and Charles E. Hughes. 
These attorneys reported favorably on the charter. 

Attorney-General Mayer took the papers and reserved his de- 



Lee, Higginson & Company, of Boston, are offering $225 per 
share for a majority or all of the stock of the Springfield Street 
Railway Company, of Springfield, Mass. Stockholders have the 
option of taking all cash or $75 in cash and $140 in 4 per cent 
cumtilative preferred stock of a holding company, to be called the 
Springfield Railways Companj'. 

April i, 1905.] 




The' Indestructible Fibre Company has just completed a large 
plant at Massena, N. Y., which is equipped with modern machinery 
throughout for the manufacture of a composition known as in- 
destructible fibre. This material is manufactured of wood fibre 
hydraulically preserved so as to make a compact and durable board, 
which can be supplied in any shape or width and which takes a 
high polish. It is being put on the market for car headlinings for 
both steam and street railway use. The sales end of this depart- 
ment will be in charge of Edward H. Chapin, of 35 Nassau Street, 
New York, who will conduct it as a side line to his other duties. 


The New York Central Railroad's passenger department is ar- 
ranging for closer connection between its fast trains and the cars 
of the electric railroads in Central New York, the contral of which 
it recently acquired. In carrying out this idea George H. Daniels, 
general passenger agent, and other passenger men last week 
made a tour of inspection of the trolley lines in the territory men- 
tioned. The trip ended at Syracuse on March 24, when the Syra- 
cuse Rapid Transit system was studied. The day before the party 
inspected the Utica & Mohawk Valley and the Schenectady rail- 

At Syracuse Mr. Daniels said to the representative of the Street 
Railway Journal in that city: "We are simply putting into 
practice what we have planned from the first. We intend to make 
the electric lines feeders to our system, and to do this more ef- 
fectively we plan to establish co-operative time-tables, as it were, 
thus making the connection between the two branches of our 
service very close." 

It is the intention to place on sale, soon, tickets which will be 
good partly on fast trains and partly on the suburban electric lines 
out of Utica and Syracuse. 



The St. Louis Car Company, of St. Louis, Mo., has been awarded 
the contract for the sixty new cars for the Chicago Union Traction 
Company, of Chicago, 111. The award was made at the meeting 
of the receivers of the railway company on Thursday, March 23. 
The equipment contract was given to the General Electric Com- 
pany. The amount involved is upwards of $300,000. 


. MR. PETER C. NICKEL has been appointed claim agent of the 
New York City Railway Company, vice Mr. William A. Dibbs, 
resigned. • 

MR. HENRY PHIPPS has been elected a director of the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company, of Philadelphia, Pa., to succeed 
Mr. Michael Murphy, resigned. 

MR. WILLIAM WHITE, claim agent of the Chicago City Rail- 
way, is dead. Mr. White was a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the American Association of Street Railway Claim 

MR. A. D. McWHORTER, who for five years has been general 
foreman for the Georgia Railway & Electric Company, of Atlanta, 
Ga., has been made master mechanic of the Memphis Street Rail- 
way Company, of Memphis, Tenn. 

MR. HENRY E. HUNTINGTON, president of the Hunting- 
ton syndicate of urban and interurban railroads out of Los Angeles, 
who has spent the winter in New York, will arrive in Los Angeles 
about April i. The commencement of many important improve- 
ments await his coming. 

MR. I. L. MELOON has resigned as general manager of the 
Atlantic Shore Line Railway, of Kennebunkport, Me., and ac- 
cepted a position with the National Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany, of New York. Mr. George A. Murch has been oppointed 
to succeed Mr. Meloon at Kennebunkport. 

MR. HUGH HAZELTON, whose resignation as electrical engi- 
neer of the Manhattan division of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company was mentioned last week, severed his connection with that 
company to become associated with Mr. L. B. Stillwell in his con- 
sulting engineering practice. Mr. Hazelton has been prominently 
connected in an engineering capacity with the rapid transit develop- 
ment of New York, including the Manhattan Elevated and Inter- 

borough Rapid Transit Subway, and the announcement that he will 
still be associated with Mr. Stillwell is assurance that he will take 
an active part in the equally important work upon which the latter 
is engaged, such as the equipment of the Hudson Companies and 
other enterprises. 

MR. W. H. SMITH, of Pasadena, Cal, has been appointed gen- 
eral manager of the Vallejo, Benicia & Napa Valley Electric Rail- 
way, now practically completed between Vallejo and Napa, Cal. 
The road is being equipped with the Westinghouse single-phase 
system, and is expected soon to l)e ready for operation. 

MR. H. E. REED, former superintendent of the Trenton & 
New Brunswick Railroad, has been appointed superintendent of 
the Camden & Trenton Railway, and Mr. Howard Fravel has 
been appointed to succeed Mr. Reed with the Trenton & New 
Brunswick Railroad. Mr. Fravel comes from Dayton, Ohio, where 
he was superintendent of the Dayton & Western Traction Com- 
pany's road. 

GENERAL WM. A. BANCROFT, president of the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway Company, was the speaker of the evening at the 
New England Street Railway Club's meeting on March- 23, at the 
Revere House, Boston. His subject was "Local Transportation in 
America and Europe," with conclusions based upon personal ob- 
servations in this country and abroad. A large number of lantern 
slides were shown. 

MR. FRANK. S. RANDLETT, master mechanic of the Old 
Colony Street Railway Company, is dead. Prior to the organiza- 
tion of the company, Mr. Randlett was master mechanic at the 
Taunton car house. His duties were afterward e.xtended to include 
Brockton and other places. Three years ago he was made master 
mechanic in charge of all the lines south of Boston. Mr. Randlett 
was only 31 years of age. 

MR. FREDERICK A. HUNTRESS, general manager for the 
Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Company, has resigned 
that office to accept the position of general manager of the Rio 
Janeiro Light & Power Company, of Rio Janeiro, Brazil. This is 
a new $25,000,000 corporation which has just organized by New 
York and Canadian capitalists who are largely the same as those 
interested in the Sao Paulo Railway & Lighting Company. 

MR. H. A. TIEMANN, who has been in the motive power de- 
partment of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company of New 
York for the past year, has become associated with the engineering 
staff of the Memphis Street Railway Company, of Memphis, Tenn. 
Mr. Tiemann left for Memphis on March 24 to take up his new 
duties. For four years previous to going to New York he was 
electrical engineer of the Schenectady Railway Company, of Schen- 
ectady, N. Y. 

MR. M. J. FRENCH, roadmaster of the Syracuse Rapid Transit 
Railway Company, of Syracuse, N. Y., has resigned to return to 
the engineering force of the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railroad at 
Utica, where he was located previous to his going to Syracuse a 
year ago. The new roadmaster of the Syracuse Rapid Transit 
is Mr. Burt Wilbur, who has been connected with the company as 
superintendent of overhead construction. He will superintend 
both the track and overhead work hereafter. 

MR. E. A. TURPIN, chief clerk in the general manager's office 
of the Union Traction Company, of Indiana, at Anderson, and act- 
ing superintendent of the freight and express department of that 
company, has resigned to become connected with the Chicago & 
Milwaukee Electric Railway, of which Mr. A. L. Drum, formerly 
general manager of the Union Traction Company, is the general 
manager. Mr. Turpin has been succeeded in the freight depart- 
ment of the Indiana Company by Mr. M. E. Graston, recently local 
agent of the Big Four at Wabash. 

MR. P. E. FANSLER has been appointed private secretary to 
Mr. J. G. White, president J. G. White & Company. Mr. Fansler 
graduated from Purdue University in igoi with degree of B. S., 
and took up post graduate work, receiving the E. E. degree in 1903. 
During this work he had general charge of the extensive efficiency 
test made in the spring of 1902 on the Union Traction system of 
Indiana, the results of which he presented in a joint paper with 
Prof. W. E. Goldsborough at the Niagara Falls meeting of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Mr. Fansler was ap- 
pointed chief clerk, department of electricity, at the St. Louis Expo- 
sition in June, 1902, and in this position had charge of many of the 
details in connection with the department's work before, during and 
after the exposition. He resigned from the exposition staff last 
month to become associated with J. G. White & Company. Mr. 
Fansler is an associate member of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, and has been a frequent contriliutor to French, 
English and American technical journals. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 13. 


Notice.— These statistics will be carefully revised from month to month, upon information receired from the companies direct, or from ofi&cial sources. 

tion with our Financial Supplement " American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating 

The table should be used in connect 

reports to the ends of the various financial years. Similar statistics in regard to roads not reporting are solicited by the editors, 
t Deficit. t Includes value of bridge destroyed by flood, $4,189. 

♦ Including taxes. 


Northern Ohio Tr. & 
Light Co 

Elgin, Aurora & South- 
ern Tr. Co 

Binghamton Ry. Co. 

International Tr. Co. 


Aurora, Elgin & Chi- 
cago Ry. Co 

Chicago & Milwaukee 
Elec. R. R. Co 

Cleveland, Painesville 
& Eastern, R. R. Co. 

Cleveland & Southwest- 
ern Traction Co 


Detroit United Ry. 

Duluth St. Ry. Co . 

Northern Tex lis Trac 
tion Co 

Cincinnati, Dayton & 
Toledo Trac. Co .. 

Honghton County St< 
Ry. Co 


1 m. 

1 " 

2 " 

2 " 


m., Jan. 

1 in., Feb. '05 
- " " '04 
" " '06 
8 " " '04 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 •• " '04 

8 " " '05 

8 " " '04 

1 m.. Tan. '05 
I " " '04 

7 " " '05 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 " " '04 

2 " " '05 
" " '04 

1 m., Feb. '05 
" '04 


2 " 
2 " 

London St. R». Co.. 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 " " '04 
2 05 

" " '04 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 " " '04 

2 " " '05 
2 " '04 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 " " '04 

2 " " '05 
2 Oi 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 " " '04 

2 " " '05 
" " '04 

1 m., Jan. '05 
1 " 04 

8 " " '05 
8 " " '04 

1 m., Jan, '05 
I 04 

1 m., Jan. '05 


12 m., Dec. '04 
12 " " '03 

MUwaakee £1. Ry. & 
Lt. Co 

1 m., Feb. '05 

1 " " '04 

2 " " '05 
2 " " '04 

















240 725 






29 542 


22 499 
























s e 

o o 
'2 *J 



1 ,096,245 








o<i o a 


3 129 






18 156 
.34,31 1 






Milwaukee Lt., Ht. 
Tr. Co 

1 m., 

1 " 

2 " 
2 " 

Twin City R. T. Co.... 

Montreal St. Ry. Co. 

Muncie, Hartford & 
.Ft. Wayne Ry. Co... 

Oakland Traction Con- 

San Francisco, Oakland 
& San Jose Ry. Co 

Olean St. Ry . 

PeeksklU Lighting & 
R. R. Co ... 


American Rys. Co 

Rochester Ry. Co.. 

Unlte<l Railroads of 
San Francisco 

Savannah Electric Co. 

Seattle Electric Co.. 

Syracuse R. T. Co 

Terre Haute Tr. & Lt. 

Toledo Rys. Si Lt. Co. 

Ry. & Lt. Co 


Feb. '05 
" '04 
" '05 
" '04 

1 m., Jan. '05 

1 m., 
1 " 

5 " 

Feb. '05 
" '04 
" '05 
" '04 

Feb. '05 
" '04 
" '05 
" '04 

, Jan. '05 
" '04 
Feb. '05 
" '04 
" '05 
" '04 

1 m., Feb. '05 
1 " " 

1 m., Jan. '05 

1 " " '04 

7 •• " '05 

7 '04 

1 m. 
1 " 
7 " 

1 m.. 
1 " 

1 m., 
1 " 
8 " 

1 m., 

1 " 

2 " 
2 " 

1 m., 
1 " 

1 m., 
1 " 

1 m. 
1 " 

7 " 

1 m., 
1 " 

1 m. 

1 " 

2 " 
2 " 

1 m. 

1 " 




Feb. '05 
" '04 
" '05 
" '04 





S M 

S rt 

























*6 460 
*12 919 

118 097 













.37 968 














13 6 
V o 
















Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XXV. 


No. 14. 

Publishild Every S.aturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

Main Office: 

NEW YORK, Engineering Building, 111 Liberty .Street. 
Branch Offices: 

Chicago: Monadnock Block. 

Philadelphia: 929 Chestnut Street. 

Cleveland: Cuyahoga Building. 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk Street, Strand. 

Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjourn, London" — Lieber's Code 


Copyright, 1905, McGraw Publishing Co. 


In the United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Cuba, Canada, 
Mexico and the Canal Zone. 

Street Railway Journal (52 issues) $3.00 per annum 

Combination Rate, with Electric Railway Directory and 

Buyer's Manual (3 issues — February, August and November) $4.00 per annum 
Both of the above, in connection with American Street Railway 

Investments (The "Red Book" — Published annually in May; 

regular price, $5.00 per copy) $6.50 per annum 

Single copies. Street Railway Journal, first issue of each month, 20 cents; 
other issues, 10 cents. 

To All Countries Other Than Those Mentioned Above: 

Street Railway Journal (52 issues), postage prepaid •. $6.00 

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Remittances for foreign subscriptions may be made through our European 


REMITTANCES.— Remittances should be made by check, New York draft 
or money order in favor of Street Railway Journal. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS.— The old address should be given as well as 
the new, and notice should be received a week in advance of the desired 

Changes of advertising copy should reach this office by 10 a. m. Monday 
preceding the date of publication, except the first issue of the month, for 
which changes of copy should be received two weeks prior to publication 
date. New advertisements for any issue will be accepted up to noon of 
Tuesday for the paper dated the following Saturday. 

Of this issue of the Street Raihvay Journal 8300 copies are 
printed. Total circulation for 1905, to date, 115,550 copies — an 
average of 8253 copies per zveek. 

The Election in Chicago 

The street railway situation in Chicago is considerably 
cleared as a result of the city election on April 4. Judge Dunne, 
the successful candidate, stands committed to "immediate 
municipal ownership" of the street railways, whatever that 
may mean. We consider the policy which has just triumphed 
at the polls in Chicago not only unwise from every standpoint, 
but in the case of that city absolutely impracticable. For this 
reason the hollowness of the municipal ownership proposition 
will develop much sooner with a Mayor who proposes an im- 
mediate consummation of the plan rather than one who advo- 
cated a gradual absorption of the city's transportation faciH- 
ties, as did Mr. Harlan, the Republican candidate. 

Gasoline-Electric Motor Cars, \ 

At least five different companies or i^ivid-vral^ in the United 
States, as well as a larger nui'nber abroad, ard at the present 
time experimenting or preparing; tQ e^3£nTnent with inde- 
pendent motor cars of the gasoline-electric type as a substitute 
for regular electric traction on interurban lines with sparse 
population. The combination is an old and familiar one, 
namely, a gasoline engine driving a dynamo ; a dynamo charg- 
ing a storage battery ; the storage battery and dynamo together 
supplying current to electric motors of the ordinary railway 
type mounted on the trucks. The few trials that have been 
made in previous years with this type of apparatus in the 
United States have been uniformly unsuccessful, but it must be 
admitted that most of them were made with extremely crude 
apparatus. One might almost say they were assembled from a 
junk heap. The present experiments will be much more 
thorough. The fact that most of them are being undertaken 
by persons and companies of business and engineering ability 
will make the system a success if it is possible to do so. On 
the whole, we are inclined to agree with the views of Philip 
Dawson expressed in his comprehensive article on independent 
motor cars in Europe, published in our issue of Nov. 5, 1904. 
Mr. Dawson's conclusions favored very strongly the plain 
gasoline motor car with mechanical transmission from the 
engine to the car axle rather than the complicated, costly and 
bulky gasoline-electric motor car, where the transmission from 
the engine to the car axle is through the medium of dynamo 
storage battery and electric motor. The principal reason for 
adding electrical apparatus to the plain gasoline motor car is 
to secure a greater momentary capacity of the motive power 
during acceleration and for ascending grades. It is argued by 
those who favor this system that to carry a gasoline engine 
large enough to give rapid acceleration of a large steam pas- 
senger coach would involve great difficulties. We are not in 
the least inclined to dispute this point, but it appears to us that 
it is a mistake to assume that rapid acceleration is needed in 
the kind of service that gasoline motor cars are best fitted. 
If the situation is such that rapid acceleration is required, it is 
to figure on ordinary electric traction rather than on inde- 
pendently driven motor cars at infrequent intervals. It is diffi- 
cult indeed, both for steam and electric railway men, to break 
away from established precedents. Because steam locomotives 
can haul freight trains, the steam railroad man who is con- 
sidering gasoline passenger cars for branch lines, demands that 
these cars he capable of hauling a small freight train at full 
speed. The electric railway man who is used to rapid accelera- 
tion and heavy cars operated at high speeds on interurban 
roads, considers that any successful gasoline motor car must 
perform the same service with the same weight of car. We 
are inclined to contest the truth of either the steam or street 
railway men's assumptions. What is wanted on branch steam 
lines is something which can make a number of trips a day to 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

accommodate passenger and light freight traffic. If a lot of 
heavy freiglit must be hauled at one time it is a simple matter 
to get a steam locomotive off the main line to do the job. There 
is no sense in demanding a car that must fill such extremely 
variable conditions. It is akin to demanding a tool that is 
suited both to clock repair and truck repair. On the other 
hand, if an interurban line is to be built through a country 
which will not justify the investment and operating expenses 
involved by an ordinary interurban road, it is perfectly safe to 
assume that there is not going to be any crying demand on the 
part of the population for rapid acceleration and very fast 
schedules. They will be satisfied with a very modest service, 
and that is all that the company can afford to give them. What 
then is the use in assuming that the weight and speed of rolling 
stock common on first-class interurban roads must be main- 
tained on a small road o])cratcd with gasoline motor cars? To 
Ijc sure, if a gasoline motor car must carry, in addition to gaso- 
line, a dynamo, a storage l)altery and a set of motors on the 
trucks, the weight is likely to run up so as to equal or exceed 
the heaviest interurban electric cars and to rival a light steam 
locomotive. But why all this weight? If a road is going to 
haul freight on a scale such as to demand a formidable machine 
of this kind, why not use a steam locomotive, which can prob- 
ably lic operated and maintained as cheaply as a gasoline-elec- 
tric coml:)ination where the gasoline-electric car assumes such 
formidable proportions as some of those now proposed ? We 
do not wish to throw cold water on experiments of this kind, 
and those who are backing them deserve a great deal of credit 
for their attempts to solve this jirolilem ; but is it not well to 
look carefully at the requirements of the service before build- 
ing the machine ? 

Steam Road Competition in Illinois 

It is being heralded through ihv daily press that the Chicago 
& Alton Railway, in Illinois, is nnlering a lot of light locomo- 
tives with which to maintain a local passenger service between 
the numerous towns along its line which are connected or about 
to lie connected bv electric interurlian lines. We do not know 
whether this is merely a game of bluff or whether the 
company expects to compete successfully with a parallel 
electric line by means of steam trains. In either case the situa- 
tion is amusing. The statement has been made so often by 
steam railroad companies that they proposed to electrically 
equip certain portions of their line which were about to be 
paralleled with electric roads that one would think the novelty 
had sufficiently worn off. To be sure, almost any steam railroad 
in the Middle Western States, should it decide to lay an addi- 
tional track and operate electric cars over it, could give any 
competing electric road most disastrous competition. The won- 
der is that these steam railroad companies did not wake up to 
the situation before they were paralleled by electric roads 
through all their best territory. There was a time when, had 
they seen fit to utilize their present right of way, they could 
have kept the independent electric road out of the field as far 
as any parallel lines are concerned, and they would have been 
enjoying the present business of electric interurban railways 
with much lower fixed charges and, in some respects, better 
terminal facilities. The fact is, however, that steam railroad 
companies have so far carefully refrained from doing anything 
more than bluffing as to the equipment of their lines for elec- 
tric interurban service, and the building of independent inter- 
urban lines has gone merrily on. To be sure, the steam rail- 
road man may say he has all he wants to do hauling heavy 

freight and through passenger trains, but he might have re- 
tained the local freight and passenger business as well had he 
gone about it in the right way in the first place. 

Uniform Rates 

One of the questions brought up in the discussion at the 
March meeting of the Indiana Electric Railway Association 
brings one to realize more forcibly than ever how rapidly the 
interurban electric railway business is getting away from a 
business of a purely local character. It was strongly urged by 
at least two speakers that interurban railways must come nearer 
and nearer to uniformity in rates and methods of doing busi- 
ness with the public. So long as an electric railway was a 
purely local enterprise it made little difference what rate any 
company might charge for special cars or what the rate per 
mile might be for regular passenger fares. As one interurban 
line connects with another, and as networks of interurban lines 
gradually form, the public mind begins to compare the rates 
and methods of doing busmess of one road with those of an- 
other, and always to the detriment of the road having the 
highest fare or having methods of business which cause the 
most inconvenience to the traveler. The public always wants 
the most it can get for its money. If one road has a rate of 
i]4 cents per mile and another road in the same locality a rate 
of 2% cents per mile, there is sure to be a steadily increasing 
amount of objection to the higher rate. The public argues that 
if one road can afford to haul passengers for 1% cents per 
mile another road can do so. This may or may not be true, but 
as regards rates of fare there is a constant pressure brought 
to bear by the public and by various local authorities to reduce 
the rate of fare to the lowest in vogue anywhere in that part 
of the State. Where a passenger has occasion to make trips 
covering more than one line of interurban road, and where the 
rates of fare vary greatly, his attention is naturally attracted 
to the differences. To be sure, at the present time few passen- 
gers think of interurban fares on a mileage basis, because they 
are not usuall_\- made up exactly on a mileage basis, but the 
tendency is that way, and is more likely to increase rather than 
decrease. With constant pressure being brought to bear on 
interurban railway companies to have the fares on all roads as 
low as the lowest, there is only one thing for the companies to 
do, and that is to get together and agree on a fair rate, and for 
all companies charging less than this amount, to raise their 
rates. -In some cases the franchises will stand in the way of 
this, but the more modern roads having their own rights of 
way are not usually limited as to rates of fare. If all of the 
companies that can do so keep their rates up on a fair paying 
basis, it will to a large extent stop the tendency to hammer 
rates of fare below such a basis. In doing this interurban com- 
panies will simply be following the practice which steam rail- 
roads found it necessary to adopt. 

As regards methods of doing business, which includes such 
a variety of things that they can hardly be enumerated here, the 
tendency of the public is to force the companies to give accom- 
modations e(|ual to the liest. For example, the free checking 
'of baggage on one road is likely to cause great pressure to be 
brought to bear on other roads to do the same thing. The pol- 
icy for interurban companies to follow in this case is to get to- 
gether and agree on a uniform practice about many matters 
of this kind before the public begins to criticise adversely these 
discrepancies. Where an interurban road is isolated without 
connections with any other road, there is little need for uni- 
formity of practice, but as soon as connections spring up, the 

ArRti. 8, 1905.] 



need of uniformity begins to assert itself at once. In line with 
this is the importance of making it easy for passengers to trans- 
fer from one line to another at junction points and arranging 
time-tables so that cars connect. As regards actual uniformity 
of rolling stock, there is not as much necessity now as there 
will be in the future, when the operation of cars of one com- 
pany over the tracks of another company becomes more com- 
mon. The time is sure to come, however, when it must be pos- 
sible to operate the rolling stock of one road over another road 
because of the traffic arrangements and consolidations that will 
take place. At the present time the chief mechanical obstacle 
in the way of this in most cases is the limited clearances on 
some roads and the small flange ways in tracks in some cities. 
The necessity for coupling together interurban passenger cars 
of different companies and operating them in trains is con- 
siderably more remote, and will probably involve the equip- 
ment of all motor cars with an interchangeable system of mul- 
tiple-unit control. This, however, is too far in the future to be 
worth considering just at present. The main thing is for in- 
terurban companies now having connections to get together 
and standardize some of the details where standardizing would 
be of most practical benefit. 

The Express and Freight Business 

Our Question Box has contained of late a good many refer- 
ences to freight and express matter carriage by electric railway 
companies, and there seems to be wide difference of opinion 
on the topic. Granting that an electric road is, as a rule, pri- 
marily designed for passenger business, is there any sufficient 
reason why it should not carry goods in large or small quanti- 
ties if it has been granted the right so to do? The express 
business and the freight business are somewhat dift'erent in 
their requirements, so that one might pay where the other 
would not. In certain places the freight traffic pays hand- 
somely, and we have over and over again urged the importance 
of obtaining the right to haul freight whenever possible. The 
track and roadlied of the electric line should for this work he 
able to handle standard freight cars, as is the case on most 
interurban lines, and motor Cars of power adequate to haul a 
short freight train, say two or three cars, are desirable, while 
if the business really amounts to much a light locomotive or 
two will be required. Local conditions should easily determine 
whether the amount of freight readily olitainable is sufficient 
to justify some special preparations for it, but from the general 
experience there seems to be a rather widely diffused sentiment 
to the effect that, as a rule, freight haulage cannot be done to 
good advantage; we are disposed to think that there are nearly 
as many exceptions as cases, according to rule. Heavy grades, 
which are assiduously avoided by steam roads and are fre- 
quently taken by electric roads, are the main physical difficulty 
in the case. But fairly level interurl^an roads running through 
a well-settled country certainly have a good chance to make 
freight carrying profitable. 

The express business is on a very different basis. As it 
exists on our electric roads, it takes three f<jrms, representing 
perhaps three stages of evolution. The first is merely the car- 
riage of parcels for a small fee, merely as an accommodation, 
without any special equipment or extra help. This is only 
possible within narrow limits and on a small scale, and we 
have no doubt that it adds enough to the revenue and to the 
popularity of the road to make it worth the while. The next 
stage is the carriage of parcels systematically between termini 

or definite stations in cars used partly or wholly for the pur- 
pose. On the longer interurban lines, where combination ex- 
press, baggage and mail cars are in use, the added expense of 
handling goods in moderate amounts is trivial and can generally 
be counted as leaving a good profit for work on a moderate 
scale. In fact, a road finds itself rather under moral obliga- 
tions to do this sort of thing for the convenience of its patrons. 
The third stage is the evolution of a regular express organiza- 
tion with facilities for delivering and collecting goods, and 
special provisions of rolling stock for their carriage. This is 
quite another proposition, for it means going squarely after 
the express business of the community as a competitor of 
others. Here again the local situation is closely involved. 
There are many communities in which the express business is 
now very badly conducted in point of promptitude. Suburban 
cities and towns are especial sufferers from lack of prompt 
service. Either express matter reaches the town via a steam 
road with none too good service, and is delivered when and how 
the local agent, who is usually the station master, sees fit, or it 
comes via team at about 2 miles per hour once or twice per day. 
It is a common experience for dwellers in suburban towns to 
have things delivered on Monday morning instead of Saturday 
night, more especially if the goods chance to be perishable. 

Now an express service via an electric line which has quick 
and frequent service can help matters amazingly in such cases. 
A single express car can keep goods moving as fast as they can 
be taken care of at the termini, and the very fact that the ex- 
press matter does not all strike town at once makes better de- 
liveries possible. The real success of an express business lies 
in its promptness, an^l in this particular an electric system cer- 
tainly has the call over all competitors. Where it has been 
tried on a fair scale it has very generally prospered. The one 
thing needful is that the population served be enough to sup- 
ply a sufficient volume of business. 

There is, of course, a possibility of sub-letting the express 
privilege to some existing express concern, but we rather 
doubt whether this is often a wise policy, since the old concern 
is apt to firing its old and inefficient methods with it, and very 
few communities would tolerate without protest the use of 
public streets by express cars merely to perpetuate old evils. 
If the situation is sufficient to warrant trying express service 
at all, it can usually be done best directly by the railway itself, 
whether in its own person or by a side organization, which is 
practically another pocket in the same coat. In other words, 
if there is business enough in the community to warrant an 
organized express business, the electric road had better take 
the profits than divide them with somebody else. There may 
be, of course, lo:al causes for dodging the issue, but the prompt- 
ness to lie secured by electric service is so considerable an ad- 
vantage that it should be turned into profit, unless there is some 
very good special reason to the contrary. In no case does ex- 
press business call for the heavy eAtra equipment of freight 
traflic. In the minimum it demands space for a few parcels on 
the platform, and as a maximum one or two light express cars. 
We are inclined to think that in the average case the express 
liusiness would be well worth while up to the point where a 
local delivery organization becomes necessary, and more often 
than is generally supposed, such an organization would be a 
source of profit. But, as one contributor to the Question Box 
recently intimated, it is well to fight shy of any course that 
woulfl seem to curtail the rights of passengers to carry reason- 
able personal packages. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 



In the last issue of this paper a report was pubHshed of the 
discussion on overhead construction for single-phase railways 
at the March 24 meeting of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers. A feature of this meeting was an extended 
description by C. O. Mailloux, of New York, of the overhead 
line used on the Spindlersfeld and Seebach-A¥ettingen lines, 
both of which were visited by him during a recent trip to 
Europe. Mr. Mailloux accompanied his remarks by a series of 
stereopticon views, some of which are reprcduced herewith. 
The latter portion of the accompanying article was contributed 
by Mr. Mailloux after the adjournment of the meeting. 

After stating that one of the most important questions in the 
application of electricity to heavy electric traction was that of 
conveying the electrical energy, in large amounts, safely, con- 
veniently and successfully from the stationary line to the loco- 
motive, Mr. Mailloux paid a tribute to the great courtesy of 
foreign railway engineers in placing facilities at his disposal 
for investigating their lines, particularly the Oerlikon Com- 
pany, the A. E. G. of Berlin, and Ganz & Company. 

Before leaving this country, the speaker said that he was 
somewhat skeptical in regard to the feasibility of raising above 
3000 volts the potential difference which may be applied direct 
to the motors, even though he knew that 3000 volts had been 
used successfully in this manner for a year or more on the 
Valtelina line in Northern Italy. He was pleased to say that 
his doubts on this point were soon dissipated by what he saw, 
especially on the Spindlersfeld line, near Berlin, and on the 
experimental line, which has since become a working line, built 
in Switzerland by the Oerlikon Company, near Ziirich. He re- 
turned a firm believer in, and a strong partisan of, high poten- 
tial contact lines. The words "contact line" are here used, he 
explained, in a sense which would include trolley lines or even 
third-rail conductors, both of which are terms of restricted 
meaning, destined, in his opinion, to disappear. 

He indorsed strongly Mr. Damon's view in favor of higher 
contact line potentials for alternating-current railway motor 
cars; and as between 3300 volts and 6000 volts, he was inclined 
to favor 6000 volts as the standard which should be adopted for 
interurban lines. He disagreed with Mr. Damon, however, in 
regard to the form of line construction. This point will be 
again referred to later. 

He also agreed fully with Mr. Damon that, for steam railroad 
conditions, a line contact pressure of at least 15,000 volts is 
desirable. One of the important results of his European trip 
of investigation was the evidence which he was able to ol^tain, 
as the result of personally-conducted tests and experiments, of 
the feasibility of contact line potentials of at least 15,000 volts. 

The contact line having catenary suspension, which was a 
novelty at the time of his trip to Europe, has recently been in- 
troduced here, and has already, judging from the data con- 
tained in Mr. Damon's paper, reached a high stage of develop- 
ment. The catenary contact line, used on the Spindlersfeld 
line with 6000 volts poten1»ia] difference, worked satisfactorily 
in every respect, so far as he could observe or ascertain. Never- 
theless, it would seem that either on account of municipal re- 
strictions or for other reasons, not readily apparent, the 
catenary contact lines for other projected a. c. single-phase 
railroads, which came to his notice, were limited to 2400 volts. 
He surmised that, notwithstanding the fact that so few break- 
downs of the contact line have occurred at Spindlersfeld, and 
that none of these break-downs caused any accident, there is 
still some feeling of "unrest" associated with the thought of a 
contact line of 6000 volts placed directly over the car or loco- 
motive, and even though the probability of accident is very 
remote, yet, as long as the fossibilify thereof still remains, the 
"unrest" and the "objection" will doubtless persist. The double 

catenary, as Mr. Damon states, has the advantage of keeping 
the contact wire from swaying, but its increased cost does not 
appear to be always justified. With the "tower" method of 
construction, using long spans, the double catenary would 
probably be indispensable. With the ordinary trolley line form 
of suspension, where the distance between poles is not exces- 
sive, the single catenary would seem adequate and satisfactory 
for all purposes. At Spindlersfeld, the poles are placed about 
39 m (about 128 ft.) apart. Both the single and the double- 
catenary suspension have been tried, and both have proved 
adequate and satisfactory. 

The reference made by Mr. Damon to spectacular sparking 
when the contact line was coated with ice or sleet, emphasized 
a very strong and, in his opinion, a radical, inherent defect of 
any contact line arranged to deliver current from its lower side 
instead of its upper side. The fact that the sparking increases 
with the frequency of the trolley supports, in the cases ob- 
served by Mr. Damon, proves conclusively, it seems to him, 
that ordinary trolley line construction, using a trolley wheel 
for the contact, is wholly unsuitable for high potential contact 
lines. With the catenary suspension, even in the case of a 
trolley wheel, the sparking ought to be independent of the 
number or frequency of the line supports. The necessity of 
employing higher potentials for the transmission lines will ob- 
viously depend on the potential of the contact line. When this 
potential difference is as low as 3000 volts it would undoubtedly 
be still necessary to employ higher transmission potentials, in 
most cases, for interurban lines; but if the potential difference 
at the contact line is raised to 6000 volts, there are many cases 
where this potential would be sufficiently high for both trans- 
mitting and distributing purposes. When the contact line 
potential is raised to still higher values, say, for instance, 15,000 
volts, the same potential difference will suffice, in a large num- 
ber of cases, for both transmitting and distributing purposes. 
Indeed, if it were not for the convenience of subdividing the 
total line into blocks or sections, the contact line itself could 
serve as the feeder. Mr. Huber, of the Oerlikon Company, 
mentioned to the speaker a project for the equipment of a 
steam line in Switzerland, where it was proposed to supply 50 
miles of track in l^oth directions from a central station with- 
out feeders, simply using a duplicate contact line, one on each 
side of the track. This method has the advantage of provid- 
ing a duplicate line equipment, which can still answer the pur- 
pose, at lower efficiency, though without materially crippling 
the service, in case of defect or derangement in either of the 
two contact lines. 

The accompanying engravings illustrate the characteristic 
features of the high-potential, single-phase, a. c. electric rail- 
road equipment of the Seebach-Wettingen line in Switzerland. 
This line, which is, in reality, a branch line of the Swiss Na- 
tional Railroad system, is about 20 km long, with single track, 
of standard gage. It has been operated by steam since it was 
first 1)uilt, and will continue to be partly operated by steam for 
some time to come. When visited by the writer last summer, 
a portion of the line situated a short distance from the works 
of the Oerlikon Company was equipped electrically, and was 
used by the Oerlikon Company for making experiments with 
electric locomotives and with various forms of contact lines 
and line supports. It was then expected that the entire branch 
line would be equipped and operated electrically by November 
or December, 1904, but sufficient allowance had not, it seems, 
been made for official procrastination. The plans for the equip- 
ment of the Seebach station, for instance, were only approved 
some time in January. 

The portion of the road equipped and the electric locomotive 
intended to be used were both inspected by the Federal author- 
ities on Nov. 18, 1904. It would have been difficult to select 
worse weather, there being a thick, wet fog, which lasted all 
day. The results were entirely satisfactory, however, not the 

April 8, 1905.] 



slightest defect being observed as tlie result of a great diversity 
of very severe tests of the line and of the electric locomotive. 
The only criticism offered by the officials related to the grade 
crossings, for which more adequate iDrotection of the line was 
insisted upon, and for which danger and warning signs were 
prescribed; but even after all the requirements prescribed had 
been complied with, it was stdl necessary to have the govern- 
ment prepare or approve an official time-table before regular 
trips could be made with the electric trains. This official time- 
table was finally received on Jan. 13 by the Oerlikon Company, 
and since Jan. 16, 1905, seven trips have been made regularly 
each way over a short portion of the track, extending between 
Seebach and Affoltern. 

It might be said in passing, that the process of securing the 
necessary approval and authority is not as simple as it may 
seem. Not only the plans, but even the details of the contact 
line equipped had to be submitted to and approved by numerous 
departments, including the general office and district depart- 
ment of the Federal Railways, the Federal Telegraph Depart- 
ment, the Railway Telegraph Department, the Commissioner 
of Public Works of the Canton and of the District, and, lastly, 
the corporations of the villages traversed l)y the line. In each 
case plans, descriptions and verbal explanations had to be sub- 
mitted. Those who complain that projects are often delayed 
by "red tape" in this country will doubtless find comfort and 
consolation in learning that "red tape" apparently exists in 
other countries. 

This case is interesting as being the first one in which the 
Huber contact line system, referred to by Mr. Damon, has been 
adopted. It is perhaps even more interesting and important 
as a pioneer movement toward the electrification of steam rail- 
way lines in Switzerland, for, apparently, both the Swiss Gov- 
ernment and the Oerlikon Company are as much interested in 
the ulterior possibilities as in the immediate results ; and in en- 
deavoring to produce a satisfactory "sample" of electric trac- 
tion as a substitute for steam traction for the specific condi- 
tions, both parties are evidently desirous, the former of testing", 
the latter of demonstrating, the general fitness of the system 
for all kinds of steam roads. 

This may account, in a large measure, for the careful and 
time-consuming scrutiny which has been given by the author- 
ities to every detail of the proposed equipment. The further 
development of the line is to proceed apparently in the same 
conservative and cautious manner. It has been decided that, 
for a certain time at least, the regular daily trips for which the 
official time-table has been issued will be made on the short 
portion of the line already equipped, before proceeding further 
with the electrification of the rest of the line. 

The following is a quotation from remarks made by the 
writer before the New York Electrical Society last November, 
as published in the Street Railway Journal, Nov. 26, 1904: 

"The electric train service proposed for this line will require 
eight trains, or four trains in each direction, per day. It is 
expected that this service can be done with one single electric 
locomotive. Each train will carry both freight and passengers, 
mostly freight. The estimated average train loads, not in- 
cluding the weight of the locomotive, are: 180 tons to 200 tons 
for trains running west, in which case the upgrades average 
about 0.8 per cent, and 150 tpns to 170 tons for trains running 
east, in which case the upgrades average about i.o per cent. 
The average speed will be about 40 km per hour. There are 
seven stations on the line, including the two terminal stations. 
One of the present steam locomotives will be retained in ser- 
vice at first to run at least two more trains per day, one each 
way. This will be done partly to avoid the necessity of a 
second locomotive, but principally to enable the comparison be- 
tween steam and electricity to be made under sul)stantially the 
same operating conditions." 

The following par,igra])h, which is a quotation from a refer- 

ence made to the accompanying illustrations in a letter from 
Mr. Huber, of the Oerlikon Company, contains interesting de- 
tails regarding various forms of contact line supports experi- 
mented with by him : 

"From the photographs you will see that we are experiment- 
ing with different methods of carrying the trolley or contact 
wire over the poles. You will find (Fig. i) the single wire held 




by wire holders rigidly supported in the way which you know 
from our short experimental line inspected by you when here. 
Next you find (Figs. 2) a single wire held with clamps, to which 
a kind of lever is attached for securing the wire horizontally, 
while a spring made of steel wire, having some play vertically, 
supports the weight of the wire and takes up the hypothetical 
'blows,' or the downward pressure, of the current collector, 
^'ou will also find (Fig. 3) a pair of wires carried over the 


poles with the two wires interconnected by loose links. The 
inside wire is intended as the contact wire for the current col- 
lector, the outside wire as a reinforcement of the cross section 
or conductivity of the line. The outside wire, having a some- 
what greater sag, is less likely to break, and will therefore con- 
stitute a safety suspension for the inside wire in case the latter 
should break near a support, it being then held above the 
ground by the interconnecting links just mentioned. The same 
principle of mutual safety suspension has been adopted for 
road crossings of small importance (Fig. 6). You will also 
find two different forms of 'inverted' catenary suspension, 
which have so far given excellent results (Figs. 4 and 5). This 
suspension has been used on about 5/4 km of length. During 
these last days, when the weather was very cold, the trolley or 
contact wire supported on these catenaries was so straight that 
the current collector showed no appreciable up and down mo- 


Street railway journal. 

[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

tion. We have, however, come to tlie conckision that this sus- 
pension, though it costs only about Frs. 200 per kilometer more 


the wires in case it breaks and to prevent the ends from reach- 
ings the ground. Fig. 7 shows a more elaborate form of road 
crossing. In this case there is placed over the road and under 
the wire a bridging structure made of angle iron which serves 

•> I: 


for erection, and hardly as much for material, will not be de- 
siraljle for ordinary purposes. With two current collectors on 
the car there has never l^een any apprecialile sparking in pass- 

both to catch and to ground the ends of the broken line wire. 
In order to make the protection more adequate, a short section 
or "block" of the contact line itself, varying in length from 




ing over the supports of the contact wire at the poles, with line 
construction of the types shown in Figs, i to 3." 

Fig. 6 shows the arrangement of the contact line at an ordi- 
nary crossing. The arrangement is based on the form of con- 
tact line construction illustrated in Fig. 3, there being a pair of 
wires which are interconnected by loose links. The object is, 
obviously, to make provision for supporting the ends of one of 

40 m to 70 m, according to the width of the crossing, has its 
connection with the source of electricity controlled by the 
gates in such manner that this short section is connected with 
the line wire only when the gates are closed and when a train 
is passing, it being entirely disconnected and "dead" when the 
gates are open, at which time the current passes through a 
short auxiliary line which is specially installed over the street 

April 8, 1905.] 



crossing. The cost of an ordinary street crossing, snch as 
sliown in Fig. 6, is estimated at Frs. 600. The cost of a street 
crossing such as shown in Fig. 7 is estimated at Frs. 1,300. 

Fig. 8 shows the line contact construction at a station, over 
switches and side-tracks. In this case the line construction is 
such that the current collector makes contact partly above. 


partly at the side and partly under the contact wire. It is 
proper to emphasize, at this point, the fact that while the Huber 
system is designed to permit the collector to take current 
from the contact wire, by touching it either below, on the 
side or above, the top contact is preferable and is the normal 

The collection of current from the side or from below the 
contact wire is to be regarded as being, in reality, only an ex- 
pedient, made desirable, necessary or indispensalile, by certain 
conditions, especially limited clearance or space for trolley 


FIG. 12. 

supports of any kind found in the average railroad tunnels; 
also in passing under bridges and at switches, side-tracks, etc. 
In the case of steam railroad lines only a relatively small per- 
centage of the contact line would be other than that serving for 
top contact current collection. 

Where a sufficient width can be arranged for under bridges 
and highways, the shifting of the pivot of the current collector 
may be readily eliminated. This has been done in the case 
illustrated in Fig. 9. It does not follow, therefore, that the 

shifting of the current collector, which has been criticised as 
one of the objectionable features of the Huber system, would 
be required in every case. Moreover, this device has now been 
Ijrought to such a degree of perfection that its use is no longer 
a serious objection. 

There will be noted on the larger illustrations a thin wire 
carried on ordinary insulators on the side of the pole away 
from the track. This wire forms part of a kind of "block" 
system devised by the Oerlikon Company. In the case of the 
Seebach-Wettingen line, the entire line will be divided into 
thirteen sections. The contact wire at or near each station 
will form a section or block, and the portion extending from 
one station to another will also constitute a section; hence, 
there being seven railway stations, including the terminal sta- 
tions, it follows that there will be thirteen electrical sections 
or blocks in the entire distance of 20 km. The small wire 
shown in the illustrations, which is called the "cut-out" wire, 
or the "feeling" wire, is connected with a weatherproof fuse 
to each insulator pin. If the insulator begins to leak exces- 
sively, or if it actually breaks down, current flows through its 
pin, through the fuse, and is conveyed on the cut-out wire to 
the operating solenoids of certain line switches located at the 
ends of the sections. When the fuse is blown there is an ex- 
])losive sound like that of a gun shot, serving to attract the 
attention of the guard men or station men, even at a consider- 
able distance. After the fuse has blown, the fuse holder will 
hang from its support or suspension in a way which makes it 
visible even from a considerable distance. Thus any section 
or block on which there is a leaky or faulty insulator is auto- 
matically cut out. Some of the switches controlling the blocks 
or sections are placed on poles. Figs. 10 and 11 show one of 
these switches open and closed, respectively. Another form of 
section switch is shown in Fig. 12. The faulty insulator itself 
is located, first, by the audible signal, or the detonation of the 
fuse ; second, by the visual signal, or the displacement of the 
fuse holder, and, incidentally, by the absence of the fuse from 
the fuse holder. 

As Mr. Huber personally explained to the writer, it may be 
that some of these features will be found superfluous and that 
sufficient reliability in line equipment could be realized without 

some or all of them. It was 

deemed prudent, however, to 
develop and apply such de- 
vices, in this case, if only to 
meet the objection urged by 
steam railroad men that elec- 
trical troubles on a trolley 
line will be hard to detect, 
and that their removal would 
cause difficulty and delay. At 
the request of the writer, the 
experiment was tried of 
making an artificial ground 
at one of the line contact in- 
sulators, to simulate the case 
where the insulator breaks 
down and grounds the con- 
tact line. On making the 
artificial ground, the audible 
and visual signals were un- 
questionably such as would 
attract attention, even though the location of the pole were not 
definitely known. It took less than three minutes, by a watch, 
for a lineman to replace the damaged insulator by a new one 
and to have the current turned on again on the section of the 
line affected. 

Mr. Huber has paid close attention to, and has carefully 
studied, the requirements of the contact rod of the current col- 
lector which rubs against the contact wire. After trying dif- 
ferent metals, he finds that tubes made of brass or composition 




[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

answer the purpose very well. He has also succceeded in 
lubricating the rod, and he has resorted to the expedient of 
"zigzagging" the contact line for the purpose of reducing the 
wear on the contact rod and equalizing it, thereby preventing 
the rod from being "sawed" by the contact wire. 

The top contact method of current collection is unquestion- 
ably superior to all others in sleety and frosty weather. On 
this point Mr. Huber furnishes interesting evidence in a brief, 
comment on the results obtained since the portion equipped 
was put in regular operation : "The aggregate number of kilo- 
meters run, up to the present time (Jan. 25), is 450 km. The' 
speed varies between 45 km and 50 km per hour. We have thus 
far always had to contend with a very large amount of frost 
on the wire during the first trip in the morning. The frost, 
owing to its nature, envelops the wire from all sides, while the 
sleet, which very often is produced from the frost, clings only 
to the underside of the wire. For this reason, on one day when 
the frost was exceptionally heavy, there was a continuous light 
sparking on the current collector, which, however, was without 
any influence upon the voltmeter and ammeter ; and on the 
next trip the line was perfectly free from sparking, simply be- 
cause the frost, as formed on the upper side of the wire, will 
always be inevitably wiped away by the current collector, while 
a cover of sleet will never be destroyed in the same way. It 
has also been observed that the sparking is very much heavier 
on those portions where the current collector touches the wire 
from the side or from below. It is therefore proved that with 
regard to frost and sleet on the wires the contact from the top 
of the trolley wire is a marked advantage." 

In conclusion, the writer may state that after careful study 
of the Huber system, he has become a convert to and a partisan 
of the top contact theory for contact lines intended for long- 
distance traction. It seems to him that it possesses construc- 
tive and operative feattires which recommend it as preferable 
to the under contact system. The line leakage is bound to be 
lower than with the under contact catenary system. Not the 
least important of its recommendation is that of cost. He is 
convinced that if a comparison is made on the basis of equal 
mechanical and electrical results, also including cost of main- 
tenance, the top contact method is so much lower in cost as to 
outclass the others. This is the more true the higher the line 
potential and the more perfect and adequate the insulation 

The impedance of the iron rails used for the track on this 
line has been carefully studied by the Oerlikon Company. 
Those who are interested will find an article on this subject in 
the "Electrotechnische Zeitschrift" of April i, 1904, by Dr. H. 
Behn-Eschenburg, of the technical staff of the Oerlikon Com- 
pany. It is found that the voltage loss due to impedance of 
the iron rail assumes such importance in some cases as to neces- 
sitate a special system of current return line, with special 
"booster" transformers for the track, of which an interesting 
form is described in the article just mentioned. 




Two distinct, very interesting types of single-phase a. c. 
electric locomotives have been developed, and are to be tested, 
on the Seebach-Wettingen line in Switzerland by the Oerlikon 
Company. The first of these locomotives, designed about 
two years ago, and completed about a year ago, was run 
for many months on the company's experimental tracks at 
Oerlikon, near Ziirich. On Jan. 16, 1905, it went into service 
and is now making regular schedule trips on the completed 
portion of the Seebach-Wettingen line. 

At the time when this locomotive was designed, the compen- 
sated series a. c. motor was still a "hypothesis," the a. c. repul- 

sion motor and the plain series a. c. motor were only just be- 
ginning to "promise" results, and there was, to say the least, 
much skepticism regarding the feasibility of any system of a. c. 
single-phase electric traction. It is not surprising therefore, 
indeed, it was logical, that the design should be based on the 
retention of d. c. motors for propelling the locomotive and using 
some means of converting the a. c. into d. c. power. Consider- 
ing that the design of large railway d. c. motors was still a 
problem, even after years of uninterrupted development of the 
d. c. railway motor in all sizes, the problem of designing a large 













__l 1 


a. c. railway was not an easy one ; indeed, it is still difficult, it 
would seem, even to-day, notwithstanding the singularly rapid 
development of the a. c. single-phase railway motor, in all its 
forms, during the last year. 

The equipment of the first locomotive includes a single-phase 
induction motor whose speed is about 980 r. p. m. when sup- 
plied with single-phase a. c. of 14,000 volts, with a frequency of 
50 cycles per second. This motor serves for driving a 4-pole 
d. c. generator of 400-kw rating, to which it is direct-coupled, 
and it has to be kept running at constant speed so long as the 







1 — ' 



— i 









electric locomotive is in use. The "rotor" of this motor has a 
short-circuit "cage" winding. The "stator" has two windings, 
placed in distinct sets of slots, one designed for a potential dif- 
ference ranging between 14,000 volts and 16,000 volts, and one 
designed for 700 volts. The first stator winding is that which 
is used when the current supply for the locomotive is taken 
from the "trolley line." The second stator winding was in- 
tended to be used when the current supply is taken from a "low 
potential" third rail or contact line, in case such an arrange- 
ment should be found desirable, at the station or in the switch 
yards. Thus far the latter winding has only been used experi- 
mentally. The high potential winding, in spite of being sub- 
jected to the severest strains, owing to the line circuit being 

April 8, 1905.] 



suddenly opened either at the trolley or at the line section 
switches, has never shown the slightest weakness or defect. 

The efficiency of this motor is about 94 per cent, with a power 
factor of about 89 per cent, at full load. The dynamo is de- 
signed for a full load current of 650 amps, and a voltage which 
can be varied from o volt to 600 volts, by varying the field ex- 
citation, according to the so-called "Leonard" 
method. There is a small motor-generator 
set, of about 6-kw rating, on the locomotive, 
which normally serves for the excitation of 
the fields of the large generator, and also of 
the two axle-driving motors (which are d .c. 
of about 200-hp rating each). 

The large motor-generator set, consisting 
of the single-phase motor and the large d. c. 
generator, is kept constantly running, as al- 
ready stated ; but should it stop or "get out of 
step" for any reason (even for a moment), 
the small generator set can be used to bring 
it up to speed again, or even to start it from 
rest. For this purpose, if the exciter set itself 
is also stopped, the generator end of this small 
set is operated as an a. c. series motor, being 
then supplied with current from a special 
"tap" of the secondary of a small transformer 
carried on the locomotive. When it attains 
the synchronous speed, the a. c. end is con- 
nected to the transformer terminals and the motor can then 
drive the d. c. generator. The current from the d. c. end is 
sent into the d. c. end of the large set, which then operates as a 
motor. When synchronous speed has been attained in the 
large motor-generator set, the stator of the large motor is con- 
nected with the contact line. It takes about two minutes from 
the time the small motor is started until the large d. c. generator 
is ready to furnish current for the two axle-driving motors. 

In spite of the fact that this system involves the transforma- 
tion of a. c. into d. c. electric power, its efficiency will compare 
well with that of any other system, either d. c. or a. c, espe- 
cially in a case where the number of stops is relatively fre- 

what is needed to overcome the resistance of the motor arma- 
tures and to send the required torque-producing current through 
them. The writer tried the experiment of blocking the wheels 
of one of the cars attached to the electric locomotive, in order 
to "stall" the locomotive and allow the maximum draw-bar pull 
to be developed. Although the current sent into the d. c. mo- 


quent. The reason for this is that the losses occurring in the 
motor-generator set itself are compensated by the greater effi- 
ciency of the method of speed control made possible with the 
equipment. While the electric power is taken from the con- 
tact line at constant potential, it is made available for the mo- 
tor (after being converted into d. c. power) at variable poten- 
tial, without the intervention of resistance in the armature cir- 
cuits of the axle-driving motors. When starting, for instance, 
even though the torque required is very great, the power taken 
from the line, instead of being a maximum, is very low, being, 
in fact, nearly or practically a minimum. The electromotive 
force of the large d. c. generator is then very low, being only 


tors from the d. c. generators was over 600 amps., the electro- 
motive force of this generator was still so low that its value 
could scarcely be read on the voltmeter, and the a. c. motor took 
so little current from the contact line that the a. c. ammeter 
scarcely moved, the current being apparently not over, more 
probably under, 5 amps. When starting and running under 
normal conditions, the speed is increased and regulated by 
raising and regulating the electromotive force of the d. c. gen- 
erator, this being done by simply varying the shunt-field resist- 
ance of the d. c. generator. Hence, as there is a large number 
of "steps" in the shunt-field rheostat, it follows that there are 
more "graduations" of speed than when armature rheostatic 

control is used. The smooth- 
ness of the acceleration, the 
absence of jerks when start- 
ing, or when the speed is 
changed, are one of the 
striking features of the op- 
eration of this electric loco- 

The extra weight of 
the motor-generator outfit 
(about 10 metric tons) is 
not of so much consequence 
as might be thought, since, 
it is well known, there is 
required, in a locomotive, a 
certain minimum weight 
over the "drivers" in order 
that the "adhesion" may 
be sufficient to prevent "slipping" when the maximum 
draw-bar pull is exerted. In this case this weight would 
have had to he provided in some other way, if the motor- 
generator outfit had been eliminated. The most o])jectionabIe 
feature of this outfit is, in reality, the necessity of keeping it 
constantly running while the locomotive is in use, and the pos- 
sibility of its falling out of step and coming to a stop whenever 
the current supply from the contact line is interrupted, even for 
a very short time. 

The second electric locomotive, also of 400-hp rating, to be 
tried by the Oerlikon Company on the Seebach-Wettingen line, 
will Ijc e(|uippc(l with two single-phase a. c. motors, each of 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

200-hp rating. As steps preliminary to the design and con- 
struction of this motor, railway motors of smaller size were 
first developed and carefully tested. Some very interesting 
tests were made last fall with one of these motors of 35-hp 
rating. This motor, which is now on the market, presents 
peculiarities of design which entitle it to the distinction of 
being literally an "all around" railway motor. It is 6-poled, 
designed for a maximum speed of 1000 r. p. m., and weighs 
about 1000 kg (2204 lbs.) without gearing. The field magnet 
("stator") has two sets of winding coils mounted on different 
polar projections. One of these windings corresponds to the 
usual series winding serving for excitation, and the other 
winding serves for "compensation." There is no resistance in 
the commutator connections. The air gap is i mm. This motor 
is designed for use, and it was tested, in four different ways, 
namely: First, as a plain d. c. series motor, being then run 
with 200 volts potential difference at its terminals ; second, as 
a simple a. c. series motor, with a current of 200 volts, the fre- 
quency being varied between i period and 25 periods per sec- 
ond; third, as a simple repulsion motor, with a current of 230 
volts, of frequency ranging between 40 periods and 50 periods 
per second ; fourth, as a compensated series motor of the 
"Latour" type, having both "excitation" brushes and "short- 
circuit" brushes. Each particular test included a four-hour 
run, during which the performance of the motor was carefully 
studied. The conditions were maintained as nearly as possible 
alike for all the tests, the standard for the comparison of re- 
sults and of operation (especially in regard to sparking, heat- 
ing, etc.) being a first-class d. c. motor of the same rating. The 

results obtained were 
found to .compare 
favorably with the 
"standard" in every 
case. The maximum 
rise of temperature 
in either field or 
armature winding did 
not exceed 45 degs. C. 
in any case. The ef- 
ficiencv of the d. c. 
motor was about 3 per 
cent higher, however. 
The power factor was 
found to be about 3 
per cent higher when 
the motor was run as 
an a. c. "series" than 
when run as a "re- 
pulsion" motor. Between 800 r. p. m. and 1000 r. p. m., the 
commutation was about the same for all four cases. Be- 
low 500 r. p. m. and above 1000 r. p. m.. the series arrange- 
ment, both a. c. and d. c, was also satisfactory, while 
with the repulsion and the compensation forms of motor, 
special devices had to be resorted to in order to reduce the 
short-circuit potential difference at the commutator. This mo- 
tor is suitable for use on d. c. lines, or on a. c. single-phase 
lines of low frequency (under 25 periods per second) when 
arranged and used as a plain series motor; and it is also suit- 
able for a. c. lines of higher frequency when arranged and used 
either as a repulsion motor or as a compensation motor. 

The 200-hp motors destined for the second electric locomo- 
tive are of the same general type, with certain modifications, 
being designed more for specific than for general or varied con- 
ditions of operation. These motors are intended more especially 
to be used as a. c. series motors with a current of 15,000 volts, 
having a frequency of 15 periods per second. Each motor 
weighs 3000 kg (6612 lbs.). The motor is designed for maxi- 
mum speeds ranging between 650 r. p. m. and 1000 r. p. m. In 
this case the gear ratio will be i to 3.1. The maximum loco- 


motive speed will be about 50 km (30 miles) per hour. The 
motor is 8-poled, with "inter-poles" for the compensation wind- 
ing. The exact arrangement of the field magnet and windings, 
and the special means employed for improving the commutation 
of this motor have not yet been made public by the Oerlikon 

Although this motor was not designed for d. c. work, it was, 
nevertheless, also tested as a d. c. motor, and found to give 
satisfactory results in every respect. When supplied with a. c, 
the motor develops its rated horse-power at 650 r. p. m. with 
260 volts and 600 amps. The commutation is good at all speeds 
up to HOC r. p. m., with frequencies ranging between 15 periods 
and 22 periods per second and a torque equal to a draw-bar 
pull of 300 kg (661 lbs.) per motor. There is not the least 
sparking or efficiency loss noticeable due to the short-circuit 
voltage at the brushes, which for a torque equal to a draw-bar 
pull of 200 kg (441 lbs.) is about 2 volts. The carbon brushes 
are 10 mm (.39 ins.) thick. The results of the tests with a. c. 
are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The power factor is 94 per cent 
at 650 r. p. m. and 97 per cent at 1000 r. p. m. for all loads when 
the frequency is 15 periods per second, and it is 87 per cent and 
93 per cent, respectively, with a frequency of 25 periods per 
second. The increase of the torque to an equivalent draw-bar 
pull of 350 kg (770 lbs.) involves an increase of the magnetic 
field and of the short-circuit voltage at the brushes amounting 
to about 12 per cent. 

Experiments are also projected by the Oerlikon Company 
with an a. c. motor of the same rating, suitable for a. c. of 
higher frequency. This motor will have outwardly the same 
appearance as the motor just described. The armature will be 
exactly the same, the field winding being arranged and propor- 
tioned somewhat differently, so as to adapt the motor for use 
either as a repulsion motor or as a "compensated" motor, to be 
supplied with a. c. of 40 periods to 50 periods per second. 

It is seen from these details that the Oerlikon Company 
has studied, considered, and intends to test, the possibilities of 
all forms and methods of a. c. single-phase electric traction 
which hold forth any promise. The motor equipments which 
have been mentioned will, without doubt, enable the engineers 
of the company to make comprehensive tests over the whole 
range or scale of frequencies with all the types and modifica- 
tions of single-phase railway motors now attracting attention. 
The company deserves much credit and commendation for its 
enterprise in adopting the expensive but very comprehensive 
and far-reaching electric plan of "proving all things" in its 
search after the "best" thing. It deserves, and let us hope it 
will attain, complete success. 


One of the most remarkable plans ever suggested by Henry E. 
Huntington for beautifying the roadbeds of the many lines he 
owns running out of Los Angeles into various parts of Sotfth- 
ern California has proved a dismal failure. About a year ago 
he had conceived the idea of lining the roads with golden poppy. 
Accordingly, last fall, he had sown 600 lbs. of choice German 
poppy seed, but it cannot now be ascertained that a single seed 
of this enormous sowing has ever sprouted. To be terse, not a 
poppy has "popped," and the flower-bedecked roadway still is 
only a golden dream. The heavy rains of the winter have made 
the wild flowers of the fields one glad song of color. 

J. O. Wilson, general passenger agent of the Cleveland & 
Southwestern Traction Company, has organized the Cleveland 
& Southwestern Trolley League and has been elected president 
of the organization. The league will support baseball teams in 
Medina, North Amherst, Elyria, Norwalk, Lorain, Wellington, 
Wooster and two in Cleveland. Regular scheduled games will 
be played from May 15 to Sept. 15. The circuit has been a suc- 
cess during the past two years, and it is better organized than 
ever this season. 

April 8, 1905.] 




As many of the readers of this paper know, the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company has given especial attention 
to the conduct of its accident claim department. For a number 
of years the policy of the company has been to ascertain first 
whether or not the company is liable for each particular acci- 
dent, and if this is the case to make every effort to settle the 
claim out of court, if it can be done upon anything approaching 

In some respects this record is assisted by the State laws of 
Wisconsin, which hold that a motornian is not obliged to exer- 
cise the highest degree of skill and prudence; it is sufficient if 
he exercises the care of a person of average prudence under 
the same or similar circumstances. In an article which was 
published on page 903 of the issue of this paper for June 20, 
1903, two Wisconsin cases were quoted to illustrate the degree 
of care required by the railway company in the operation of its 
cars, and there is no doubt that these reasonable laws have had 

Table I. — Report of Claim Department 1904. 









































































































6,195 .02 
























































































































1 1 

















1 1 




1 1 



















































25 48 








Suits pending December 31, 1903 70 

Suits instituted 51 


Suits tried, judgment for plaintiff o 

Suits tried, judgment for defendant 13 


Suits discontinued by plaintiff o 

Suits settled out of court, included in statement above 33 

Suits dismissed for want of prosecution 3 

Suits apparently abandoned t6 

— ll. 

Suits pending December 31, 1904 65 

Attorneys' salaries and fees 

Briefs and transcripts 

Court fees and expenses 

Witness fees and e.xpenses 

Claim department salaries 

Incidentals, office expenses, etc 

Physicians' salaries and fees 

Hospital expenses and medicines 

Total Expenditures Ddring Year 1904 

Note. — Twenty-six fatal accidents during year 1904, of which seven were settled at a total cost of. 

7,775 -oo 


A. — Collision with Vehicles. 

B. — Collision with Persons. 

C. — Collision with Animals. 

D. — Collision with Bicycles. 

E. — Collision with Cars. 

F. — Cars Leaving Track. 

G. — Alighting or Boarding Car. 

H. — Fell in, on or oiT Car. 

1. — Disturbance on Car. 

J. — Car Equipment Burn-outs. 
K. — Miscellaneous. 

L. — Employees Injured When on Duty. 
M.— Power Plant. 

N.— Lighting. 
U.— Way. 
P. — Shops. 

U. — L'tility Equipment. 

V. — Gravel Pit, Crusher, Stable, etc. 

Y. — Construction, Reconstruction, etc. 

Table III. — Comparison Year 1902, 1903, 1904 

Old Claims Settled 

Current Year 



Gross Earnings 



Per Case 

Per Cent 



Per Case 

Per Cent 



Per Case 

Per Cent 



13,064 .02 


251 .16 

1. 5 1 

38. 783. ,30 
59,883 .03 



1 .46 




2 .29 

a reasonable basis. The result is that the company has com- 
paratively few cases in the courts, and when it is obliged to go 
into court it does so with a very fair certainty of winning its 
case. That this policy has been a satisfactory one is shown by 
the remarkable record of suits tried, as reproduced in Table I. 
herewith. This table shows that during the year ending Dec. 
31, 1904, only thirteen suits reached a point in the court where 
judgment was rendered, and that all of these suits were decided 
in favor of the company. This record is probably not equaled 
by any other company in the country, and is certainly remark- 
able when the size of the Milwaukee system is considered. The 
table also shows that only sixty-five suits were pending on Dec. 
31, 1904, a reduction of fourteen over those of the previous 

a tendency to make the public more careful while crossing the 

A classification of accidents by months is shown in Table II. 
As will be seen, the principal cause for accidents has been in 
alighting and boarding cars, and the next most prevalent cause 
has been collisions with vehicles. In fact, these two causes ac- 
count for over 52 per cent of the accidents. The amount paid 
out for these two classes of accidents was slightly in excess of 
their numerical proportion — that is, it was about 55 per cent. 

Table III. gives a comparison for the last three years of the 
amount of old claims settled and those settled during the cur- 
rent year, and illustrates very clearly the point already men- 
tioned, viz., the policy of the company in taking up and settling- 
claims as promptly as possible. It also shows that the cost of 



taking care of the injuries and damages during 1904 was only 
2.9 per cent of the gross receipts. 

Table IV. is another interesting statement, and shows how 
the accounts are kept in the different departments by months 
and by years. It is the policy of the company to charge off 4 
per cent of the gross receipts of its railway department monthly 



In line with its plan of building subways in the downtown 
district, the officials of the Cleveland Electric Railway believe 
that the schedules on all lines could be greatly improved by 
having cars stop only at certain street crossings instead of at 

Table II. — AccroENTS Reported and Expenditures During Year 1904. 

Accidents Doring Year 1904. 

Collision with vehicles 

Collision with persons 

Collision with animals 

CoUision with bicycles 

Colhsion with cars 

Cars leaving track 

Alighting or boarding car 

Fell in, on or off car 

Disturbance on car 

Car equipment burn-outs 


Employees injured when on duty. . 

Power plant 




Utility equipment 

Gravel pit, crusher, stable, etc. . . . 
Construction; Reconstruction; etc. 


Claim department salaries 

Incidentals, office e.xpenses, etc.. 

Attorneys' salaries and fees 

Physicians' salaries and fees 

Hospital expenses and medicines. 

Court fees and expenses 

Witness fees and expenses 

Briefs and transcripts 

Total claim department expenses 
Total disbursements 



Utility, gravel pit, crusher, etc. 


Disbursements Year 1904 for Accidents Occurring in the Years Specified. 



1898 1 1899 








500 .00 

100 .00 


1 ,829.20 


650 .00 
1 50 .00 
1 50 .00 

10,882 .20 
1 ,499.00 

1 52 .00 
j 16,959.70 
1 1,649.00 
j 2,655.00 
1 1,166.80 
132 .26 
d 134.33 


225 .00 

262 .50 

600 .00 


2 ,000 .00 

4,346 .00 
1 .00 
1 ,700 .00 
( 34 .80 


875 .00 


d 134.33 


d 134.33 

262 .50 




13,100 .85 



4.453 -oo 

4,592 .00 



112 .15 

160 .00 
d 10.74 


d 43 27 

d 9.05 


S .00 









25. 387 .05 

d 134.33 









d 134.33 





950 .62 













d — credit. 

to the credit of injuries and damages, and of the lighting ac- 
count y2 per cent of the gross monthly receipts. For the other 
branches of the construction work the company carries a cer- 
tain percentage, depending upon the amount of work done, so 
that there will be no doubt as to the actual cost of construction 
work. This practice accounts for the credit claims shown in 

all street crossings as at present. In portions of the city where 
streets are close together, this is a great hardship on motormen, 
and it makes slow traffic. Geiieral Manager Stanley has sub- 
mitted to the City Council changes proposed for two of the 
most important lines and will request permission to make a 
trial of the plan. On the Euclid Avenue line he proposes to 


Current Month 


Year to Date 




Increase or Decrease 



Increase or Decrease 



Utihty equipment 

Gravel pit 

1. 71 



d 153.71 
d 5.69 

III .65 
362 .10 


49,207 .88 

(/ 5,193.21 
1 ,061 .1 1 



Cast welding 

Reserve fund interest 








56,012 .05 

191,508 .08 

d = credit. 

Table IV. As will be seen, the balance credited for the year to 
date was $49,207.88, which with the interest on the previous re- 
serve fund made a total credit to the fund for the year of $56,- 
012.05, O'' ^ total fund at the end of the year of $191,508.08. 
To the credit of the fund the company has now invested $200,- 
000 par value of 5 per cent bonds of the Milwaukee Light, Heat 
& Traction Company, having a market value of 105 per cent. 

Statistics similar to the above, but for the year 1902, were 
published in the article in June 20, 1903, already mentioned. 

eliminate aljout sixteen stopping points, and on the Broadway 
line about twenty-five. Mr. Stanley desires particularly to 
eliminate the practice of making two stops at streets where 
lines intersect. The law requires that cars stop on the second 
crossing of all streets, and it also requires that cars make emer- 
gency stops at the first crossings of streets where there are in- 
tersecting lines. People frequently get on and off at the first 
stop, while others go to the second crossing, making many an- 
noying delays. The city officials have agreed to co-operate in 
the matter. 


H. S. Kneedler, advertising and industrial agent of the Pa- 
cific Electric Railway Company, has issued a pretty pictorial 
pamphlet for the benefit of tourists who desire to visit places 
out of Los Angeles, along the beaches and in the mountains. 

Work has been commenced on the construction of a municipal 
tramway and electric lighting system in Freemantle, Western 
Australia. The engineer in charge is F. A. McCarty, of Noyes 
Brothers, of Melbourne. 

April 8, 1905.] 




Chapter VL of the new census report on street railways is 
devoted to employees, salaries and wages, and statistics are 
given for 797 of the 817 operating companies, 20 companies 
failing to render reports. In accordance with the practice 
adopted hy the Bureau of the Census for the investigation of 

classes, which are approximately equal in number and in wages 
received, together constitute about three-fifths of the total 
number of wage-earners, and their aggregate wages are equal 
to more than one-third of the operating expenses of street rail- 
way companies. Road and track men and mechanics are the 
next most important classes of employees. 

For all classes of railways combined — that is, those with and 



Urban Centers, Population 

Interurban Railways 

500,000 and 

100,000 but 
under 500,000. 

25,000 but 
under 100,000. 

Under 25,000. 

Fast, long. 



































Number of companies 

Salaried otHcials and clerks: 

Average number 

Per mile of track 

Per 100,000 car miles run during the year 

Per 100,000 fare passengers carried during the year . . 

Salaries i $5, 


Average number 

Per mile of track 

Per 100,000 car miles run during the year 

Per 100,000 fare passengers carried during the year.. 

Per mile of track 

Per 100,000 car miles run during the year 

Per 100,000 fare passengers carried during the year. . 

Average number 


Motormen : 

Average number I 

Wages $21 






*Exclusive of reports for 18 companies wliich failed to furnish this information. 

manufacturers, the average number of employees stated in the 
accompanying tables is computed, not on the basis of the actual 
time the street railways were in operation, but on the assump- 
tion of continuous operation for all companies throughout the 
year. Thus a company operating six months and employing 
thirty men during that time is credited with fifteen men em- 
ployed for twelve months. The aim is to show the equivalent 
of the actual work done during the census year, or, in other 
words, the number of employees which would be necessary to 
perform that work if all of them worked the full year. 

The average time of operation of the fifty-seven companies 

without commercial lighting, steam, animal, cable and electric 
— the number of salaried employees was 0.322 per mile of track, 
0.631 per 100,000 car-miles run during the year, and 0.151 per 
100,000 fare passengers carried during the year. The number 
of wage-earners was 6.031 per mile of track, 11.830 per 100,000 
car-miles, and 2.829 per 100,000 fare passengers. These figures 
exceed slightly the averages for the purely full-time electric 
surface railways without commercial lighting, whose detailed 
statistics are given herewith. The annual wages paid by all 
companies were $3,645 per mile of single track, $7,150 per 
100,000 car-miles, and $1,710 per 100,000 fare passengers. As 



Number of 
miles of 

Total car 

Number of 
fare passen- 




Per mile 
of track. 

car miles 
per year. 

fare pas- 
per year. 


Per mile 
of track. 

car miles, 
per year. 


fare pas- 

per year. 

New York, N. Y 












Chicago, 111.* 












Philadelphia, Pa 










11.. 346 


St. Louis, Mo 






. 466 

















Baltimore, Md 












Cleveland, Ohio 












Buffalo, N. Y 











3 . 047 

San Francisco, Cal 










14.. 340 


Pittsburg-Alleghany, Pa 












* One company failed to furnish this information. 

which operated less than the full year was about six and two- 
thirds months. The number of employees of such companies, 
as calculated according to the method described was only 2066, 
so that it was only a small fraction of the total. 

The average number of salaried officials and clerks employed 
by the street railways of the United States in 1902 was 7128, 
and the average number of wage-earners of all classes, 133,641, 
a total of 140,769 employees. The salaries paid amounted to 
$7,439,716, and the wages to $80,770,449, a total of $88,210,165 
for salaries and wages. The wages alone, exclusive of salaries, 
were 56.8 per cent of the total operating expenses of the street 
railway companies. By far the most important groups of em- 
ployees are, of course, conductors and motormen. These two 

might be exi)ected, the companies furnishing commercial light- 
ing, part of whose employees are engaged in the lighting 
branch of the business, show relatively more salaried em- 
ployees, wage-earners and wages, in proportion to the car mile- 
age and passengers, than companies without commercial light- 
ing. In accordance with the practice adopted in this series of 
abstracts, only the statistics for full-time electric railway com- 
panies are reproduced, classified according to population. 

In explanation of the fact that the number of employees per 
100,000 car-miles is greater in large cities than in smaller 
towns, it may be said that certain classes of men, such as start- 
ers, switchmen, transfermen at junction points, and the like 
are not required in the smaller towns. In some small towns 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

a single person serves both as conductor and motorman. 

On the other hand, the density of traffic per car-mile in- 
creases, broadly speaking, with population, and we find accord- 
ingly that the ratio of the number of employees to the number 
of fare passengers carried during the year decreases with in- 
creasing population. 

The next table shows the number of salaried employees and 
the number of wage-earners on the surface railways, including 
electric, animal and cable lines,* in the ten largest cities of the 
United States, together with the relation between these num- 
bers and the traffic. It should be noted that, in some cases, the 
area and population of the cities as covered by this table do not 
correspond exactly with the area and population of the "urban 
centers," of which these cities are the chief part. 

The next table shows for all wage-earners on electric sur- 
face railways, and for the leading classes separately, the num- 

foremen ; inspectors; starters; watchmen; switchmen; hostlers, 
stablemen, etc. ; linemen ; dynamo and switchboard men ; elec- 
tricians and lamp trimmers. 

The highest wages were found in Montana, where the median 
for all classes of wage-earners on electric surface railways 
was $3.50 to $3.54. The only other States in which the median 
for all wage-earners combined exceeded $2.10 per day are Cali- 
fornia, Colorado, Oregon and Rhode Island. In eleven of the 
States named in the table the median group for all employees 
was $2 to $2.04, and these States include several of the most 
important. The median for all wage-earners was below $1.50 
in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, North Carolina and Ten- 

The median rate of wages for conductors, which corre- 
sponded closely with that for motormen, was $2 to $2.04 in 
several of the leading States. Only in California, Colorado, 
Illinois, Michigan, Montana, Oregon and Rhode Island was the 
median above this figure. In five Southern States the median 



(Each cumulative percentage shows the proportion of the total number receiving a wage as great as, or greater than, the lowest rate of the given wage group.) 

All Classes. 



Road and Track Men. 

Rate per Day (Dollars). 






Of total. 



Of total. 



Of total. 



Of total. 














































































































2. 1 






















All Other Classes. 

Rate per Day (Dollars). 






Of total. 



Of total. 



Of total. 



Of total. 

Cumula " 

























1.25 to 1.49 





































2.00 to 2.24 













2.25 to 2.49 













2.50 to 2.74 













2.75 to 2.99 





(* ) 



























*Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

her receiving stated rates of daily wages within 25-cent limits. 
It shows also the percentage which the number falling within 
each wage group bears to the total number of wage-earners 
of the class, together with cumulative percentages. 

The statistics of classified wage-earners presented in this 
table are confined to electric surface railways (including those 
with and without commercial lighting), because the occupa- 
tions for other classes of railways differ so much in character 
as to render comparison misleading. Even of the electric sur- 
face railway companies, fifty-four failed to report in full re- 
garding classified wages of their employees and have been 
omitted from the classified figures. The most important of the 
omissions are the Chicago City Railway Company, the United 
Railways & Electric Company of Baltimore, the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway Company, the St. Louis Transit Company, the 
Cleveland Electric Railway Company, the Columbus Railway 
Company and the Union Railroad Company of Providence. 

In the above table the heading "all other classes" includes 

* The Brooklyn and Boston companies which operate elevated as well as 
surface tracks are included in the table. 

for conductors was below $1.50 per day. For road and track 
men several States have a median of $1.50 to $1.54. Of the 
States in which the wages of road and track men were compar- 
atively high, the most important are California, Colorado, Mas- 
sachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New York, Oregon, Utah, 
Washington and Wisconsin. The median for this class of 
wage-earners was less than $1 per day in four Southern States, 
where negro labor is largely employed. 

Chapter VII. is devoted to "Interurban Railways; Their Eco- 
nomic, Financial and Social Features." In the introduction, 
the compilers refer to the difficulty already mentioned of classi- 
fying roads into urban and interurban, as many possess both 
kinds of line, and make no distinction in their returns between 
the two. As previously stated, the general rule followed in 
this respect has been to consider as interurban any railway 
which has more than one-half of its trackage outside the limits 
of incorporated municipalities ; and to consider as a "fast, long" 
interurban any railway more than 15 miles in length, which 

April 8, 1905.] 



has two-thirds or more of its trackage outside the limits of 
municipalities and which operates cars at a maximum speed of 
20 miles or more per hour. On the basis of these rules, various 
companies have been classed as interurban the urban traffic of 
which might perhaps be found, if the information were at hand, 
to exceed somewhat their interurban traffic. The railways 
classed as "other" ' interurban railways are, however, much 
more heterogeneous in character than the "fast, long" inter- 
urbans, though even among the latter there are several which 
have a considerable amount of strictly urban traffic. For ex- 
ample, on account of its extensive urban traffic, the Detroit 
United Railway Company, which operates some of the most 
progressive interurban lines, has been classed necessarily with 
the miscellaneous group rather than with the group of typical 
fast interurban railways. 

It would, of course, have been more instructive to have dis- 
tinguished more specific classes among interurban railways. 
For instance, a distinction might be drawn between interurban 
lines proper and suburban lines, between companies which do 
a considerable proportion of their business within the limits of 
cities and those which do only a small proportion within such 
limits, and between lines which depend largely upon seasonal 
traffic and those which have traffic fairly well distributed 
throughout the year. The different railways grade into one 
another so imperceptibly in these respects, however, that, in 
the absence of more detailed information regarding the nature 
of the business of each company, such classification has been 
deemed impracticable, and it has been found necessary to group 
together all interurban railways except those of the special 
class of fast, long lines above defined. 

The report then describes in a general way the different 
phases of development of interurban lines in different sections 
of the country, and presents certain maps from the Street 
Railway Journal of the lines in different States. 

Under this title the table on the next page is given of statistics 
from fifty-three of the fast, long interurban lines that reported 
financial data. The companies with commercial lighting and 
those in operation only part of the census year are distin- 
guished from the other companies. It should be noted that two 
or three companies of the larger group did not have all of their 
trackage in operation during the whole of the census year, but 
inasmuch as the companies themselves were in operation during 
the entire year, they have been included in the group of full- 
time lines. The table shows, per mile of track, the total oper- 
ating earnings, earnings from strictly railway Inisiness (i. e., 
from passengers, chartered cars, freight, mail and express), 
passenger eafnings, and combined freight, mail and express 
earnings, all of these ratios being based on the total trackage 
operated, including that under trackage rights. Earnings from 
the sale of current for light and power, or from miscellaneous 
sources, do not appear as a separate item, but are equal to the 
difference between the first column and the second. The table 
presents likewise the total railway earnings per mile run by 
cars of all classes and the total passenger earnings per passen- 
ger car-mile. It is impracticable to present the statistics of 
earnings from freight, mail and express business per mile oper- 
ated by cars devoted exclusively to this business, because of the 
character of the reports on this point and because of the fre- 
quent practice of handling such traffic in passenger cars. 
Finally, the table indicates the total amount of operating ex- 
penses per car-mile for all classes of cars and the ratio of total 
operating expenses to total operating earnings. 

Confining attention to full-time companies without commer- 
cial lighting plants, the average earnings from all sources per 
mile of track for all companies are $3,308, of which $3,032 is 
derived from passengers and $185 from freight, mail and ex- 
press. Of the forty companies in this class nine earn less than 

$2,000 per mile of track. At least six of these, however, did 
not have all their trackage in operation throughout the whole 
census year. Nine companies earned from $2,000 to $3,000 per 
mile of track; eleven, the largest group, from $3,000 to $4,000; 
four from $4,000 to $5,000, and seven more than $5,000 per 
mile. While some of the companies with high earnings per 
mile of track derived a considerable part of their revenue from 
passengers carried within the limits of cities, others that earned 
$4,000 or more per mile derived much the greater part of their 
earnings from strictly interurban business. 

Nearly all of the earnings of the first group of railways 
shown in the table are from strictly railway business. The five 
companies that operate lighting plants, the second group in the 
table, have a considerable revenue from that branch of the 
business, but their railway earnings proper are larger per mile 
of track than those of most of the companies without lighting 
plants. Two or three of the five companies do an important 
urban as well as interurban business. The earnings per mile 
of track of companies operating during only part of the year 
vary greatly because of the difference in the length of time that 
they were operated. 

The freight, mail and express business of the interurban 
railways shows such widely differing stages of development 
that an average for all companies is not significant. Eight of 
the fifty-three companies shown in the table have earnings 
from these sources equal to more than one-tenth of their earn- 
ings from passengers, and of these eight companies three have 
freight, mail and express earnings equal to more than one-third 
of their revenue from passengers. All of the four companies 
in Michigan operating the entire year do an important freight 
and express business, and the same is true of the interurban 
lines of the Detroit United Railway Company, which is not 
included in the table. Among other companies whose freight 
and express business is important may be mentioned the In- 
dianapolis & Eastern Railway Company, the Eastern Ohio 
Traction Company (Cleveland to Garrettsville, etc.), the Cleve- 
land, Painesville & Eastern Railroad Company, the Dayton, 
Springfield & Urbana Electric Railway Company, the Toledo 
& Western Railway Company (Toledo to Adrian, Mich.), the 
Mahoning Valley Railway Company (Youngstown, Ohio, to 
Newcastle. Pa.), the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad Company, 
the Erie Traction Company (Erie to Cambridge Springs, Pa.), 
and the Albany & Hudson Railway & Power Company. 

The ratio of earnings to car mileage on interurban railways 
is much more nearly uniform than the ratio of earnings to 
trackage. Moreover, this figure furnishes a basis for compari- 
son of the financial operations of part-time and full-time roads 
which the ratio of earnings to trackage did not permit. The 
total railway earnings of the three groups of interurban com- 
panies in the table are equal to 20.6 cents per car-mile, and the 
passenger earnings are equal to 20.3 cents per car-mile. No 
great difference appears in these ratios as among the three 
groups of companies. Of the fifty-two companies for which 
care mileage was reported, six have railway earnings of less 
than 15 cents per car-mile, sixteen have earnings of from 15 
cents to 20 cents, nineteen from 20 cents to 25 cents, ten from 
25 cents to 30 cents, and one more than 40 cents per car-mile. 

The operating expenses per car-mile for full-time interurban 
railways without commercial lighting average 12.4 cents, and 
those for companies operating only part of the year, most of 
which do not furnish commercial lighting, 13.7 cents. Some 
of the companies report remarkably low ratios of operating 
expenses, ten showing less than to cents per car-mile. Only 
in'ne of the full-time companies without commercial lighting 
have operating expenses exceeding 15 cents per car-mile, and 
several of these cases are easily explained by temporary or ex- 
ceptional causes. The total operating expenses of companies 
which do an extensive lighting business are naturally relatively 
high per car-mile. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

While a great deal of interest attaches to this relation, only 
rough approximations are possible. The greatest difficulty is 
found in determining the extent of the population which is to 
be considered as tributary to a given railway. Thus, where a 
railway connects a group of small towns with a large city, the 


population of the small towns usually furnishes much more 
traffic than that of the city, although the inhabitants of the city 
may greatly outnumber those of the smaller towns. The latter 
contributes some traffic, but it is obviously improper to combine 
the population of the large city with that of the small towns 
in calculating the per capita traffic. Where two large cities 
are connected by an electric railway, which also serves inter- 
mediate towns, the traffic furnished by the cities is likely to be 
somewhat greater than where only a single city is served. The 
amount of traffic will depend largely upon the distance between 
the two cities and the comparative speed and charges of the 
electric and steam service. But even where two cities are con- 
nected in this manner it would likewise be improper to count 
the population of the cities in the same way as that of the 
smaller towns in determining the relation of traffic to popula- 
tion. In other cases interurban railways connect only towns 
of medium or small size. There is ordinarily less to attract 
travel on such a railway, and the ratio between earnings and 
population served may be expected to be lower than the ratio 
in the case of railways connecting with large cities. 

It is also quite impossible from the availal)le statistics of 
population to determine the number of the inhabitants of rural 
communities who can be considered as tributary to an inter- 
urban railway. Ordinarily the township, which is the unit for 
reporting the population, is of such large area that only a small 
portion of its inhabitants have access to a railway running 
through it. In some cases, to be sure, interurban lines draw a 
considerable proportion of their traffic from the farming class. 

Usually, however, much the greater part of the traffic is fur- 
nished by the inhabitants of towns. 

The small table below shows the relation between operating 
earnings and population for sixteen selected fast, long interurban 
railways. The population is that of the census of 1900, while 
the operating earnings are for the census year 1902. The popu- 









lation taken as a basis in each case includes only incorporated 
places, and does not include large cities serving as termini, 
which are for convenience designated as "city termini." Of 
the railways under consideration, eight are in Ohio, five in 
Michigan, and one each in Indiana, Ilhnois and Missouri. 

The first ten railways referred to in the table all connect 
towns of small or medium size with a single large city. Dayton, 
Ohio, with a population of 85,333, is the smallest city ter- 
minus in the group. No. i serves eight towns of between 1000 
and 20,000 inhabitants, with a total population of nearly 40,000. 
The largest town served has also another important interurban 
railway connection. No. 2 serves five small towns and one of 


Number of 

tion of in- 
places, not 


city ter- 
mini, per 

mile of 



per in- 


nomber of 

tion of in- 
■ corporated 
places, not 

city ter- 
mini, per 

mile of 


per in- 









• 816 
















*Fi:eight earnings more than one-seventh of total. tOperates a hghting plant. 



ill-time railways 
without commer- 
cial lighting; 

Average for all 
companies . . . 


Earnings per Mile or Track. 


S3, 308 


From railway opera- 
tion proper. 


. rom 



1 otal. 





































































































per car 






per car 

age of 
to op- 



$0. 124 


































. 189 

. 181 


49 . 5 





















































. 267 












( *) 








. 190 












. 176 








Earnings per Mile of 


From railway opera- 

tion proper. 





r rom 









Full-time railways 

without commer- 

cial lighting — 


Average for all 

companies . . 






companies . . 




























Full-time railways 

with commercial 


Average for all 

companies . . 






companies . . 





















Part-time railways; 

Average for all 

companies . . 






companies . . 





2 084 





1 204 





















per car 








per car 















































age of 
to op- 







*Car mileage not reported. 

April 8, 1905.] 



about 20,000 inhabitants, situated at one end of the line. The 
total population of these towns is between 30,000 and 40,000. 
No. 3 connects one large town and four towns of less than 3000 
inhabitants each with a city, the total population of the five 
towns being about 35,000. No. 4 connects four small towns 
with a large city, the aggregate population of these towns being 
less than 8000. Presumably, a considerable amount of traffic 
is in this last case furnished by rural communities, while some 
may possibly come from beyond the terminus of the railway. 
No. 5 has as one of its termini a town of more than 15,000 
people, and serves four intermediate places of smaller size, the 
total population of these five towns being between 25,000 and 
30,000. No. 6 serves three towns of considerable size and five 
smaller towns, their combined po]mlation being more than 
50,000. The town population directly served by No. 7 is very 
small, and it probably carries a considerable number of passen- 
gers to a connection with the steam railroad at its terminus. 
No. 8 connects three small towns with a large city. No. 9 
serves one city of more than 30,000 people and two or three 
smaller towns, the total population served being more than 
40,000; the larger town mentioned has also electric railway 
connections in other directions. No. 10 serves less than 10,000 
people directly, these being mostly confined to the town at its 
terminus. Presumably, a considcralile amount of traffic is due 
to steam railroad connections. 

Nos. II and 12 each connect two large cities at consideraljle 
distances from each other. Probably, however, much the 
greater part of the traffic is furnished by the intermediate 
towns, which in the one case have an aggregate population of 
more than 40,000 and in the other case of more than 60,000. 

Nos. 13, 14 and 15 do not reach large cities, but in each case 
have as their termini medium-sized towns with population 
ranging from 10,000 to 45,000. They are all lines of consider- 
able length and serve two or more minor towns in addition to 
their termini. No. 16 connects four towns of between 5000 
and 25,000 population, and also serves several 
smaller places. It will be observed that, as 
might be expected, the ratio of traffic to popu- 
lation is lower in the case of the last four 
railways than in most of the other cases. The 
"city terminus" has a strong tendency to at- 
tract travel on the part of the inhabitants of 
the neighboring smaller towns. 

Most of the railways covered by the talkie 
are highly prosperous. More than half of them 
report a ratio of operation expenses to earnings 
below 60 per cent, and only three have a ratio 
exceeding 75 per cent. 

The effect of an electric railway on the 
business of the merchants in the small towns 
traversed was made the subject of a special in- 
quiry. The replies, though somewhat contra- 
dictory, were in the main that while more peo- 
ple than formerly go to the large towns to pur- 
chase certain classes of goods, the loss to the 
mechant is more than ofifset by the increased 
population of the town and by the increased 
patronage of the farmer classes. The effect on parallel steam 
roads is also one which does not follow any general rule. 


Two splendid observation cars have just been constructed 
by the Pacific Electric Railway Company in its extensive car 
shops at Los Angeles. They are of the 300 type, being 49 ft. 
6 ins. long and weighing 65,000 lbs. They are ecj-uipped with 


motors for 75 m.p.h., but have been known to attain a speed of 
78 m.p.h. They seat fifty-four passengers, in cane-covered re- 
volving chairs, and are provided with a perfect toilet equip- 

"The company has just finished these coaches for use as ob- 
servation cars in our service, known as 'Seeing Orange 
Groves,' " said J. McMillan, traffic manager, to a representa- 

The Northwestern Ohio Trolley League has been formed 
through the assistance of the Canton-Akron Traction Company 
and the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company. The fol- 
lowing towns on the lines of these railways will be represented 
by teams: Akron, Cuyahoga Falls, Kent, Barberton, Wads- 
worth, New P.erlin and Canton. Regular scheduled games will 
be played. 


tive of the Street Railway Journal, "but we are now to 
build two more that shall be strictly parlor cars, with heavy- 
draperies and the fanciest kind of carpeting and upholstering, 
fitted out in the most attractive manner. For this kind of 
coach the tourists present a call every winter that we cannot 
possibly supply. The new ol>servation cars are equipped for 
striking illumination effects in the evening, by a row of incan- 
descent lights ardund each car at the caves. \Vc feel wry 
proud of the work we have done in constructing these cars in 
our own shops in Los Angeles." 




[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

Proposals made to the New York Rapid Transit Commission 
last week by interests desirous of building new underground 
rapid transit lines in New York provide for a total expenditure 
of more than $200,000,000. The applicants for rights are the 
New York City Railway Company, operating the surface lines 
in Manhattan Borough, and the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, operating the elevated and the subway lines in that 
borough. Their applications are now formally before the 
board, and it is said that other bidders will soon make pro- 
posals, among them the New York & Port Chester Railway, 
which plans to build a four-track third-rail electric railway 
from New York to Port Chester, a distance of about 27 miles. 

Neither the New York City Company nor the Interborough 
Company has applied for the right to build over the routes 
originally recommended to the Rapid Transit Commission. 
Each wants to build over a modified route that it thinks would 
best conserve its own interests. The accompanying maps show 
these routes. The recommendations to the commision by its 
engineers for new lines were only tentative, so that modifica- 
tions can easily be made. From the maps it can be seen that 
it would not be practicable to accept both proposals and so put 
the companies into direct competition. 

The New York City Company plans to build lines only in 
Manhattan. In short, the application of this company is for 
three new trunk lines, each with four tracks and a crosstown 
loop connecting the new Pennsylvania station with its proposed 
Third Avenue tunnel. Its proposal is fully shown in the ac- 
companying map. 

The Interborough Company's proposal, while in some in- 
stances it provides for lines to parallel those proposed by the 
New York City Railway Company, is in the main radically dif- 
ferent from that company's plan. Routes are planned for both 
Manhattan and Brooklyn Boroughs. No new trunk lines are 
proposed for the former, however. All of the strictly new 
lines are to run across town. For Brooklyn there is planned 
a two-track line connecting with the loop under City Hall 
Park, Manhattan, and running thence under the East River to 
Fulton Street, Brooklyn, where it will connect with the tunnel 
now in course of construction, the latter to be of four tracks 
between Court Street and Atlantic Avenue. A line of two 
tracks will extend from Lafayette and Flatbush Avenues, 
through Lafayette Avenue to Sumner Avenue, and thence to 
Broadway, to the Brooklyn terminal of the Williamsburg 
Bridge, the bridge at its Manhattan terminal to connect with 
a subway in Delancey Street; thence to Chrystie Street, to 
Canal Street, to Centre Street, to William Street, where it 
would connect with the second tunnel running to Brooklyn, 
which would have its outlet at Pineapple Street, Brooklyn. 
There is also to be a line of two tracks from the junction at 
Fulton Street and Flatbush Avenue, under the extension of 
Flatbush Avenue to the Manhattan Bridge, with connections 
at the Manhattan end of the bridge with the Second Avenue 
and Third Avenue elevated lines. A line to extend from the 
tunnel now being built at Prospect Park Plaza, through Eastern 
Parkway, to East New York Avenue, also is projected. The 
Interborough Company thus is prepared to enter into a con- 
tract and construct, under the terms of the rapid transit act, 
the complete system, as originally conceived, and, in addition 
thereto, to make extensions to the boroughs of the Bronx and 
Brooklyn, completing a comprehensive system of the rapid 
transit lines that will carry passengers from the northern ex- 
tremity of the borough of the Bronx, through the borough of 
Manhattan and to various points in the borough of Brooklyn, 
and give the inhabitants of these boroughs a continuous ride 
without change of cars for a single fare of 5 cents, without 
regard to distance, over both subways and elevated lines. 
In addition to completing the subway system in the borough 

April 8, 1905.] 






















O - 












of Manhattan, the company is also prepared to extend and enlarge the ele- 
vated system belonging to the Manhattan Railway Company, now leased by 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. 

Since these proposals were made to the board, the committee on plans and 
contracts of that body has reported on routes and plans deemed advisable 
for Manhattan, Bronx and Brooklyn Boroughs. This report says: 

"In laying out the present subway system the board was restricted by the 
decision of the court in the use of the city's credit to a sum less than $50,- 
000,000. Your committee considers that the work which the board is about 
to undertake is in many respects even more important than the work previ- 
ously done; and that the year 1905 may perhaps be of more real moment in 
the rapid transit annals of the city than the year 1900. A wealth of sugges- 
tions for additional lines has come from residents of all parts of the city. 
Most of them have been excellent, but all of them could not be adopted." 
The committee recommended the following routes : 

No. I — East side route in First Avenue from the borough of the Bronx, 
south to the Battery. 

No. 2 — West side route in Ninth and Columbus Avenues from the Battery 
to West 2iith Street. 

No. 3 — East side route in Third Avenue from the borough of the Bronx 
to the Battery. 

No. 4 — In Seventh Avenue, from Forty-Second Street to Twenty-Fifth 
Street, a four-track subway or a two-track subway. 

No. 5 — A four-track subway in the borough of Manhattan through Lex- 
ington Avenue from 127th Street to Forty-Second Street. 

No. 6 — A crosstown two-track subway through Fifty-Ninth Street from 
Twelfth Avenue to the Blackwell's Island Bridge, then crossing the bridge 
to Queens. 

No. 7 — A crosstown subway in Thirty-Fourth Street from Ninth Avenue 
to the Thirty-Fourth Street Ferry. 

No. 8 — Crosstown subway from East Twenty-Third Street Ferry on 
Twenty-Third Street to West Twenty-Third Street Ferry. 

No. 9 — Crosstown subway on Fourteenth Street from Eleventh Avenue 
to a point between Avenues B and C, to connect with tunnel to Brooklyn. 

No. 10 — From Fulton Street and Broadway, Brooklyn, through Broadway, 
over the Williamsburg Bridge to Delancey Street and Centre Street to the 
proposed new terminal of the Brooklyn Bridge. 


The plans of the Citizens' Rapid Transit Company, of Richmond, Va., are 
now completed and it is proposed to commence work iminediately. This 
line, it will be remembered, is to employ the double trolley in the city and 
the single trolley in the suburbs, using a switch on the car to throw the con- 
nections over from a metallic to a ground re- 
turn. Eight and one-half miles are to be built 
in the city and 20 miles in the suburbs. The 
road is being installed by Philadelphia and Balti- 
more capitalists. The chief engineer is George 
E. Moffat, formerly of the Conneaut & Erie 
Traction Company. 





Cars on the lines of the Mexico City Electric 
Railway are operated separately now, and not in 
trains, except between 12 o'clock noon and i p. 
m., which is "rush" hour. Heretofore there 
would be, say, a train of two cars, made up of a 
first and a second-class car, operated on a 
twenty-minute schedule. Now there is a car 
every ten minutes, operating alternately a firs't- 
class and then a second-class. Where cars are 
run in trains, however, they are made up either 
of two first-class or two second-class cars. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 


Tlie March meeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation was held at the Gibson House, Cincinnati, March 23. 

The members of the transportation committee of the Indiana 
Electric Railway Association met the transportation committee 
of the Ohio Association Wednesday evening and discussed the 
adoption of an interchangeable coupon book which should be 
good on lines in both States. No decision was reached. In 
view of their lower rates, the Indiana roads feel that they can- 
not afford to make better than a 10 per cent reduction in the 
sale of such a book, while the majority of the Ohio roads re- 
ported to their committee that they believed it would affect the 
sale of the Ohio book if the discount was made smaller than 
the present iSyi per cent reduction. The Indiana roads were 
urged to follow the example of a number of Ohio roads which 
have recently increased their rates, but the Indiana committee 
expressed the opinion that this would be impossible in a num- 
ber of cases where steam road competition is severe and where 
franchise conditions bind them to certain rates. In Ohio thus 
far very little difficulty has been encountered by reason of 
these objections. Negotiations between the two associations 
have not been abandoned, and the Indiana Association will dis- 
cuss the situation at its next meeting, and its committee will 
confer again with the Ohio committee at the Ohio meeting at 
Springfield, April 27. The advantages of co-operation are 
thoroughly appreciated, and there seems little doubt that some 
plan will be worked out for accomplishing the desired result. 

The subject of handling mail was discussed at the morning 
session. Of late a number of Ohio roads have been making 
efforts to secure more extensive mail contracts, and the gov- 
ernment has had inspectors over a number of the properties 
studying the conditions. It is felt that tlie present rates paid 
interurbans for hauling mail are not high enough, and a prom- 
inent member advised that the association take up the matter 
and if possible secure better rates. • 

F. W. Coen, of the Lake Shore Electric, explained that the 
greatest handicap to increasing this service at present was th^ 
fact that interurban lines were classed distinct from steam 
roads, and that the appropriation for all electric roads amounted 
to only $530,000. He said that this appropriation must first 
be increased. 

The rates paid interurbans are 3 cents per car-mile per route 
for sack mail and ^-4 cent per foot of car per car-mile where a 
portion of a car is given up for that purpose. A number of the 
roads stated they received 7^2 cents per car-mile for part of a 
car. It was the general sentiment that the business at present 
rates was not very profitable, particularly as the government 
requires companies to deliver the sacks to the postoffice, where 
it is located within a certain distance of the track. In several 
instances it was reported that roads were obliged to hire men 
to take care of this work and that it cost from 25 per cent to 
30 per cent, and some cases more, of the entire contract. Other 
roads stop their cars and have the motorman and conductor 
deliver the mail, which causes annoying delays. One manager 
complained that the amount of mail on his route had kept in- 
creasing until it was a hardship to take care of it, but despite 
the increase he received no more for the service. He had 
adopted the plan of keeping an accurate record of the mail 
from station to station, and stated that after he had secured 
statistics covering several months he proposed to strike for an 
increase, and he would have figures to back up his claims. He 
suggested that other roads take similar steps. 

The greatest cause for complaint seemed to be the fact that 
wherever a road carries mail it is flooded with a lot of railway 
mail inspectors, rural mail inspectors, mail clerks, postoffice 
clerks and other officials who expect to ride free. Some of the 
roads have carried all of them without question; others have 

attempted to distinguish between those who had a right to ride 
and those who were simply imposing upon them, while others 
have adopted the plan requiring every one of them to pay ; in 
some cases they have ejected men where they refused to pay. 
In only one or two instances had they ever heard from head- 
quarters where men had been put off. One manager stated he 
had kept track of this class of free transportation for a time 
and found it amounted to more than he was getting out of his 
mail contract. He adopted the "pay or get off" policy and had 
never heard anything further from it. Another manager said 
he had never been imposed upon to any great extent, but the 
few inspectors that did ride refused to sign a release slip or 
give a conductor a receipt that he could turn in, although the 
rules of the company require that a conductor must have some- 
thing to show for every passenger carried. One or two of the 
inspectors were inclined to be insolent, and the manager took 
up the matter with the department, but all the satisfaction he 
could get was that the matter had been "referred." 

Mr. Spring, of the Dayton, Covington & Piqua, said that 
occasionally, when the Pennsylvania main line trains failed to 
make connection with another steam road at Covington, they 
flagged his cars and obliged the crew to carry in all the Dayton 
mail ; in a number of instances it filled up half his car. They 
never knew when this would happen, so there was no one to 
keep track of the amount carried, and he had never received 
anything extra for the service because he had a contract to 
carry the local mail, usually one bag, between these points. He 
wanted to know how he could get redress, but no one could 
answer the question. 

Mr. Clegg, of the Dayton & Troy, said he had a rosy dream 
of special mail cars starting at Cincinnati and running through 
to Toledo and Detroit. He said the connections to be com- 
pleted this year would make this physically possible. He 
thought the electric lines could cover the distance in practically 
the same time as the steam lines, and with their frequent ser- 
vice and the fact that in a great many instances the cars pass 
the doors of postoffices, he thought the electric roads could 
take care of such business and handle it more satisfactorily and 
cheaper than the steam roads. They recently made a proposi- 
tion to carry the mail between Dayton and Lima at rates lower 
than the parallel steam road was getting, and the government 
sent an inspector to investigate. He compared the schedules 
and found that the electric line was making practically t'^'e 
same time between terminals. It was found also that the elec- 
tric cars were on time 40 per cent more times in a certain 
period than the steam trains. The electric line passes the door 
of every postoffice on the route, while hauls are necessary in 
every case to the steam station. The only objection to the 
scheme is the fact that on the steam road the run mentioned is 
part of a through run, where it would be necessary to run the 
cars even though the electric line was given the local business. 

Mr. Bicknell, of the Lake Shore Electric, stated that the 
American Street Railway Association had a committee at work 
on this question, and the legislative committee of the Ohio 
Association was instructed to confer with this committee and 
see what could be done to secure more mail business for the 
electric lines. 

M. S. Hopkins, of the Fidelity Construction Company, was 
to have presented a paper on "Spring Track Repairs," but he 
was unable to be present, so the question was taken up for gen- 
eral discussion. The removal of weeds was first discussed. 

Mr. Winters, of the Dayton & Western, said he had tried a 
chemical for killing weeds, and it worked very satisfactorily, 
so far as the weeds were concerned. The only objection to it 
was that it killed about six cows that had pastured on his right 
of way and he had to pay for them. 

Mr. Coen, of the Lake Shore Electric, said crude oil had 
l)een used with good results. 

Mr. Spring, of the Dayton, Covington & Piqua, said crude 

April 8, 1905.] 



oil used on track would get into the cars and smear the wood- 
work, besides spotting clothes. He said steam roads had 
abandoned the scheme to a large extent. On his road they 
mow weeds twice a year. He thought salt could be used to 
good advantage. 

Mr. Alderman, formerly chief engineer of the Appleyard 
system, said that weeds add 5 per cent to 15 per cent to track 
maintenance. He used cinders for ballast to a large extent, 
and while the weeds would not grow in them, they did not 
make as satisfactory ballast as gravel. Sections are 15 miles to 
18 miles long, and they employ two men and a boss in winter 
and four to five men and a boss in summer ; he thought that this 
was not enough for a summer force. He thought an inter- 
urban road should spend about $350 per year per mile on track 
maintenance, including tie renewals. He avoids highway con- 
struction, not only because of the danger from high speed, but 
because of the difficulty of draining such track. He advocated 
heavy cuts and fills, with plenty of drainage on cuts. 

Mr. Richey, of the Indiana Union Traction Company, said 
their sections averaged 7 miles to 8 miles, and they employ two 
men and a foreman in winter and three to five men and a fore- 
man in summer to each section. The labor for track main- 
tenance figures about $275 to $300 per year. 

Mr. Sloat, of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo, has sections 
18 miles to 25 miles long, and employs seven to ten men per 
section in summer and two or three men in winter. Section 
men work nine hours at 15 cents, and foremen receive $1.75 
per day. He does not believe in starting track work in the 
early spring. He waits until about the middle of April, when 
the frost is all out of the ground, and he believes he gets bet- 
ter results. 

Mr. Spring, of the Dayton, Covington & Piqua, said they 
were resurfacing several miles of track this spring, and they 
put on a large force to get it out of the way quickly. They 
will put on about 500 yds. of gravel per mile. 

Mr. Brown, of the Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connellsville, 
said that with them it was not a question of getting more ma- 
terial onto the tracks, but of keeping it off. Slips and slides 
from the Allegheny Mountains block their tracks frequently 
at this time of the year. 

Mr. Clegg, of the Dayton & Troy, said they spent $20,000 in 
ballasting last year, and that they would complete the balance 
of 10 miles this year. They use a coarse gravel taken from a 
river bed, and they cannot get at it until after the spring 
freshets are over. They are lifting all their track 4 ins. to 
8 ins., which gets rid of weeds and improves the life of ties. 
He made some cuts the width of his right of way, and adjoin- 
ing land slid into the cut. The property owner was after him 
for damages. His attorney told him he was not liable in 
a case where it was in the country, and he requested some 

The general opinion was that the railroad would be liable, 
whether the cut was in the country or in a municipality. 

Mr. Spring told of an instance where he made a fill and it 
ran over onto a farmer's property, knocking down a fence and 
letting cows onto the track, resulting in the death of two of 
them. The railroad not only had to pay for the cows, but pay 
the farmer for the land. Mr. Richey said they made a practice 
of buying more property just as soon as a cut or a fill ran over 
the width of the right of way. 

Mr. Merrill, of the Western Ohio, said that the majority of 
their sections were 10 miles long, and they employ one foreman 
and three men in summer. They pay section men 15 cents an 
hour and foremen $45 per month. They have a roadmaster at 
$65 per month. He compared one 16-mile section ballasted 
with crushed stone with a 12-milc section ballasted with gravel. 
On the former they have four men and a foreman, while on the 
latter it requires a foreman and six men to keep the track in 
the same comparative condition. He said that the first duty in 

spring was to get the ditches open and allow the water to run 
oif as quickly as possible. 

A committee was appointed to prepare a resolution deploring 
the death of J. O. Arnold, president of the Dayton & German- 
town Traction Company, one of the charter members of the 
association and an active worker. 

Each company in the interchange bureau was asked to pay 
an assessment of $10 to take care of expenses incident to the 
formation of the bureau. This is the first assessment that has 
been made, and the expenses are very small. The sale of in- 
terchangeable coupon books and interline tickets was reported 
to be very gratifying. Free checking of interline baggage has 
unquestionably had a tendency to increase through business. 

Thursday afternoon the members visited the plant of the 
Bullock Electric Manufacturing Company in special cars fur- 
nished by W. Kesley Schoepf, of the Cincinnati Traction Com- 
pany. F. W. Garrett and L. C. Marburg, of the Bullock rail- 
wa)4 department, and L. Lowenberg, of the publicity depart- 
ment, were in charge of the party. Much interest was dis- 
played in some of the new work the company' is doing. As is 
generally known, the company is now building commercially 
its own switchboard apparatus, electric motors and turbo- 
generators. Among the large machines under construction 
at this time are four 5500-kw turbo-generators for Brook- 
lyn, two 1500-kw 25-cycle alternators for New Orleans, 
and two 500-kw railway generators for Mansfield. A 44-ft. 
pit lathe, said to be the largest tool of its kind in the 
world, attracted a great deal of attention, and the design 
of the buildings, size and equipment of the plant were favorably 
commented upon. Returning from the plant, a stop was made 
at the station of the Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company, where 
a 1500-kw Bullock generator is now in operation. 



The East St. Louis & Suburban Railway Company's shops 
are equipped with the Murphy car-wheel grinder, designed to 
grind car wheels without removing them from the trucks. The 
master mechanic, Lee Massengale, believing that better results 
can be secured by removing the wheels from the trucks to grind 
them and revolving them at a slower speed, is using this grinder 
in that way. He revolves the wheels at a speed of 6 r. p. m. 
To do this he has fixed up a countershaft above the wheel 
grinder, from which a belt is run to a split pulley which is 
placed on the car axle. The wheels therefore, instead of re- 
volving several hundred revolutions per minute as they would 
if operated by the motors under a car, revolve very slowly. 
Mr. Massengale believes this to give better results than grind- 
ing the wheels under the car with the car wheels revolving at 
high speed; in fact, enough better results to justify taking the 
wheels from under the car. 

During the past season all the company's open cars not before 
so equipped have had eave troughs placed along the sides of the 
car over the running boards to prevent water from dripping off 
the roof on to the conductor or passengers when they are on 
the running board. These eave troughs are of galvanized iron, 
3 ins. wide and ij4 ins. deep, and are left open so that the 
water can run off at either end. 

— ^♦-» 

A summary of the reports of the street railways of New Jer- 
sey to the New Jersey State Board of Assessors for the year 
ending Dec. 31, 1904, shows a total mileage of 996.37; capital 
stock, $84,972,880; capital paid up, $82,574,871; funded debt, 
$74,577,218; other debts, $5,453,374; cost of railroad, including 
equipment and appurtenances, $166,331,763; expenditures for 
repairs, superintendence, management, etc., $6,694,209; gross 
receipts, $10,277,586; dividends paid, $692,010. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14.' 


In this issue are given two interesting answers on the sub- 
ject of snow removal. Questions and answers relating to em- 
ployees are commenced, and the last of the answers on the 
handling of express and freight are published. A few addi- 
tional questions on brake-shoes are given on page 668, atid to 
these, answers are particularly requested. 

A 41. — What is the best method of keeping records of deeds 
to real estate, rights of way, etc.? 

First, file real estate deeds alphabetically. Second, have atlas 
showing rights of way in detail, numbering the rights of way 
consecutively, giving each right of way document a correspond- 
ing number and file by that number. 

A. H. Rogers, Pres., 
Southwest Missouri Elec. Ry., Webb City, Mo. 

They should be typewritten, bound in book form and properly 

C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

A 42. — Information is requested as to best ways of handling 
the snow-removing problem. Please describe in detail your 
snow-fighting methods and snow-fighting equipment. Please 
give all the steps taken from the time the first flurry of snow 
appears until the battle has been won and schedules restored. 

First we keep in touch with the weather observer. We have 
snow plows on about one-third of our passenger cars which keep 
the snow thrown back through the day, and until 11 o'clock p. m. 
Except in very rare cases we have our heaviest snows during the 
night in this climate. If we have reason to believe a heavy fall of 
snow is coming, or if the night despatcher is so informed by "owl 
car" crews or night car house foremen, the superintendent is called 
by 'phone. He comes to his office, which is at central loop, and 
meets the roadmaster, who has also been called by despatcher. If 
they think it necessary, the superintendent calls the division super- 
intendents and snow sweeper and plow crews, who each report to 
their respective division headquarters. The roadmaster calls out 
as many trackmen as he deems necessary. They are sent to such 
switches, crossings, etc., as the roadmaster may direct; the plows 
and sweepers being sent out by division superintendents as per in- 
structions received from the superintendent. Each plow and 
sweeper goes over certain lines in accordance with schedules and 
plans laid out in the early fall. Crews report direct to despatcher 
at the ends of lines ; the superintendent generally making des- 
patcher's office his headquarters during the storm, thereby being 
able to give further instructions without delay. Unless we have a 
very strong wind we do not go over the lines but twice. If the 
snow falls fast all night with considerable wind, knowing all the 
worst places for drifting, we use our best judgment, sending men, 
plows and sweepers to such places as seem to need them the most. 
It would be almost impossible to give details in such cases, but 
we have managed for several years to have the first cars leave ends 
of lines on time the following morning. Our trainmen being re- 

Our snow-fighting equipment consists of two double-ended Rug- 
gles rotary snow plows, each equipped with two GE 73 motors upon 
the fans, and four GE 73 motors on the trucks. We also have a 
square-nose plow mounted upon a flat-car, the trucks of which are 
equipped with four GE 73 motors. This plow is carried upon 


heavy timbers supported by the car platform and slides vertically 
in guides, the plow being supported by an air cylinder having a 
lift of 8 ins. The plow can be lowered within ^-in. of the rail and 
is left in this position when fighting snow. When a farm or high-, 
way crossing is approached, the plow is lifted by admitting air to 


the cylinder, and held 8 ins. above the rail until the crossing is 
passed, when the air is released from the cylinder and the plow 
drops to its working position. This is done to avoid catching the 
edge of the plow in the planks at crossings. With this equipment, 
and by "keeping eternally at it," we have been able to keep all 
trains on schedule time during the past winter. The road 

quired to report for duty ten minutes before the time for taking 
out their cars, we send the first cars out five minutes ahead of 
time from the car house, giving them time to trim up any switch that 
may need it, and enabling them to leave the end promptly on 
schedule time. We have never used any other than home-made 
snow plows. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

operates between Rochester and Geneva, a distance of 45 miles, 
and twenty trains are run each way each day on a schedule 
of 25 miles per hour, including stops. In addition, limited trains 
are run on a schedule of 40 miles per hour outside of corporate 
limits, including stops, and there are two baggage and freight 
trains each day. F. W. Walker, Eng., 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. Co. 

April 8, 1905.] 




B I. — What are the requirements demanded of appHcants 
for conductors and motormen on your road? The editor will 
appreciate receiving copies of all the blanks used in your em- 
ployment department. 

Trainmen on the lines of this road are required to have good 
habits, good recommendations and to pass a medical examination 
to determine the condition of eyesight and hearing. The appli- 
cation blank used by this company is in the form of a contract or 
agreement, and the applicant is required to make affidavit to the 
truth of the statements, and to his willingness to abide by the con- 
ditions of the agreement. In addition to the usual questions relat- ■ 
ing to age, residence, previous employment and references, the ap- 
plication includes the following clauses : 

I agree to submit to a medical examination by the company's 
doctor and pay $1.00 for same. 

I agree to turn in a full and truthful statement cf all accidents 
of which I may have knowledge. 

I agree that in case of my failure to return any of the property 
intrusted to me, the value of same can be taken from my wages. 

I agree to work under instruction on trial, without pay, at least 
ten days, and such additional time in excess thereof as the com- 
pany may deem necessary. 

I agree, as a punishment, in case of an infraction of the com- 
pany's rules, to serve time practicing or under suspension without 

I understand that no compensation is paid to trainmen for time 
spent while engaged "on watch" (meaning waiting at any desig- 
nated point for opportunity to work), but that wages are allowed 
only for service rendered while actually employed on the com- 
pany's cars, computed at following rates. (Here follow rates of 
wages paid by the company to trainmen.) 

These wages are satisfactory to me, and if employed, I agree to 
work contentedly and faithfully. 

I further agree that if I am discharged, or leave the company's 
service voluntarily at any time during or after the trial period 
above referred to, I shall have no claim against the company for 
service rendered, or expenses incurred by me during said trial 
period, or while performing duty "on watch," as above explained. 

I agree to at once provide myself with a standard uniform in ac- 
cordance with the rules and regulations of the company. 

While in the company's service, I agree to study carefully and 
comply faithfully with all its rules, regulations and orders. 

On the back of the application blank is printed an extract from 
the Penal Code of the State of New York, relating to the punish- 
ment for obtaining employment under false statement or preten- 
sions. E. J. Ryon, Supt, 

— Schenectady Ry. Co. 

Applicants for the position of conductor or motorman on the 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway must be between 21 and 40 years 
of age, not less than 5 ft. 6 ins. in height; conductors to weigh not 
less than 140 lbs. ; motormen not less than 155 lbs. ; have good hear- 
ing, hardened lungs, good eyesight without the use of glasses, and 
not crippled in hands, arms or feet ; must be possessed of a fair 
common school education, be able to read intelligently, sign their 
name and make figures legibly, not addicted to the use of liquors, 
and must pass a rigid physical examination to show that they con- 
form to the requirements. J. E. Duffy, Supt., 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

Motormen must be above average height, and must weigh about 
17s lbs. Experienced men are accepted up to 35 years of age ; in- 
experienced men not if more than 27. Conductors preferred not 
above average height; weight not in excess of 160 lbs. Age re- 
quirements the same as for motormen. Both must be of good 
address and of unquestioned moral character. Service record from 
last employer indispensable. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

Age limit between 25 and 40, satisfactory physical examination, 
and good habits. Jno. J. Akin, Supt., 

Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

They must be capable men ; must have a good past record and 
have had at least one year's experience at the business. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

We require applicants for positions in the transportation depart- 
ment to refer to or have letter of recommendation from past em- 
ployers. They must also be endorsed by one responsible citizen. 
Applicants are required to file letter of application in ov/n hand 
writing. If selected, they fill out and sign regidar application 
blank. Southern Superintendent. 

We require satisfactory answers to questions asked on applica- 
tion blank. J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 

Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co. 

The application blank used by the Steubenville Traction & Light 
Company, referred to in the foregoing answer, embodies several 
new ideas. The blank is intended to be in the nature of an agree- 
ment between the man and the company, and to this end clauses 
are inserted explaining various details about which disputes might 
afterward arise. As the applicant is required to assent in writing 
to each clause, there is left no chance later on for the excuse 'T 
did not know that," or "I did not understand." The blank form 
contains all the usual questions in reference to age, residence, pre- 
vious employment, physical condition, condition of eyesight, hear- 
ing, etc. The following questions then appear : 

Have you ever been discharged or suspended from any situa- 
tion? If so, state particulars, when and where, and for what 

Do you use intoxicating liquors or beers? To what extent, if 

Do you play cards, pool or dice? To what extent? 

Do you make bets or wagers of any kind, or do you gamble in 
any way; if so, to what extent? 

Do you know that while training for proposed position, you will 
receive no compensation ? 

Do you know that, if employed, you will be placed on the 
"E.xtra List" for 60 days, and will only be employed in your turn, 
when "regulars" or "reliefs" are off duty? 

Do you know that you will only receive pay for hours actually 
spent on cars? 

After the list of questions are printed the following clauses : 
If given employment, I agree to obey the rules of the company, 
and the orders of the officers of the company; to abstain from the 
use of intoxicants ; to accept such work as may be assigned to me 
and to discharge the duties of my position to the best of my 

I further agree that, if given employment, I will, in accordance 
with the rules, furnish myself with the uniform prescribed by the 
company, and that when I leave its employ, or am discharged, I will 
return all badges or other property of the company in my posses- 

I do hereby recognize and agree that all of the employees 
of the Steubenville Traction & Light Company, excepting the 
general manager and superintendents, and other officials, are my 
fellow servants, and that it is my duty, as well as that of others to 
do everything to protect the patrons of said company and each other 
of said employees against injury or death from the operation of 
the cars, and maintenance of the road, wires and other parts of the 
property of said company. This agreement and recognition of co- 
laborers applies whether I am on duty or riding as a free passenger, 
or training for a proposed position as conductor or motorman ; 
whether under pay at the time, or as a volunteer. 

I agree to accept the proportion of payment when volunteering 
my services, that I would receive for the same time if on regular 
duty, and I shall report the time of any such service to the proper 

I do hereby agree, as a condition of my employment, to observe 
strictly all the rules and regulations of the Steubenville Traction & 
Light Company, contained in "Rule Book" now in force, or that may 
be issued hereafter from time to time, for the government of its 
employees, and acknowledge the right of said Steubenville Traction 
& Light Company or its officers to terminate my employment at any 
time without notice, and do agree that my wages shall cease at the 
time of such discharge, and do also agree not to consider myself 
an accepted trainman until I have worked sixty (60) days as an 
"extra" or get a regular run, and I certify that I have truly 
answered the foregoing questions, in my own handwriting, and I 
voluntarily subscribe to the statements made and the agreements 
herein contained. 

After the man's application has been accepted he is given a rule 
book and is required to sign the following receipt : "I acknowledge 
having been furnished with a copy of the instructions to the con- 
ductors and motormen of the Steubenville Traction & Light Com- 
pany, and of having read and informed myself of the rules of said 
company governing its employees." Editors. 

To be eligible for a position as conductor or motorman on the 
Denver City Tramway the applicant must be under 35 years old, 
not less than 5 ft. 6 ins. in height and must weigh at least 150 
lbs. Since adopting this rule we have been well satisfied with the 
results. Before giving employment reference blanks are sent out 
and tlie man's past record is fully scrutinized. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

B 2. — How are the men employed on your road? Do you 
have an employment bureau, or are applicants examined and 
hired by the manager or superintendent ? Under what condi- 
tions does it become advisable to establish a separate employ- 
ment department? 

We have no employment bureau. Applicants between the ages of 
twenty-one and forty-five, who are recommended by some well 
known or responsible party, are hired by the superintendent. The 
applicant must, however, pass the physical examination and fill 
out an application blank in his own handwriting before he is put 
to work. C. LooMis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

In our case the men are hired by the superintendent. I should 
say that, where the road is sufficiently large to establish an em- 
ployment bureau, the branch of the business could be put under 
a separate head. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

On this road all applicants are examined and hired by tlie super- 
intendent. On systems in large cities, say of 250,000 and over, I 
think it advisable to have a separate employment department. 

J. E. Duffy, Supt., Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

Our men are employed by the superintendent. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

The assistant superintendent interviews all applicants before tak- 
ing their applications, and after applications are received he has 
blanks sent out to the references. He also looks after keeping the 
proper number of men on extra list, and when more men are re- 
quired he sends for five or ten of the men on the waiting list. Upon 
reporting, the new men are first seen by the superintendent, who 
looks over their applications, sizes up the men, declining any he 
may think not satisfactory, and addresses them in regard to a 
few of the most important rules for motormen and conductors, as 
the case may be. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

Applicants are examined and employed by the superintendent. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt. 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

Applicants are examined and hired by the superintendent of 
transportation, and all discharges are made by his approval. 

Southern Superintendent. 

All car service men on this road are employed personally by the 
superintendent of transportation. 

J. Brown, Supt. Trans., 
Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connellsville Ry. Co. 

Conductors and motormen are employed by the superintendent. 
While the necessity of establishing an employment bureau has not 
arisen in Denver, we presume that such an office would become 
desirable as soon as the duties of employing men required the en- 
tire time of one or more persons. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

B 3. — For conductors and motormen do you prefer married 
or single men and country bred or city men ? Please give your 
reasons for your answer. 

Married men, as I believe they are more steady and less taken 
up with the ladies to whom the uniform with the brass buttons is 
a great temptation. 

C. LooMis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

We prefer married men and country bred. Married men, as a 
rule, have their families to look after and are steadier. Country 
bred men, not having been brought up under the evil influences 
which are to be found in every city, are, as a rule, of better habits 
than the city man, and better appreciate a good position. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

For conductors and motormen I prefer married men, as they are 
more liable to desire steady employment, and, as their re- 
sponsibility is greater, they obey the rules better than some single 
men. As to the difference between country bred and city men, they 
both have their bad and good qualities. 

J. E. Duffy, Supt, Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

Other conditions being equal, we prefer married men. They have 
proved more reliable. City bred men are more apt. Those from 
the country have generally had less trouble with their reports. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

We prefer married men, although difficult to get. Prefer country 
bred men with some city experience, as they usually have better 
constitutions, owing to habits of life, and they know the value of a 
dollar better, as they are brought up with the idea of work instead 
of play. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

Married men, because they are more steady workers. A country 
man seems to be better satisfied and more content to follow out 
the routine. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt. 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

We prefer married men, as we find they report for duty more 
regularly and have better habits. We also find that country bred 
men appreciate their positions and are better satisfied with the 
work, as a rule, than city men. 

Southern Superintendent. 

We prefer young married men, city bred, as being more re- 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co. 

We prefer young married men. A married man feels the respon- 
sibility of his position more than the young man with no one de- 
pending upon him for support, and will accept discipline in better 
spirit than the unmarried man. Country men are preferable, be- 
cause their habits, as a rule, are more regular. They have more 
pride in holding their position; they do not "know it all," and they 
are anxious to learn. Men bred in the country give little trouble 
from drinking, and show up more regularly at 4:40 a. m. than the 
town men. 

J. W. Brown, Supt. Trans., 
Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connellsville Ry. Co. 

We prefer married men who are country bred. We find that 
the best men are those to whom a position as conductor or motor- 
man comes as a rise on the ladder, rather than as a "come down," 
and our experience has proven that this class of men, as a rule, 
are steady in their habits. S. W. Cantril, Supt, 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

B 4. — Do you employ men who have had previous experience 
on other electric roads? Why? 

Yes, if the reference of the previous employer is found to be all 
right. C. _LooMis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 

Utica '& Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

We do not, as a rule, employ experienced men from other roads, 
preferring to train our men in our own methods. Men from other 
roads acquire habits not in conformity with our ideas and it is 
difficult to get them out of a rut. The best men which we have 
to-day on our road came from the country. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

We sometimes employ men who have had previous experience 
on other electric roads after we have satisfied ourselves that their 
records with the other roads have been satisfactory. We cannot 
see why this is not good practice, and especially so in the case of 
applicants for the position of motorman. 

J. E. Duffy, Supt., Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

Yes, if their record where previously employed has been satis- 
factory. If the man is intelligent his experience is valuable. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

We prefer experienced men, providing they have first-class 
records on other roads with no union tendencies. We seldom em- 
ploy experienced men from union roads. Jno. J. Akin, Supt. 

Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

If their previous record is good we do, because experienced men 
are generally more easily broken in. C. E. Palmer, Supt. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

April 8, 1905. J 



We employ experienced men only when they have located per- 
manently in one of the cities on our system, and investigation 
shows the applicant to have a good record with the road he left. 

Southern Superintendent. 

Occasionally, when they have good records. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co. 

We seldom employ men from other roads. As a rule they do 
not make as good men as those trained from raw recruits. 

J. W. Brown, Supt. Trans., 
Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connellsville Ry. Co. 

We sometimes employ experienced men if their recommenda- 
tions are all right, and they meet the physical requirements. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

B 5. — What process do you go through after an application 
has been filed in determining whether the applicant has told 
the truth ? 

Send out letters in the shape of a special form to the parties 
given as reference, asking for confirmation of the applicant's state- 
ments. C. LooMis Allen, Gen Mgr., 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

We require applicants for positions to give us references, also 
to furnish us with the names 'of employers during the five years 
previous, to whom we write for information as to the applicant. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

All applicants are expected to furnish at least two references 
from reputable business men and also give the names of their em- 
ployers for the past five years. If we have any reason to doubt 
the truth of their statement, we have a blank form that we send 
out with questions which will determine the truth of the appli- 
cant's statement. J. E. Duffy, Supt., 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

Apply to his last employer for service record. These records 
are exchanged by most roads. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z. Columbus, Ohio. 

We rely on statements from references. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

Send printed questions to his last employers and his references. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

We depend to a large extent on applicants' endorsements, but 
frequently have an inspector investigate and report if there ap- 
pears to be questions about the correctness of statements made. 

Soltthern Superintendent. 

Write or interview his references and former employers. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co, 

We send a specially prepared blank form to all the names given 
as references on the man's application. We ask the following 
questions of each reference : How long have you known the ap- 
plicant? Has he ever been employed by you? If so, how long? 
Why did he leave? From the knowledge you have of his habits 
and character would you be satisfied to employ him in a similar 
position? In the blank form we point out that it is very important 
to us that we secure the services of competent men, and we treat 
all information given as confidential. 

J. W. Brown, Supt. Trans., 
Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connellsville Ry. Co. 

We examine his past record carefully, and also adopt other 
means that may be suggested when the individual case comes up. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

B 6. — Do you consider it a good idea to make applicants 
swear to the statements in their application blanks? Why? 

We do not, as we think it would be very easy for a man to get 
around this sworn statement if he wished to do so, and it would 
be about as hard to prove that he had sworn falsely as it would 
to prove that a man, who had been drinking, was drunk. 

C. LooMis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

We require applicants to swear to the statements in their ap- 
plication blanks for the reason that we think the majority of men 
consider an affidavit, in a degree at least, sacred. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

No. We think it unwise to begin by doubting the truth of the 
applicant's statement. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

We require no oath. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

I do not. It would be humiliating to an honest man, and no 
protection from a dishonest man. Southern Superintendent. 

Have never required sworn statements. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lt. Co. 

No, we do not see any advantage in requiring an applicant to 
swear to his statements. If we could not rely upon his word, we 
should not respect his oath. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

B 7. — Do you bond motormen or conductors? What is the 
process ? 

Our motormen and conductors are required to give bond in the 
sum of $500 through a surety company, and they pay the annual 
charge to the surety company. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

We do not bond either conductors or motormen, but require 
them to put up a security deposit. Some years ago we tried the 
bonding method. It cost each man $5.00 per year and caused some 
dissatisfaction among them. We consider it a needless expense 
to them. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

Six companies, namely, the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway 
Company, the Schenectady Railway Company, the Columbus, 
Buckeye Lake & Newark Traction Company, the Columbus, New- 
ark & Zanesville Electric Railway Company, the Steubenville 
(Ohio) Traction & Light Company, and the Pittsburg, McKees- 
port & Connellsville Railway Company report they do not bond 
either motormen or conductors. Editors. 


D 28. — What is the best form of way bill to use? 

I think the carbon tissue copy way bill made out with indelible 
pencil, the tissue copy remaining in the book, is preferable. This 
allows the receipt and shipment of goods up to within a very few 
minutes before the express car is due to leave. When the loading 
has been completed it is only necessary to close the way bill. The 
use of copying ink requires from ten to fifteen minutes to obtain 
the desired results. A. Eastman. 

Same as used by steam roads. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

This is all a matter of opinion ; an express man would commonly 
suggest an express form of way bill, while a freight man would 
naturally use a way bill of freight design. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., 
Schenectady Ry. Co. 

Way bills made up in book form so that a carbon copy and tissue 
can be taken. George Dunford, Gen. Ex. Agt., 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

D 29. — How do you handle your unclaimed express or 

Make every effort to deliver unclaimed goods or return to ship- 
pers. If no claimant can be found, sell according to law. Over, 
short and damaged matters are traced, retraced, and thoroughly 
investigated, and the obligation of the carrier met, whatever that 
may be. Geo. W. Parker, G. E. & P. A., 

Detroit United Ry. 

Unclaimed express or freight matter is recorded in an "on-hand" 
book designed for this express purpose, and all unclaimed goods 
are sold at public auction according to law. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., 
Schenectady Ry. Co. 


Unclaimed freight and express l^nown to be perishable is sold at 
once to the best advantage. Non-perishable matter is held for one 
year and sold at public auction. George Dunford, Gen. Ex. Agt., 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

D 30. — What per cent of your gross receipts from express 
and freight do you pay out in settlement of loss and damage 
claims ? 

Less than one-half of one per cent. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
Columbus, Buckp'-e Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

Our percentage of loss and damage for the year ending June 30, 
1904, was .0022. E. J. Ryon, Supt., 

Schenectady Ry. Co. 

About one per cent. J. W. Gibney^ Supt. Ex. Dept., 

United Tract. Co., Albany. 

D 31. — What have you done to reduce amount of loss and 
damaged shipments ? 

All that our limited intelligence and abundant energy would 
enable us to do. Geo. W. Parker, G. E. & P. A., 

Detroit United Ry. 

See that employees handling freight use good judgment and 
care, and obey rules governing transporting and transferring of 
freight at all times. The claim department is an important one, 
and should be in the hands of one who is familiar with the de- 
tails of the business. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

A reduction in the amount of loss and damage can only be ac- 
complished by insisting on the proper packing of goods and a 
perfect system of checking en route, and at transfer points and at 
destination. E. J. Ryon, Supt., 

Schenectady Ry. Co. 

By constantly warning employees to check shipments received, 
handle goods carefully, and secure receipts for all goods delivered. 

George Dunford, Gen. Ex. Agt., 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

Instituted a system of careful checking in receipts and deliveries. 
We now check all goods from the wagon into the cars on the way 
bill, and a carbon copy of the way bill accompanies the car, and 
goods are checked out from the car on this way bill. This system 
has practically abolished all loss and damage claims. 

J. W. GiBNEY, Supt. Ex. Dept., 
United Tract. Co., Albany. 

D 32. — Is it advisable to handle express matter on combina- 
tion passenger and express cars? Why? 

No. Our passengers are too democratic on the one hand and 
too monarchical on the other to be mi.xed in with freight. Ex- 
perience demonstrates that much loss, damage to goods, loss of 
time in transmission and general interference with passenger 
schedules result if the two services are handled together. Handle 
passengers in a passenger car, combining all reasonable comforts 
and conveniences. Handle express matter in an express car" de- 
. signed for the business, and properly heated. 

Geo. W. Parker, G. E. & P. A., 
Detroit United Ry. 

Depends on the road and how operated. Ordinarily no. To con- 
duct a passenger and freight business on same car is usually dis- 
astrous to both, especially to the passenger business. The two de- 
partments should not be operated together. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

Have had no experience in handling express on combination cars, 
but see no objection to it. The volume of our business is such 
that it would be impossible for us to handle it in a combination 
car. E. J. Ryon, Supt, 

Schenectady Ry Co. 

[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

I think the best method is to handle express in combination ex- 
press and passenger cars, unless the tonnage is heavy enough to 
justify a train daily for this purpose. This method saves car 
mileage and extra cost for services of train crews, permits the 
making of quick deliveries and gives loads at times when passen- 
ger traffic is light, with a minimum increase in cost for power. It 
also provides for carrying baggage, and a road must carry bag- 
gage if there is competition. SotrxHERN Superintendent. 

D 33. — What is the best form of combination car for hand- 
ling passengers and express matter? Please give description 
with photograph or sketch. 

D 34. — Do you have your own warehouse at each station, or 
make other arrangements ? 

We have warehouses where the business warrants. At other 
places we arrange with storekeepers, and at still others platforms 
are provided where the goods are shipped at the risk of the owner. 

Geo. W. Parker, G. E. & P. A., 
Detroit United Ry. 

Own freight room at Newark terminal. Have joint agent at 
Columbus and Zanesville. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

We own our warehouse.^ at two of our terminal stations and 
rent a warehouse at another. In my opinion an electric road going 
into the freight business should provide the same facilities for the 
handling of freight that steam roads do. Without proper facili- 
ties the business cannot be made successful. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., 
Schenectady Ry. Co. 

At some stations we own our warehouses, and at others they 
are rented. George Dunford, Gen. Ex. Agt., 

» Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

D 35. — Please give suggestions as to best arrangement for 
terminals in which to handle express and freight. 

Control terminals or have arrangements whereby authority is 
equal. If possible, have car enter freight shed, or along side of 
freight house. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

The usual plan for a steam road freight house is just such as 
is needed by electric railways. The buildings should be arranged 
so that the cars may be loaded and unloaded from one side and 
truckmen load and unload their wagons from the other side so 
there will be no interference or delays in getting business in and 
out of the house. E. J. Ryon, Supt, 

Schenectady Ry. Co. 



In the answer to question No. I 20, from W. H. Glenn, super- 
intendent of roadways, Georgia Railway & Electric Company, pub- 
lished in the issue for March 25, an error was made in quoting Mr. 
Glenn as saying that the co'st of sap pine ties, including creosoting, 
is 20 cents delivered, The statement should have been the cost of 
sap pine ties, for creosoting, is 20 cents. This price represents the 
cost of the tie itself ready for creosoting, but does not include the 
cost of doing the creosoting. Editors. 


Answers to the following questions are requested : 

E 66a.. — -What has been your experience with dif¥erent types 

of brake-shoes ? 

E 66b. — What effect has the type of shoe on the life of the 

wheel ? 

E 66c. — Hovy thin is it safe to wear a shoe ? 
E 66d. — What is the cost of your shoes per 1000 car-miles ? 
E 66e. — Have you had any trouble with shoes breaking? 
E 66f. — What adjustment do you allow between the shoe 
and the wheel, (i) With air brakes? (2) With hand brakes? 


April 8, 1905.] 




East Pittsburg, Pa., March 31, 1905. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

There has recently been brought to our attention from 
numerous sources a report upon the alleged short life of the 
vanes in steam turbines, stated to have been inspired by a 
European engine builder. The sole evidence rests upon photo- 
graphs of turbine vanes purported to have worn out with less 
than one year's service. This report bears all the earmarks of 
misinformation, if not of malicious falsehood, especially as 
similar photographs have been covertly circulated in this coun- 
try as representing the experience in various American turbine 
plants. We therefore ask the courtesy of your columns for a 
brief statement of facts, and are content to leave to the good 
judgment of your readers the conclusions to be drawn there- 

The text of our argument we find in the following passage : 
"As to the cost of maintenance and repairs, it is claimed that 

blade have been curled over, so that in the position in which 
the photograph is taken, a considerable portion of metal ap- 
pears to have been eaten away. There is also conspicuous evi- 
dence of the indentation of a round-nosed instrument on one 


of the damaged edges and of a chisel upon the other. Such 
injury is manifestly not due to normal wear, as the innocent 
looking title would lead one to believe: "Same bucket after 
having been in use less than one year." 



there is an enormous wear (meaning erosion) in the back of 
the turbine blades * * * Photographs of both convex 
and concave sides of a new and a damaged vane are shown. 
From a careful examination of these photographs we conclude : 
First, that the supposed erosion is probably due entirely to an 

A skilful photographer can, by adjusting lights, shades and 
focus, create most convincing effects. To illustrate, we have 
photographed a turbine blade (see lower two views in Fig. i) 
which was taken out of an experimental machine in which sev- 
eral rows of vanes had been damaged, due to accidental distor- 


accident in which the blade in question had been badly dam- 
aged by the flying particles, but not entirely broken off ; or, 
second, that a new blade has been deliberately injured for illus- 
trative purposes; or, third, that it has been in a class of service 
the severity of which we have no conception. 

The photographs in question show that both edges of the 

tion of the casing. This photograph bears a striking resem- 
blance to those referred to above, and shows how easily a false 
impression may be created. You will observe that this blade 
bears strong evidence of erosion upon the back (see lower left- 
hand view in Fig. i), whereas it was, in fact, a new vane dam- 
aged in the manner shown simply by bombardment of small 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

broken particles of other vanes. If the photograph had been 
taken sHghtly out of focus, the edge shown curled over in the 
two latter views would have appeared to be badly eaten away. 
The concave surface is, of course, intact.. 

In support of our contention that steam erosion in the Par- 
sons type of turbine is quite negligible, owing to the low steam 
velocities employed, we have recently photographed the in- 
terior of the first steam turbine put into practical use in Amer- 
ica and the first turbine built by us for commercial service. 
This machine was installed in 1899, and together with the three 
units installed soon after, has since been in continuous service 


upon a 24-hour factory load. The first views in Figs. 2 and 3 
show the upper half of the stator and of the upper half of the 
rotor, respectively, while the second engravings in each case 
are closer views of stator and rotor. In the last two views a 
position was chosen looking directly along the cutting edges 
of the vanes to show their condition after over five years' con- 
tinuous service. 

In order to exhibit this still more clearly in detail, two vanes 
were deliberately broken out of the eighth and twelfth rows, re- 
spectively, of the low-pressure barrel, where the greatest quan- 
tity of moisture occurs, and where erosion would, if at all, be 
expected. These are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Although repro- 
duced as sharply as possible, the old vanes are even in better 
condition than they appear, and their metallic surfaces have re- 
tained the original polish of new vanes as they come from the 


drawing machine. Fig. 6 shows one of these specimens set on 
edge alongside of a new vane of similar size. The end of the 
new vane appears rough, as it has been sheared off and not 
ground true, as would be the case when finally inserted in a 
finished machine. 

Three facts must be apparent from these photographs : First, 
that the old vane has retained its full cross section, and hence 
its full mechanical strength ; second, that the vane angles, and 
hence the efficiency, are unimpaired in service; third, that the 
surfaces along which the working steam passes have not lost 
their original smoothness. 

The only effect traceable to steam wear on the vanes of this 
turbine is to be found in the case of vanes which have been set 
slightly out of line with the remaining ones of their particular 
ring. In such cases the area projecting into the steam space 
becomes slightly scored on the advancing side, presumably due 
to their contact with particles of moisture coursing through the 
lower stages of the turbine during light loads when their 
velocity in this region is probably somewhat less than normal. 
This effect, however, but occasionally develops, and simply re- 
sults in the sharpening of the cutting edges. of the vane to 
such fineness that a piece of heavy cord may readily be severed. 

In no case has the section of metal been worn away to any ap- 
preciable extent. The vane reproduced in Fig. 4 was slightly 
out of line, and shows this effect as much as any other in the 

In judging the results obtained from this turbine it should be 
borne in mind that the steam supply has always been exces- 
sively wet, owing partly to a long run of steam piping. No 
superheaters are used. On several occasions the turbines have 

been checked con- 
siderably below 
their normal 
speed from the ef- 
fects of slugs of 
water passing 
through them. It 
also frequently 
occurs that creek 
water has to be 
put into the boil- 
ers owing to the 
failure of city 
water supply. 
This water is at 

all times extremely acid and very impure. In fact, it has been 
necessary to coat the outer surface of the dummy pistons with 
white lead to prevent their corrosion from this acid water. 
Owing to the accumulation of sediment, the turbines have to be 
frequently cleaned by air blast, as the steam velocities are not 
sufficient to keep the passages clear. 

In conclusion, it should be recalled that the turbine on ex- 
hibit represents the beginning of the present turbine industry 
in America. Its failure would have been even more conspicuous 
than has been its success. It is therefore reasonable to suppose 
that improved methods of manufacture and increased under- 
standing of the turbine art should have resulted in an im- 
proved machine rather than the reverse, as our detractors 
would have you believe. 

The Westinghouse Machine Company. 



An interesting example of the electrification of branches of a 
steam railroad is offered by the Lulu Island division of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. This branch is 15 miles long, and 
connects Vancouver with Steveston, the center of the salmon 
canning industry. The farm land along this route is especially 
adapted to dairying and fruit raising. 

The work of electrification is to be carried out by the British 
Columbia Electric Railway Company, Ltd., which has made a 
traffic arrangement, dating from July i, 1905, with the steam 
railroad mentioned. The latter is running two trains a day at 
present. When the electrification is completed, double-truck 
cars, 48 ft. long, built by the British Columbia Electric Rail- 
way Company, will leave the Granville Street station, Van- 
couver, every hour. There will be one sub-station, this being 
located near Eburne, 10 miles from Vancouver. It will be 
equipped with a 500-kw, three-phase rotary made by the Cana- 
dian General Electric Company. The line itself offers no spe- 
cial difficulties, the steepest grade being only 3 per cent and 
the sharpest curve 10 degs. The track consists of 56-lb. T-rails. 

To compete with the Worcester Consolidated Street Railway 
for the patronage of the employees at the large factories in 
Greendale, the Boston & Maine Railroad has reduced the price 
of single fare tickets between Worcester and Barbers' Crossing 
from 10 cents to 5 cents. Heretofore there has been a 6-cent 
fare on a workingmen's train, and strip tickets were sold at a 
reduced rate. The Worcester Company still has the advantage 
of a well developed transfer system. 

April 8, 1905.] 




A gasoline-electric motor car has just been completed at the 
locomotive and car shops of F. M. Hicks & Company, Chicago 
Heights, 111., for service on the line of the St. Joseph Valley 
Traction Company, operating out of La Grange, Ind. H. E. 
Bucklen, of Chicago, who is president of the St. Joseph Valley 
Traction Company, is responsible 
for the trial of this car on his 
road. The car carries a gasoline 
engine of 70-brake-hp, a direct- 
current generator of 50 kw, a 
storage battery of 120 cells and 
an equipment of four General 
Electric 250-volt railway motors, 
mounted on the trucks in the 
usual manner. The generator 
furnishes current to operate the 
motors and also charges the stor- 
age battery when not supplying 

current to the motors. The storage battery assists the gen- 
erator during acceleration and on upgrades. Almost the entire 
car, with the exception of a little room in one end, is given to 
suplying motive power, thus making it virtually a locomotive, 
the idea being to have it haul passenger coaches or freight cars, 
as occasion may require. 

The car body is of unusually heavy construction to provide 
for the concentrated loads upon the floor. The gasoline engine 
alone weighs 18,000 lbs. and the generator 6000 lbs., this unit 
being located directly over one of the trucks. Two 6-in., I4')4- 
Ib. I-beams are used for center sills, and the two side sills are 
5-in. X 8-in. yellow pine. The four intermediate sills are 4-in. 
X 6l4-in. yellow pine, making eight sills in all. Transverse sills 

continuous blocking. Heavy wrought-iron carlines serve as 
trusses across the deck of the car to add to the general stiff- 
ness. The body truss rods consist of two i^-in. rods with i^- 
in. ends. There are two compartments in the car, as can be 
seen by the accompanying plan. The car is 34 ft. long over the 
end sills and 9 ft. 8 ins. wide over the side sills. About two- 
Ihirds of the space is given up to an engine room, the balance 
being known as a baggage compartment, although considerable 


- — ! 1 



consist of two 8-in. x 12-in. oak timbers at the ends; two tran- 
soms over the trucks, each consisting of two wrought-iron 
plates lYz ins. thick and 10 ins. wide, and a lot of floor joists 
2% ins. X 61/2 ins. Transverse wrought-iron tie-rods 5/<i, in. in 
diameter tie the underframing together. On the sills is a lloor 
of two thicknesses of ^4-in. pine, separated by a layer of Ncpon- 
set paper. The side frame is also extra heavy, reinforced by 


space in the baggage compartment is occupied by storage bat- 
teries. The trucks are the St. Louis Car Company's heaviest 
design of interurban M. C. B. truck. 

The gasoline engine, which was built by the Marinette Gas 
Engine Company, of Chicago Heights, 111., is of the upright 
marine type, and has four water-jacketed cylinders. This en- 
gine has developed 70-brake-hp at 325 r. p. m. in factory tests, 
with a consumption of i pint of gasoline per hp-hour. Water 
for cooling the jacket is circulated through 800 ft. of ■)<|-in. 
automobile radiator pipe, and thence through a supply tank of 
190 gals, capacity. This water is kept in constant circulation 
by a rotary pump belted from the engine shaft. Air is blown 
tlirough the radiator by two 42-in. fans revolving in a hori- 
zontal plane, 300 r. p. m., and 
placed directly under the radia- 
tor, forcing the air out through 
ventilators in the upper deck. 

The generator is a direct- 
connected shunt-wound Sprague 
Electric Company machine of 
50-kw capacity, giving direct 
current at 250 volts. This is 
connected in parallel with a 
battery of 120 chloride storage 
cells. The cells are placed in 
ventilated lockers, which are 
coated inside with asphaltum 
paint. The acid fumes from 
the battery are drawn from the 
lockers and exhausted through 
the ventilators by the same fans 
that force the air through the 
radiators of the water-jacket 
system. The battery and gen- 
erator leads are taken to a 
switchboard, where they are 
connected in parallel, and on 
which switchboard circuit 
breakers are provided. The 
voltage of the generator is ad- 
justed with reference to that-of 
the storage battery, with the idea of making the storage battery 
take whatever load exceeds the capacity of the generator when 
the car is accelerating on climbing heavy grades. 

The car is equi])ped with the National Electric Company's 
automatic Christensen air brakes, which are supplied from a 
4-hp electric motor compressor of the ordinary type. This is 
run from the generator and storage battery. There is also a 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

storage battery used in gasoline engine ignition. Besides this, 
there is another compressor on the car belted from the gasoline 
engine mentioned. 

Two trap doors over the cylinder heads make it possible to 
remove the heads and pistons readily. The gasoline supply is 
carried underneath the car in a heavy galvanized iron tank of 
125 gals, capacity. A small reciprocating pump driven from 
the engine supplies gasoline. All excess gasoline gravitates 
back to the reservoir through an overflow pipe. Two methods 
of starting the gasoline engine are provided, one is that of 
driving the generator as a motor from the storage battery until 
it can draw in a charge of gasoline so as to run itself. To do 
this the fields of the generator are fully excited and the arma- 
ture is connected to the storage battery through a four-point 
rheostatic switch. The other method of starting the engine 
which is provided is by compressed air. To provide air for 
this purpose an air compressor with a capacity of 5.9 cu. ft. of 
air per minute is belted to the engine shaft. This runs at 165 
r. p. m. and maintains a pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch in 
two steel reservoirs. These reservoirs are connected through 


a reducing valve to the storage reservoir of the air-brake sys- 
tem. A pressure of 90 lbs. per square inch is maintained in 
the latter. This gives the air-brake system a reserve supply of 
air should the motor compressor be out of order. 

The weights of the various parts of this locomotive car are, 
as follows : 


Motors 10,000 

Gasoline engine 18,000 

Generator 6,000 

Batteries 9.250 

Compressors 800 

Truck and car body 33,6oo 

Gasoline storage tank 2,000 

Water tank and circulating system 2,000 

Miscellaneous 4,000 

Total 85,650 

On a recent trial run made on the tracks of the Chicago Ter- 
minal Transfer Railway between Chicago Heights and Harvey, 
a speed of 25 m.p.h. was attained. The current consumption of 
the motors at this speed is stated to be 140 amps., all of which 
was delivered by the generator, which, in addition, was supply- 
ing about 15 amps, to charge the storage battery. During accel- 
eration the current rose as high as 300 amps. 


Convertible cars of the type shown in the accompanying 
illustrations have recently been delivered by the J. G. Brill 
Company to the Long Island Railroad Company. From the 
first of June until the first of October the cars will be operated 
on the i^-mile line extending from Far Rockaway to the 
ocean. Far Rockaway, which is within forty minutes of New 
York, is a splendid seaside resort and attracts during the season 
an immense number of visitors. Thus the electric cars are 
largely patronized. The convertible type of car should give 
excellent satisfaction, as it permits rapid loading and unloading 
of passengers, and in case of a sudden storm may be quickly 
and easily changed from an open to a closed car. Several con- 


vertibles which have been installed on other electric lines of 
the Long Island Railroad Company now stand in high favor. 

The larger car shown is seated for forty passengers, and is 
30 ft. 8 ins. over the end panels and 8 ft. i in. over the posts at 
the belt, and the smaller car is seated for twenty-eight passen- 
gers, and is 20 ft. 7 ins. over the end panels and 7 ft. 9 ins. 
over the posts at the belt. The vestibule sashes are composed 
of single lights and are arranged to drop into pockets. The 
sashes and panels of the cars are raised into roof pockets when 


not in use. The spring cane seats are of the step-over type 
and have grab handles attached to them. Cherry, with* birch 
ceilings neatly decorated, constitutes the interior finish of 
the cars. 

The larger car is 40 ft. i in. over the crown pieces and ves- 
tibules, and the panel over crown pieces is 4 ft. 8^ ins. The 
width over the sills and the panels is 7 ft. 5^ ins., and over the 
posts at the belt, 8 ft. i in. The sweep of the posts is 3^ ins. 
The size of the side sill is 4^ ins. x 7 ins.; sill plates, ^ in. x 
8 ins.; thickness of the corner posts, 3^ ins.; thickness of the 
side post, ^% ins. The car is mounted on No. 27-F high-speed 
trucks, with a 4-ft. wheel base and 33-in. wheels. 

The smaller car is 30 ft. long over the crown pieces and the 
vestibules, and the panel over the crown piece is 4 ft. 8}^ ins. ; 
width over the sills and the panels, 6 ft. 11% ins.; width over 

April 8, 1905.] 



the posts at the beU, 7 ft. 9 ins. ; sweep of the posts, 5 ins. ; side 
sill size, 5>4 ins. x 6 ins.; end sill size, ins. x 6 ins.; sill 
plates, 6 ins. x in. ; thickness of the corner posts, 3^ ins., 
and of the side posts, 2H i"s. The car is mounted on the No. 
21-E single truck, with an 8-ft. wheel base and 33-in. wheels. 


Angle-iron bumpers, radial draw-bars, etc., are among the Brill 
patented specialties included in the furnishings of these cars. 


The Climax Ignitor Company, of Amesbury, Mass., through 
its exclusive selling agents, the Stuart-Howland Company, 
of Boston, has recently placed on the market a new 
type of self-lubricating trolley wheel which possesses 
a number of valuable features, besides its ability to 
run without the addition of any oil or grease. In a 
number of tests which this wheel has been given, it has 
shown remarkable wearing qualities; in fact, in a service ex- 
tending over thirty-one days on a double-pole car, one end of 
which was equipped with the Amesbury wheel and the other 
with the ordinary wheel, the former ran with no attention, 
while on the other pole thirty bushings and several wheels were 
worn out. A view of this Amesbury wheel is shown herewith. 

The wheel itself is made up of new copper, which by a special 

frequently oiling is therefore removed, and the common annoy- 
ance of oil dripping on car top is entirely overcome. 

The bushing is made of a special soft iron designed to be run 
only on a hard pin. Several oil holes feed the lubricant through, 
and grooves help to distribute it over the pins. This bushing 
lasts longer than the wheel, a feature which 
perhaps has never been known before in trol- 
ley wheel construction, and one which the 
manufacturers claim is of great advantage. 
Wheels leave the wire chiefly because worn 
bushings allow wabbling, and in many cases 
wheels will wabble so much after service of 
a few hours, or a few days at most, that they 
leave the wire frequently and cause a great 
deal of trouble and often damage. For a 
wheel to run true and smooth on its bearing 
as long as the wheel itself lasts is a feature 
of such importance that all practical railway 
men will at once see its value. A peculiar 
claim made for this bushing is that the ma- 
terial is of such a nature as to allow the cur- 
rent to flow more freely than is usual through 
the wheel, reducing the arcing which is so common, and effect- 
ing a great saving of trolley wire. It is a matter of common 
knowledge that the wire in many cases is worn more by arcing 
than by friction. 

The Amesbury wheels are made in standard sizes of 4-in. 
and 5-in. diameter, with ij^-in. bearings for either ^-in. or 
5^-in. pins, and of 6-in. diameter with 3-in. hub. This last is 
especially designed for extra high-speed and high-powered 
cars, and has already been adopted by one of the most im- 
portant and best equipped roads in New England after a most 
satisfactory test. The 4-in. wheel is being adopted by other 
lines, but the makers have not given their product general pub- 
licity before now, preferring to wait until they should have 
finished their very exhaustive tests in actual service under hard 
conditions. Wherever tests have been made the results have 
been highly satisfactory, and the manufacturers believe that 
the wheel will meet a very favorable reception in all parts of 
the country. Although higher in price than other wheels, it is 
claimed to be actually less expensive, because the first cost is 





alloy is rendered very hard and tough, though not brittle, and 
has great durability. The special feature of the wheel, how- 
ever, is its self-lubricating quality. As will be seen from the 
accompanying engravings, the wheel is hollow, with flaring 
sides, forming a chamber which is filled at the factory with a 
grease of peculiar composition, which melts slightly under the 
heat of operation. The one filling is more than sufficient for 
lubrication as long as the wheel lasts. The usual necessity of 

the only expense, all cost of extra bushings, oiling and labor 
being eliminated. 

In the rapid development of the street railway business much 
attention has been given to the heavy portions of the equip- 
ment, but the time has now come when much careful thought 
must be given to the small and less expensive items. It is a 
fact well known to some that many railway officials have no 
conception of the amount of trouble experienced at car houses 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

and on the road in the use of cheap trolley wheels and bushings. 
These are often made of junk so as to sell at a low price, and on 
many interurban roads where the service is hard, it is not un- 
usual for change of bushings to be made daily, and for a bush- 
ing to last two or three days in this service is often the best 
that can be expected. 

Managers should also take into consideration another matter 
of much importance. Where bushings give out frequently 
there are many delays in the operation of cars, and every such 
delay means extra power expended in making up time. The 
cost of this extra power per year must be a very large item on 
some roads. 



Many improvements in the design of shapers have been made 
during the past few years, not only to facilitate machining 
operations, but also to extend the range of work of each tool. 
But with the introduction of the new high-speed tool steels for 


cutting tools, and also of the many advanced and improved 
methods of machine shop operation, suc]^ radical and extreme 
requirements have been imposed upon machine tools that heroic 
treatment has in many cases been found necessary to enable 
them to cope with operating conditions. No one has been more 
appreciative, however, of the requirements that have been made 
m this direction than has the Cincinnati Shaper Company. Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, which has made many improvements in the de- 
tail of its shapers in anticipation of what was foreseen as 

The new "Cincinnati" high-duty shaping machines illus- 
trated herewith are examples of the latest efforts of this com- 
pany to produce a tool that will be capable of a greater produc- 
tion than any other that has been built and which will with- 
stand more severe usage than has heretofore been expected of 
shop tools. These elements, which have been very successfully 
embodied in these new tools, make them particularly applicable 
to the conditions met in street railway shop operation, and a 
description of them will be of interest and value to railway 
shop men. 

The engravings illustrate the new i6-in. high-duty "Cincin- 
nati" shaper, first as arranged for belt driving, and second as 
equipped with a self-contained motor drive — the latest and most 

approved method of tool operation for railway shops. In the 
former case the tool is equipped with the usual style of four- 
step belt cone by which it is driven from a countershaft in the 
usual manner. In the second case, it will be noticed that the 
motor is mounted on an extension of the base of the shaper, 
while in place of the usual cone pulley upon the initial shaft 
in the regular belt-driven machine a large gear is mounted, 
which is driven through a pinion upon an auxiliary shaft 
directly above it, which carries a four-step cone pulley to cor- 
respond with that upon the motor. The lever shown above 
the auxiliary shaft is for the operation of a brake, which is 
very serviceable for stopping the machine for adjustment or 
other purposes. 

,As to mechanical detail, this new shaper is geared so as to 
make it one of the most powerful shaping tools for its size that 
has been built. In spite of this, however, the fact has not been 
overlooked that it is necessary to withstand the peculiar and 
excessive strains to which the shaper is subjected when oper- 
ated in the modern heavy-duty service, and consequently all 


parts have been strengthened to cover the most extreme re- 
quirements. The column is of considerably greater weight and 
strength, having been more heavily ribbed and braced inter- 
nally for a maximum of rigidity. The ram has a wider and 
longer bearing on the column, and is also, like the rail, greatly 
stiffened for the heavier work to which the tool is adapted. The 
head swivels to any angle and is provided with a locking device, 
and also an interesting design of down feed. As shown, an 
outer support is supplied under the table, which is capable of 
cross travel with the table. 

An interesting feature has been introduced in the journal 
bearings of the main gear, inasmuch as each is provided with a 
two-stepped bearing, the inner step or end of the journal being 
of twice the diameter of the outer end ; this will overcome any 
tendency toward breaking of the shaft near the gear seat, and 
in addition provides a bearing of great rigidity and' wearing 
qualities. The crank block is, in the new machines, made of a 
steel forging, and is set well into the cup of the gear, permit- 
ting the rocker arm to travel close to its edge, and thus avoid 
the usual overhang. Taper gibs of one length are provided 
throughout, which are adjustable endwise by single screws for 
taking up wear; these are provided for the arm, head, rail, 
apron and crank wheel slides, as, while much more expensive 

April 8, 1905.] 



to make, they are far preferable to the more usual style of gibs 
with set screws impinging with varying pressures at several 
points in the length of a gib. Also ball bearings are provided 
under the elevating screw to the rail. 

The machine has a back gear drive, the ratio of which is 6:1 
with it out and 24:1 with it in, the latter being the highest 
gearing ratio that has been applied to a shaper, giving to it the 
greatest possible advantage in heavy cutting duty. The motor- 
driven machine, as illustrated on the previous page, is driven 
by a 5-hp direct-current motor supplied by the Triumph Elec- 
tric Company, although any other make of motor is obviously 
applicable for this purpose ; in fact, three machines of the same 
size and similarly equipped have been built for the Thomson- 
Houston branch of the General Electric Company for use with 
5-hp General Electric motors operating at 1800 revolutions. 


Extreme length of stroke 16H ins. 

Greatest distance table to rani 175^ 

Least distance table to ram 35^ 

Vertical travel of table 14 " 

Horizontal travel of table 20 

Diameter of head 8 " 

Feed to head 7 " 

Length of top of table 12 " 

Width of top of table 11 

Depth of table 13 

Length of ram bearing in column 29 

Width of ram bearing in column 10/ 

Key-seating capacity, diameter . . , . , 3 

Size of vise jaws 10x2 " 

Vise opens 8^-4 

Width of double belt 2/ 

Number of speeds to ram 8 

Weight of machine and countershaft, net 2600 lbs. 


One of the recent changes for the better in electrical practice 
is to be noted in the increasing use of switchboard panels con- 
taining the control apparatus for individual motors, employed 
for driving machine tools and other classes of machinery. Be- 
fore their introduction and in those installations where they are 
not yet used, controlling rheostats, line switches and protective 
devices have been mounted in the most convenient place avail- 
able, often with apparent disregard of fire risk or the protection 
of the operator. The use of a self-contained panel insures the 
proper mounting of the apparatus and provides a neat and con- 
venient arrangement, with means for easily mounting in any 
desired location. 

The accompanying illustration shows one of the new styles 
of starting panels for direct-current motors designed by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, and em- 
ploying a two-pole type-D circuit breaker instead of the cus- 
tomary switch with fuses. The circuit breaker is, especially 
adapted for this use, as one pole is connected in each leg of the 
circuit, the poles closing independently, but tripping simul- 
taneously. In closing the circuit, if there is an overload upon 
the line, the pole first closed opens immediately upon closing 
the second, thus instantly interrupting the circuit and prevent- 
ing damage. It is strongly built, with few parts, none of which 
are small. It is provided with hinged, movable contacts of the 
brush type, and with carbon tips, to which the current is 
shunted when the circuit is broken, preventing sparking at the 
contacts. The circuit is fully broken at the contacts before 
there is any movement of the carbon tips. There are no springs 
except the strong strip of spring steel which carries the car- 
bons, the blow of the armature tending to open the breaker and 
not simply to release the moving parts. The device is reliable 
in its action, and is adjustable for different loads. 

These panels with circuit breakers are furnished in two 
styles ; those with field rheostats for motors requiring shunt 
field regulation for varying speed, and those without field rheo- 
stats for constant-speed motors. A starting rheostat with mini- 
mum voltage release is generally employed with Westinghouse 
motors; as soon as the supply circuit is interrupted, the rheo- 
stat will then automatically open the circuit, making it impossi- 
ble to damage the motor by restoring full line potential to the 
circuit when the motor is at rest. 

The field rheostat ordinarily provided with Westinghouse 
motors is mechanically strong, and will stand continuously the 
field current of the machine with which it is used, in any posi- 
tion of the handle. No combustible material is used in its con- 

The slab is of slate, with a dull black marine finish, har- 
monizing with the l)]ack oxide finish of the apparatus. Brackets 


may be supplied for wall mounting, when ordered, or gas pipe 
frames of rigid construction can be provided for mounting upon 
the floor. These panels range in capacity from hp to 50 hp 
at no volts, and from Ys hp to 100 hp at 220 volts; the sizes 
of the panels vary from 11 ins. x 23 ins. x i in. to 20 ins. x 48 
ins. x ins., acccfl'ding to the space required for the ap- 
paratus. These panels are designed in strict accordance with 
government specifications and answer all requirements of the 
most rigid inspection. 

They are especially adapted for separate machine tool driv- 
ing, being so designed as to permit mounting directly on the 
frame of the machine tool driven by the motor, as shown in the 
accompanying illustration. As may be noted from this illus- 
tration, the panel is mounted on the right-hand side of the bed 
of the planer and back of the housing, so as to be out of the 
way and clear of metal chips. This tool, as shown, is a 32-in. x 
32-in. x lo-ft. planer, installed in the Omaha, Neb., shops of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, and is driven by a 5-hp type-S West- 
inghouse direct-current motor. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 


The article on park amus'enieiits published in the Street 
Railway Journal of March 11, while describing a large num- 
ber of popular amusement devices, said but little about the 
construction of such parks or the methods which have been 
developed in furnishing them with variety acts, circus per- 
formances, band music and other elaborate attractions. While 
many of the parks are private enterprises, still a large number 
are owned or controlled by railway companies, so that the latter 
must be vitally interested in the developments that are taking 
place in this field. As an example of the better results that a 
railway company can secure from the exploitation of its picnic 
grounds, reference may be made to the Rochester Railway 
Company, which is now having a park amusement concern 

attractions a splendid summer hotel, with the best dining facili- 
ties, boating, fishing and bathing, besides a vaudeville theater 
with weekly changes of bill, open air band concerts, outdoor 
circus, Houses of Trouble, Myth Cities, Creation and Here- 
after, Tyrolean Alps, Ye Olde Mill and a score of other mod- 
ern entertainments. In fact, the increase in traffic is expected 
to be so great that the Rochester Railway Company will be pre- 
pared to run cars on forty-five seconds' headway during the 
hours of heaviest traffic. 

Among other large parks in the Robert F. Walter circuit are 
"Dreamland" between Troy and Albany, "Dreamland" at Cin- 
cinnati, and the noted Athletic Amusement Park at Buffalo. 


A. G. Delamater, of New York, who for several years past 


convert its park at Glen Haven into a much more attractive 
place, to be called 

When Robert F. Walter, of the Walter Circuit of Amuse- 
ment Parks, determined to invade Rochester with a modern 
outing place where the latest high-class attractions could be 
offered, he learned that the ideal spot for this purpose was 
Glen Haven, held by the Rochester Railway Company. After 
a number of conferences with General Manager Danforth and 
Superintendent Willcoxen, Mr. Walter closed a contract with 
the railway company to take over the entire property for five 
years, with the privilege of renewing the contract for five years 
more. Although this agreement was luade but a few weeks 
ago, the various amusement buildings are already in process 
of erection, and the railway company is laying a double-track 
extension through the glen, fitting up new rolling stock and 
tearing down freight and storage sheds to make way for trans- 
fer platforms and waiting rooms. Glen Haven is only twenty 
minutes ride on a beautiful scenic line from Rochester's famous 
Four Corners. 

While Rochester's Dreamland will not be the largest in the 
Walter circuit, it will be the most attractive, owing to the com- 
bination of its natural beauties with the pleasure devices in- 
troduced by man. The park, therefore, can offer among its 

has been connected with the leading musical organizations, in- 
cluding F. C. Whitney's productions, Stange and Edwards 
operas, etc., has made an entirely new departure, and is organ- 
izing several companies to present recent New York comic 
opera and musical comedy successes in the summer parks. He 
either rents the theaters or supplies the attractions on a per- 
centage basis, as may be desired. 

A review of the attractions that are now presented at the 
leading amusement resorts shows how superior they are to the 
vulgar performances current a few years ago. This is espe- 
cially apparent in the grade of band music furnished, hence it is 
not surprising to learn that so prominent a band master as 
Francesco Fanciulli is preparing to tour the better class of 
picnic parks during the coming summer season. Mr. Fan- 
ciulli is a resident of New York, where he has been conducting 
the Seventy-First Regiment Band, which is well known for 
the excellence of its Central Park concerts. Previous to his 
connection with this organization, Mr. Fanciulli led the famous 
Marine Band, of Washington, for five years, and before that 
time he was associated with Patrick S. Gilmore. During past 
years his band has taken prominent part in such great events 
as the Dewey festivities, in New York ; the reception to the 
fleets of Admirals Sampson and Schley ; the 250th anniversary 

April 8, 1905.] 


of the Charter of the City of New York; tlie dedication of the 
Temple of Music at the Pan-American Exposition, and the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The reputation that lie has 
gained by his past efforts in catering to the musical public gives 
reason to believe that he will also meet with success in this 
field. The business manager of this organization is J. S. Ean- 
ciulli, of New York. 

It is certain that the best way to keep a park making money 
is to be able to offer a frequent change of bill, so that the same 
people will be led to visit the park again and again. Such 
changes are very expensive, however, unless the attractions 
are furnished by some good booking agency which is in a posi- 
tion to offer any desired shows at the time wanted, owing to 
the fact that the people in its employ are shifted from one 
resort of its circuit to another instead of staying in one place 
all season. One of the best known circuit managers to- 

park will be splendidly illuminated by some 20,000 electric 
lamps, for which current is to be furnished by the Public Service 
Corporation of New Jersey. The latter company will also be 
prepared to carry visitors from Paterson to the park within 
twelve minutes, and in even less time from Passaic. An at- 
tractive and useful feature will be the dressing of all the male 
employees in handsome uniforms of blue, with yellow and gold 
trimmings. The girls employed as cashiers, standkeepers, etc., 
will also be neatly uniformed. Mr. Melville is prepared to con- 
struct for railway companies other parks of this character, 
carrying out, of course, such modifications as the local condi- 
tions appear to make advisable. 


The latest form of amusement for parks, fairs and seaside 
resorts designed by the Twentieth Century Amusement Com- 
pany, of Boston, Mass., appeals to every lover uf the great 


day is Frank Melville, of New York, whose attractions are en- 
gaged to play in a large number of railway parks. Mr. Mel- 
ville's knowledge of both the theatrical fraternity and the tastes 
of the public in different parts of the country has enabled him 
to turn many unprofitable parks into money-makers. Aside 
from booking attractions, Mr. Melville frequently carries out 
the planning and construction of large pleasure resorts. A 
case in point is "Fairyland Park," now in course of erection at 
Paterson, N. J. This park will appeal to over a quarter million 
people, who for a 5-cent, or at most a lo-cent fare, will be able 
to visit the new Coney Island without spending the extra dollar 
which would be required for a round-trip ticket to the old one, 
besides saving over three or four hours tedious riding. Fairyland 
Park will feature the best bands procurable, have a free open air 
circus, vaudeville theater, dance hall, figure eight roller coaster, 
merry-go-round. Ye Olde Mill, Maxim flying machine, Ferris 
wheel, Japanese tea garden, Katzenjammer Castle, Cave of the 
Winds, fire-fighting exhiI)itions, etc. The theater and circus 
rings' programmes will be changed weekly. At night the whole 

game of baseball, just as the rifle gallery appeals to the man 
who prides himself upon his marksmanship or who desires to 
excel in that sport. 

It is not mechanical in any sense, save that the ball is auto- 
matically pitched. The striker at the bat not only needs skill 
to place the ball, but, according to his skill, he may make a 
base, two-base, three-base hit or a home run. A well-directed 
strike hits a target 20 ft. away, the accuracy of the blow and 
the strength behind it being registered on a miniature baseball 
diamond, a dial, miniature men or discs, standing at the home 
plate, starting to first base, second base, third base or a home 
run, according to the skill of the batter ; while, on the other 
hand, it is "three strikes and out" if the striker is not success- 
ful in making a base. This probably is sufficient to give an idea 
of the interest that can be worked up in the game. 

It has been proved what the device will do. The first gallery 
was built at Revere Beach. This was experimental, while the 
inventor was trying to develop his idea and build a perfect ma- 
chine. It was tried on the public only at such times as it was 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

practical to put a man in charge to try it out. Under these 
most disadvantageous conditions this first machine averaged 
$3.50 per hour. 

The baseball gallery in its improved and perfected shape is 
now right in everv detail, and will be readv for delivery for 


use during the coming season. It occupies no more space than 
25 ft. X 12 ft., about the size of the ordinary rifle gallery, while 
it will appeal to a much larger clientele. It is the new thing of 
1905, adapted to the American taste and idea, filling just the 
want of those who want "something new under the sun." 

A nickel is charged for three strikes. The player grasps a 
regulation bat. A regulation ball is tossed to him automatically. 

This is good for a "three-bagger," and the third runner on the 
dial runs to third and stops, sending in the two runners which 
had reached second and third ; but should he, on his third 
strike, have landed his ball over the fence (marked 4 on the 
target) he would have sent the third runner round the dial, 
making a home run, sending in the two ahead of him 
who were on the bases. In other words, the result of 
the strikes is registered automatically on the dial in 
full view of the player and the public, by the little 
figures actually running the bases. 

Only a brief reference was made in the March 11 
issue to the Cordillero Slide, designed by Clark Ball, 
of New York, but since that time further details and 
an illustration have become available. The slide con- 
sists of two towers set 400 ft. apart, constructed of 
steel throughout. The highest tower is 200 ft. over 
all. The towers are pyramidal in shape, being 150 ft. x 
150 ft. at the base and 50 ft. x 50 ft. at the top. On 
the top of the towers is set a ball made of iron bands, 
which can be studded with electric lamps, and bears 
tlie name in electric letters, "Cordillero Slide." Be- 
tween the two towers are slung cables, from which 
are suspended cars for the transportation of the pub- 
lic, the descending grade of the cables being sufficient 
to allow the cars to descend entirely by gravity. In- 
side the towers are set tracks on which the car travels 
after leaving the cables. The track is arranged so 
that when a car enters the tower it turns in a large 
circle and comes out to descend to the other tower. 
From the base of the lower tower the cars are drawn 
to the top of the higher one by a cableway controlled 
by electricity, machinery for the same being located in the base 
of the lower tower. The towers are in turn anchored by having 
one or two cables securely anchored. 

The cars are to have a light steel frame, covered with wicker 
work or wire meshing, sufficient for the occupants to see 
through, but at the same time preventing them from putting 
their heads or arms outside. The center part is to be raised 


He hits the ball a clean, hard hit, to the infield (marked i on 
the target). A disc (representing the runner) on the dial runs 
to first base and stops. On his second strike the player may 
land the ball in the outfield (marked 2 on the target). This 
sends the first runner to the third base and the second runner 
to the second base. The player's third strike, we will say, re- 
suits in landing one against the fence (marked 3 on the target). 

sufificiently for the guard in charge of the car to see over the 
heads of the people in front. There is a device for gripping 
the cable to be drawn to the top of the car, and a brake for use 
in stopping at any dangerous speeds and at the starting and 
stopping points. 

There is little room on the ground floor of the smaller tower 
for concessions, it being the starting and stopping place, and 

A.PRIL 8, 1905.] 



where all the machinery is located. The available space, how- 
ever, is 22,500 sq. ft., so that the machinery of the whole park 
can be placed there, together with the cable hoist used for 
drawing the cars to the top of the higher tower. On the second 
floor of the smaller tower, about 22,000 sq. ft., a theater can be 
built, or something else along the same line. Use may also be 
found for the higher floors. In the larger tower the first and 
second floors can be left out or attractions put in them, such as 
a ballroom, etc., the space being the same as in the smaller 
tower, and the same can be used on each of the floors going up, 
excluding the floors on which the cars travel. If so desired, 
an elevator can be constructed in the higher tower if the latter 
is used as an observatory. The cables may be stretched over 
a lake or river and a Shooting the Chutes arranged, starting 
from one of the tower floors, thus using up space that other- ' 
wise might be lost. In fact, the possibilities of this slide are 
such that a whole park can be constructed from it. 

As the profits of a park shooting gallery are dependent largelv 
upon the attractiveness and novelty of the targets, amusement 
managers, no doubt, will be interested in a description of some 
of the excellent work done by the Quaker City Arms & Target 
Works, of Philadelphia, in the planning and construction of 
shooting galleries and appurtenances. The cut presented illus- 
trates the company's gallery "R," known as the "Prize Fight- 
ers." This is a great achievement in target making and is 
bound to attract the sporting fraternity and general public. 
Hence it should prove to be a first-class money-niaker, second 
to none. The central figures (which are 20 ins. high) stand in 
a fighting attitude, ready to box, moving toward each other and 
retreating alternately until the bull's-eye on either figure is hit. 
Then it drops down as if knocked out, recovers and is ready for 
the next round. Naturally it is both exciting and amusing to 
see a prize fight without danger of police interference. Below 
is a set of chimes, on which a melody can be played, with a re- 
peating rifle. On each side are self-setting gong targets. Be- 
low are swimming ducks, which fall over when hit, as natural 
as life, as they move past, and are automatically re-set. On the 

mif/"- '''' 



• • • • 

• • • • 

/ > ' f 


or gasoline engine or electric motor. It is very simple and 
strong in construction, light running and not likely to get out 
of order. This gallery has fully sixty-five targets. It is made 
of heavy iron for 22-short cartridges and is nicely painted. 

Of all the vaudeville attractions presented in a summer resort, 
it would be diflicult to find one which retains so strong a hold 
on the public as moving pictures. Of course, the continued 
drawing power of such an exhibition depends entirely on the 
use of a large number of interesting subjects which can be fre- 
quently varied, but as no single park manager can afford to 
purchase the films outright, it is customary to hire them 



from a central distributing agency. This is the class of work 
carried on by Miles Brothers, of New York, who not only are 
large manufacturers of moving picture films and complete out- 
fits, but are also the distributers of moving picture apparatus 
of all other makes. Their extensive knowledge of this field 
enables them to rent cheaply at weekly or semi-weekly intervals 
a selection of the best and latest work, thereby relieving the 
park management of all worry and uncertainty in trying to 
select attractive subjects. Miles Brothers are also prepared to 
supply a skilled operator and apparatus wherever necessary. 

Some idea of the extensive work carried out by this firm in 
gathering material on subjects of great human interest may be 
obtained by examining the accompanying illustration, which 
shows a party of their experts on the great Yukon River in the 
act of taking a series of moving pictures through Miles 
Canon. Messrs. Miles also have a number of other parties 
tliroughout the world, some of which are securing films of 
Russo-Japanese battle scenes, the Panama Canal work, besides 
numerous comic and dramatic subjects. 

right is the leaping rabbit and dog, which appear and disappear, 
ringing a gong when the bull's-eye on the same is hit. Below 
are three gong targets. On the left are flying birds, which fall 
back when hit, while in motion, and are self-adjusting. Below 
these there is another set of three gong targets. In the rear of 
the leaping rabbit and dog stands a revolving windmill ; the 
birds on the sails fall back when hit and are automatically re- 
set. In the rear of the flying birds is a Punch and Judy target. 
Punch and Judy appear and disappear alternately and fall back 
temporarily when hit. Below the ducks are two rows of drop- 
ping birds, which fall to the ground when hit and are re-set by 

The entire gallery is kept in constant motion by either a gas 


The planning and construction of unique "illusion" and 
"laughing" buildings has been brought to a high state of devel- 
opment by the Continental Anuisement Construction Companv, 
of Buffalo, N. Y., which is responsible for originating some 
very popular attractions of this character. The illustrations 
on the next page show two of the company's structures, one 
known as "Katzcnjanuucr Castle" and the otlier ;is tlie "Teni|)]c 
of Mirth." The former is 70 ft. x 20 ft. x 20 ft. in size, contain- 
ing a number of tlie latest mirth-|)rovoking devices and illu- 
sions, while the entrance itself surely is odd enough to provoke 
anybody's curiosity. The "Temple of Mirth" is a massive 




[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

Eg-yptian-like structure, 50 ft. x 20 ft. x 20 ft. in dimensions. 
Other products of this company are "Myth City," the "Helter- 
Skelter" slide, "Cave of the Winds," "Caves of Capri" and 


"House of Trouble." The company sells plans of all of these 
buildings at a low figure, and as the cost of construction is 

eral excellence of construction of its skates, but specifically to 
the high-grade material and workmanship which characterize 
their ball-bearing mechanism, which is the point of greatest 
interest to roller skaters to-day. The cones and ball 
cases are made from cast steel tempered in oil. The 
ball cases are made in two parts and milled from the 
bar, and being made in this way, the bearings are 
parallel with the outside. The cones and ball cases, 
after being tempered, are ground to accuracy, thereby 
insuring a perfect bearing. 

Ball cases are apt to loosen, from various causes, 
and there must be some way of holding them securely 
to the rims. Ball cases, whether made in one or two 
pieces, simply forced into the rims, or even with hot 
metal poured around the ball case, are not safe, and at 
just the important time and when needed most, are apt 
to become loose. 

The holes in the rims are perfectly true. Conse- 
quently, when the ball cases are pressed in the rims 
the alignment is perfect. The roll is then finished on 
its bearings. A key seat cut in the rim and a steel key 
with ends bent into a slot in the ball case prevent the 
ball cases from coming out or turning, and the flanges 
on the outside of the ball cases prevent them from going inward. 
By this mechanism the ball cases are made absolutely secure. 


also moderate, even a small park can secure in this way 
quite a variety of novel entertainments of this character. 


The fastest challenge speed skaters in the world are said 
to be using these ball-bearingf skates with the best results. 

■ The undeniable revival of roller skating after an in- 
terval of a generation warrants more than ordinary 
attention to the subject of roller skates and the matters 
pertaining thereto. The Samuel Winslow Skate Manu- 
facturing Company, of Worcester, Mass., was estab- 
lished in 1856, and has been making ice skates con- 
stantly since that time. The company has also been 
making roller skates since the early 70's, and claims 
to be the oldest ice and roller skate manufacturer in 
the United States. 

During the last roller skate excitement previous to 
the present one, the Winslow Skate Company obtained 
a series of patents on what was then and has since 
been known as the "Vineyard" roller skate. The com- 
pany states that the original "Vineyard" roller skate 
was so well devised that its fundamental principles now 
make the basis of roller skate construction in this 
country. In the best of the company's own product 
to-day all the strong features of the "Vineyard" skate 
are in evidence, although they appear under new 
and improved forms and in thoroughly up-to-date mechanism. 

The Winslow Skate Company, in presenting its rink skates 
to managers of park rinks, calls attention not only to the gen- 



Nine 3-16-in. balls on each side of the roll are used, which 
give room for a larger cone than with the eight balls generally 
employed. Special attention is called to the ball retainer inside 

April 8, 1905.] 


tlie ball case, which prevents the balls from falling through the 
axle hole when assembling. This is a consideration of great 
importarrce to rink managers. 

Another feature to which this company calls particular at- 
tention is its "Web" steel rolls, which are so constructed and 
weighted as to overcome all of the difficulties which have here- 
tofore caused annoyance to roller skate rink operators. The 
company maintains that its "Web" steel roll will wear longer 
than any other wheel ever made ; that it will not slip ; can be 
easily cleaned; that it runs true; and for these and other 
reasons has increased value for private ownership or for rink 


The Rogers Manufacturing Company, of New York, whose 
souvenir post card machines were mentioned on page 485 of 
the Street Railway Journal of March 11, has also been very 
successful with the weighing scale shown 
in the accompanying illustration. This 
machine has proved lucrative for years, 
and the interest of the public remains as 
keen as ever. The Rogers scale has been 
installed in a large number of railroad 
stations, depots and ferry houses 
throughout the United States, where it 
has met with uniform success on account 
of its accuracy even under severe treat- 
ment. Compactness, reliability and 
strength are, in fact, among its leading- 
features. The machine weighs less than 
100 lbs., so that it can be moved about 
with little difficulty.- 


Several valuable improvements in 
moving-picture appliances have been in- 
troduced recently by the Kleine Optical 
Company, of Chicago, and as this branch 
of the amusement business has grown to 
be quite an important factor in many 
railway parks, it may be of interest to re- 
fer to a few of them in detail as follows : 
A new combination of condensing 
lenses, which can be applied to any of 
the magic lanterns or moving-picture 
machines, and which materially increases 
the illumination upon the curtain ob- 
tained from any form of light and im- 
proves the field by rendering the disc 
upon the curtain absolutely flat without 
the discoloration which is particularly 
T^^M^^^^ noticeable when using 

1 9H^^^^^^^^^^^^ the 
^^B^H^^^^^^^^^I^^ A radically new 

^^^^^^■^^^^^^^^^^^^ oxygen for the produc- 
tion of lime light; this in- 
volves the use of a chem- 
ical which immediately 
generates oxygen when 
placed in water. The apparatus employed to utilize this chem- 
ical for projection work is very simple and absolutely safe; the 
gas is generated during the exhibition without the application 
of heat, instantaneously, at low pressure, and at no time is there 
a large supply necessary, generation going on while the gas is 
being consumed. 

A new series of high-grade projection lenses for stereopticon 
work and moving pictures. Among these are long-distance 


lenses of the best grade, to project stereopticon pictures at 200 
ft. or 250 ft., and an extra fine quality moving-picture lens for 
medium distances, say 40 ft. to 75 ft. By special arrangement 
with lens manufacturers of world-wide reputation, the Kleine 
Optical Company has unusual facilities for obtaining moving 
picture and stereopticon lenses of every grade, in the greatest 
variety. Every practical focus will be found in its stock. 

A new form of vapor light, which accomplishes the same re- 
sults as the "bright white" light and the "sun rival" light, but 
is extremely compact, uses 7 ozs. of wood alcohol when fully 
charged, is less expensive and operated in the most simple 
manner. The light generating outfit weighs 26 ozs. This is a 
French invention, and the company furnishes the imported ap- 

A device which the company calls the "Deflector" is attached 
to the objective lens to change the direction of the rays of light; 
this attachment enables the operator to avoid tilting his in- 
strument when projecting up or down. 


The new power house of the Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern 
Railway Company, now in course of construction at Lyons, 
N. Y., will be finished July i. The building is to be 177 ft. long 
X 124 ft. wide, and from 36 ft. to 40 ft. high. It will contain 
three separate rooms for boilers, engines and transformers. 
The boiler department will be 95.4 ft. wide, the width of the 
engine room will be 74.8 ft., and the transformer room will be 
30 ft. wide. Brick and stone are to be used in the structure. 
The roof will be flat and will be covered with tar and gravel. 
Monitors will be placed over the engine and boiler rooms. The 
equipment of engines and dynamos will consist of two turbo- 
generators of 1500 kw each. These machines will generate a 
current of 3300 volts, each generator to have a 50-kw exciter, 
mounted on a turbine shaft. There will also be two rotary con- 
verters of 500 kw each, six of 400 kw each, and twenty-four 
transformers with a capacity of 6500 kw. There will be in- 
stalled in the main generating station a thirteen-panel switch, 
and in the three sub-stations switchboards of five panels each 
will be placed. Twelve quadruple engines of no hp each will 
constitute the motive power. 



The Canton-Akron Railway Company, of Canton, Ohio, has 
beefi having an interesting controversy with the city of Canton 
over the operation of cars on its city lines. E. S. Dimmock, 
who took charge of the property a short time ago, found that 
some of the lines were not paying, and he increased the interval 
between cars from twelve minutes to fifteen minutes. The 
City Council passed an ordinance requiring that all cars be 
operated on a twelve-minute headway. The company offered 
to conform to this headway if the city would allow it to increase 
its rate of speed from 10 m.p.h. to 15 m.p.h., which would en- 
able it to maintain the desired headway and still reduce the num- 
ber of cars as planned. This the city refused to do. The com- 
pany then agreed to make a thirty-day trial of the twelve-min- 
ute headway, and offered to demonstrate practically to the 
city that some of the lines could not be operated profitably with 
this headway. A few days ago one car was taken off on one 
line. Next day Manager Dimmock was notified that the Mayor 
would take action if the twelve-minute headway was not re- 
sumed. The following day a policeman stationed for the pur- 
pose reported that cars on the line in question averaged four- 
teen minutes apart. The Mayor immediately issued a warrant 
for the arrest of Manager Dimmock, but no action was taken, 
as the car was put hack on the line. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 


Wall Street, April 5, 1905. 

The Money Market 

There was no material change in the monetary situation this 
week. The volume of business in all departments was somewhat 
smaller than in the preceding week, but despite the falling off in 
the demands for funds, the banks and trust companies here were 
able to hold the market steady at near the recently quoted rates. 
The inquiry for accommodations was largely for call money, which 
advanced sharply to 4Y2 per cent at the beginning of the week, as 
a result of the preparations making for the April i interest and 
dividend disbursements. Subsequently, however, there was some 
pressure of funds, which carried the rate down to 2rA per cent, at 
which the final transactions were made. Time money rates, how- 
ever, experienced very little change. At the opening there was a 
fairly good demand for all maturities at per cent, but the local 
institutions were not disposed to put out their funds at under 
3^ per cent. Later in the week foreign bankers and out-of-town 
lenders offered rather liberally, and practically all of the 3^/2 per 
cent bids were accepted. This left the market in a much easier 
position, and although the local institutions continued to quote 3% 
per cent up to the close, they were unable to place any considerable 
amount of funds at that figure. Mercantile paper was moderately 
active. Merchants were disposed to offer more freely in connection 
with the spring trade, and all offerings of prime material found a 
ready market at 4 to 414 per cent. The weekly statement of the 
associated banks, published last Saturday, was more favorable than 
had been generally expected. The decrease in loans' of $10,412,000 
was probably due to the shifting of loans to other institutions. The 
actual loss in cash was $814,900, and was considerably smaller than 
the loss indicated by the preliminary figures. Deposits decreased 
$12,000,600, and the reserve reciuired decreased $3,000,150. The 
surplus reserve increased $2,185,250 to $8,664,575, against $27,755,- 
050 in the corresponding weeks of last year, $2,130,825 in 1903, 
$2,649,525 in 1902, $5,817,975 in I'^oi, and $7,904,800 in 1900. At 
the close indications point to a continued steady market at near 
the present level of rates. It is pointed out that the demand for 
funds from the interior has not developed large proportions, and 
that the money disbursed for interest and dividends on April i 
would soon find its way back to the banks, thus increasing to a 
great extent the lendable supply of funds. Against this, however, 
is the heavy demand soon to be made upon the banks for the 
various bond issues, notably the $100,000,000 Pennsylvania 3^4 per 
cents, and the new Japanese Government 4^ per cents, besides 
a number of other less important issues. The situation at all the 
Eu ropean financial centers continued easy, especially at London, 
where there is talk of a further reduction in the Bank of England's 
minimum discount rate in the near future. At Berlin the open 
market rate is i 7-8 per cent, and at Paris the rate is 2 per cent. 

The Secretary of the Treasury announces that he will call for 
50 per cent of the Government funds held by the temporary de- 
positaries, and such portion of the funds held by the permanent de- 
positaries as they can appropriately spare in view of amount of 
business done by the several lianks for the government, not ex- 
ceeding 50 per cent ; the same to be paid in two instalments ; one- 
half on or before May 15, and the balance on or before July I. 
This will yield in the aggregate about $27,000,000. 

The Stock Market 

Trading in the local securities market this week was upon a 
fairly large scale, and although prices displayed an irregular ten- 
dency at times, the general trend of A alues was toward a higher 
level. In the early dealings prices were influenced to a great ex- 
tent by the higher range of values for American stocks at London 
and by the heavy subscription to the new Japanese loan, which 
was construed by many as an indication of an early settlement of 
hostilities in the Far East. Later the favorable report regarding 
the winter wheat crop, the improvement in railway gross earnings, 
and the encouraging reports from Western traffic managers, im- 
parted a decidedly better feeling, and despite the flurry in the call 
loan rate, prices for nearly all of the prominent issues continued 
the upward movement. The sharp advance in Union Pacific was 
a conspicuous feature of the early dealings, and imparted pro- 
nounced strength to practically the entire railroad list. New York 
Central, Canadian Pacific, St. Paul, and many of the minor issues. 

advanced sharply, while in the industrial list many substantial 
gains were recorded. At the beginning of the present week trad- 
ing developed considerable activity and strength on the favorable 
showing made by Saturday's bank statement, and the reports of 
continued industrial activity throughout the country. On Mon- 
day afternoon, however, the market reacted sharply from the top 
prices on selling by traders, who evidently misunderstood the 
written opinion in the Northern Securities case. The losses, how- 
ever, were soon recovered. On Tuesday, trading quieted down 
considerably. The passage of the Stock Transfer Tax and the 
Mortgage Tax bills, at Albany, chilled bullish sentiment, and prices 
generally developed a reactionary tendency. A feature of the 
late dealings was the acti\rity and strength in the Southern iron 
and steel issues, especially in Tennessee Coal & Iron and Sloss- 
Sheffield, on rumors of renewed progress in the Southern iron 
merger. The market closed heavy. 

The local trading stocks were only moderately active, but prices 
generally showed substantial gains over those prevailing at the 
close of last week. 


Trading in the local market for traction stocks was on a fairly 
large scale this week, and although the dealings were attended with 
more or less irregularity in prices, the under tone was generally 
strong. In the early trading prices were inclined to sag in sym- 
pathy with the decline in other quarters of the market, but toward 
the close the market developed considerable activity and strength, 
several issues making new high record prices. Strength was pro- 
nounced in the speculative issues. Philadelphia Electric and United 
Gas & Improvement common were conspicuously active and strong 
in the early part of the week, on the report that the first named 
company was to be leased to the United Gas & Improvement, and 
despite the subsequent denial of the rumor prices for both issues 
reacted only fractionally. Philadelphia Electric opened at liYg, and 
advanced to 12, and closed at About 25,000 shares were 

dealt in. United Gas & Improvement declined from \\6V\ at the 
opening to 115%, but later there was a sharp advance to iiS% on 
rather heavy purchases. Considerable realizing developed at the 
high figure, and carried the price off about a point. Subsequently 
there was another upward movement, the stock selling at 117M, 
ex the dividend, but at the close there was a reaction to 117. Up- 
wards of 19,000 shares changed hands. Philadelphia Company 
common was another active issue, about 16,000 shares changing 
hands, at prices ranging from 48^^ to 46^, and closing at 47^, 
ex dividend. Odd lots of the preferred brought 48^4 to 49. Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit was decidedly strong, 16,000 shares selling 
at prices ranging from 29 J4 to 31^, and closing at the highest. In 
the less active issues pronounced strength was exhibited in Con- 
solidated Traction of New Jersey and Union Traction, both issues 
establishing new high record prices at 83% and 59^, respectively, 
American Railways advanced from 52 to 54^, the latter price being 
the highest attained since 1892. Other transactions included small 
amounts of Philadelphia Traction at 99% to 100, an odd lot of 
Union Passenger Railway at 236^. 


Despite the recent development in the franchise matter the new- 
management of the Chicago City Railway is going ahead with the 
various improvements planned some time ago. Vice-President 
Mitten has been authorized to purchase 200 new cars, to cost $6,000 
each, for use on the cross-town lines. A great many changes in the 
method of handling traffic have been worked out, and it is said that 
many reforms will be introduced during the summer. It is also 
said on good authority that the gross earnings for the month of 
March, being the first under the new management, showed a sub- 
stantial increase, and although no figures are obtainable, it is under- 
stood that the percentage of increase was the largest for that 
month in the history of the company. It is believed that with 
adequate car equipment and power further substantial gains in 
earnings will be realized. The market for street railway shares 
was e.xtremely quiet, and prices show only slight changes compared 
with those ruling at the close of a week ago. Chicago Union 
Traction sold at loi/s for a small amount, and the preferred brought 
39^4- Chicago & Oak Park Elevated sold at 6, and the preferred at 
20. Other transactions included Metropolitan Elevated at 23 to 
22V2. preferred at 63, South Side Elevated at 95, and Northwestern 
Elevated at 23. 

April 8, 1905.] 



Other Traction Securities 

Dealings in the Baltimore market were comparatively quiet, but 
prices held generally firm. Interest centered almost entirely in the 
United Railway issues, all of which were moderately active. In 
the early trading prices displayed an advancing tendency, but subse- 
quently prices yielded fractionally on the opinion by Judge Stork- 
bridge that public franchises in the streets are liable to taxation. 
The stock sold from 15^ to 14^, closing at the lowest. The in- 
come bonds ran ofif from 65 to 64^, but recovered, and closed at 
65. The 4 per cent bonds changed hands at from 9^/2 to 92%, and 
back to 97%. About $110,000 of the incomes, and about $40,000 of 
the 4s, were traded in. Other sales included $4,000 Macon Railway 
& Light 5s at 99, $4,000 Washnigton City & Suburban 5s at 104^, 
$5,000 Charleston Consolidated Railway Electric 5s at 96 to 95'/', 
and Metropolitan Railway of Washington bonds at 119^. 

The feature of the Boston market was the activity and strength 
in Massachusetts Electric common and preferred, the first named 
advancing from 20% to 23 on the exchange of about 9000 shares, 
while the preferred rose from 68^4 to 70 on the purchase of 3500 
shares. There was no news to explain the strength in these issues. 
Boston & Worcester stocks were considerably less active and ir- 
regular. The common was dealt in to the extent of several hun- 
dred shares at from 25 to 24, a loss of nearly a point, while the 
preferred advanced from 78^ to 80, and closing at 79%. West End 
common sold at 97 to 97V2. and the preferred at 116 to \ \6V2. 

Interborough Rapid Transit was a strong feature on the Nev/ 
York "Curb." At the opening the price declined a point to 201, 
but subsequently there was a gradual advance to 213, at which 
price it closed, a net gain for the week of 11 points. Comparatively 
little stock came out on the advance. About 7000 shares of stock 
were dealt in. 

New Orleans Railway new common and preferred stocks, "when 
issued," developed considerable activity and strength, the common 
lyi points to 28;/^ on the purchase of about 20OD shares, while the 
preferred moved from 73 to 77^ on light purchases. Very little 
business was transacted in the bond department. Public Service 
Corporation 5 per cent notes sold to the extent of $50,000 at 98 
flat. Washington Electric 4s sold at 89^^. 

Cincinnati Street Railway was active at Cincinnati, about 2600 
shares selling at 148 to i49!/2. Detroit United advanced from 81^ 
to 85. Toledo Railway & Light moved up from 31^ to 36. on an- 
nouncement of 2 per cent dividend. Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo 
advanced to 21, on announcement nf the snccc'-s of the leasing 
plan. Cincinnati, Newport & Covington preferred sold at 921-2 to 
93, and the common at 31. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light had a phenomenal run at 
Cleveland. It had been selling at t8^j for weeks, and ach anced to 
23^2 on sales aggregating less than 500 shares. Western Ohio re- 
ceipts advanced from 14 to i6>4, on announcement of the financial 
plan for the extension which is outlined in another column. 
Northern Texas Traction advanced to 54^8, and at the opening of 
this week there were numerous sales for 30-day delivery at 57 to 
59/^- Aurora, Elgin & Chicago made a good gain on reports of 
increased earnings, due to the opening of the line into Chicago. 
It sold a short time ago at 10, and advanced to 17 : since then it 
has eased off somewhat and sold at 30-day future delivery at 14V2. 
Cleveland Electric has advanced to 85 on small sales. Muncie, 
Hartford & Ft. Wayne advanced to 45. 

Security Quotations 

The following table shows the present bid quotations for the 
leading traction stocks, and the active bonds, as compared with 
two weeks ago : ' 

March 22 April 5 

American Railways 5214 54 

Boston Elevated 1541/2 154i,i 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 66% 'olV-2 

Chicago City al9!) 199 

Chicago Union Traction (common) 9% 10 

Chicago Union Traction (preferred) a45 42 

Cleveland Electric 821/2 82% 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 81 SI 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 5s llOVi llQi/i 

netroit Ignited 8I14 85% 

[nterborough Rapid Transit 201% 212% 

International Traction of Buffalo 28 291/2 

International Traction of Buffalo (preferred) 68 69 

International Traction of Buffalo 4s 821/2 82'/; 

Manhattan Railway 1671/4 ISfiM; 

Massachusetts Electric Cos, (common) '.'O-'',^ 

March 22 April 5 

Massachusetts Electric Cos. (preferred) 67 69 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (common) 23 23 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (preferred) 63 63 

.Metropolitan Street 122% 12278 

Metropolitan Securities 86% 87% 

New Orleans Railways (common) inc 27% 27% 

New Orleans Railways (preferred) inc 72% 77 

New Orleans Railways, 4%s 84% — 

North American 100% 102% 

North Jersey Street Railway 23 23 

Philadelphia Company (common) 47% *47 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 29% 31% 

Philadelphia Traction 99% 100 

Public Service Corporation 5 per cent notes 97% 97% 

Public Service Corporation certificate.s 72% 72% 

South Side Elevated (Chicago) 95 — 

Third Avenue 129 130 

Twin City, Minneapolis (common) 113% 120% 

Union Traction (Philadelphia) 58% 59i/s 

West End (common) 97% 97% 

West End (preferred) 116 116 

a .\skcd. * E.x-div. 

Iron and Steel 

The "Iron Age" sa)'s that the tonnage booked by the steel com- 
panies throughout the country is enormous, the total of the United 
States Steel Corporation being now the largest on record. In some 
branches the congestion is such that an effort has been inade to 
purchase material in the open market. It is reported that the 
Steel Corporation has endea\ored to buy 50,000 tons from outside 
plate makers, without success. The market is pretty bare of pig 
iron for steel making. The total amount of foreign bessemer pig 
bought by a tidewater works was 30,000 tons, which covers sales of 
rails made to South America. Reports from the structural trade 
are encouraging. The leading interest has about 600,000 tons on 
the books, and specifications are coming in more freely. 



E. W. Moore, of the Everett-Moore syndicate, has sold an ad- 
ditional $250,000 of Toledo Railway & Light 4s to a New York 
bond house, and has given an option on the remaining $334,000 
now in the treasury at 30 days. This makes $500,000 of these 
bonds sold during the past month. It is believed the balance will 
be sold in the time stated. This will give the Toledo Company 
sufficient money to pay its entire floating debt, and leave a reason- 
able sum on the treasury to take care of improvements this sum- 
mer. It is estimated that the property will earn 3^/2 per cent on 
its stock this year. It has already been placed on a 2 per cent divi- 
dend basis. It is the intention to pay a i per cent dix idend this 
spring, and I per cent in the fall. 


The State Board of Tax Commissioners has made public the 
franchise valuations it has fixed for New York City corporations 
for the year 1905. The valuations for 1904 were $251,158,450, and 
the valuations for 1905 are $302,193,550, showing an increase for the 
greater city of over $50,000,000. 

The valuation of the Manhattan Railway Compan}- has been in- 
creased from $46,700,000 to $55,750,000; Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company from $25,552,000 to $29,560,000 ; New York City Railway 
system from $74,860,000 to $79,233,000; Brookh'U City & Newtown 
Railroad Company from $1,294,000 to $1,730,000; Coney Island & 
Brooklyn Railroad from $895,000 to $t,T70,ooo; Long Island Elec- 
tric Railway from $182,000 to '$201,000. 



John A. Stewart, of Cincinnati, has purchased the equipment of 
the Louisiana Street power station of the Indianapolis Traction & 
Terminal Company, of Indianapolis, consisting of looo-hp of boilers, 
650-kw G. E. and Westinghouse generators, and 1500-hp of 
Wheelock engines. These are being offered for sale, as they must 
be moved at once to make way for improvements. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 


The official report of the Twin City Rapid Transit Company 
for the year ending Dec. 31, 1904, has just been issued. The gross 
earnings were the largest in the company's history, but net fell 
somewhat below those for 1903, due to a change in accounting 
whereby there were added to operation $206,400 for renewal funds 
and $31,394 for insurance fund. Had these items not been covered 
in operating expense the surplus for the common stock after pay- 
ment of the preferred dividend would have been $1,266,374, or 
7.67 per cent instead of the $1,028,581 or 6.23 per cent shown. Thus 
on the basis of accounting used in former years the rate of di\ i- 
dend earned on the common is the highest in the company's his- 
tory, being 7.67 per cent compared with 7.25 per cent in 1903, 7.06 
per cent in 1902, 5.87 per cent in 1901, and 4.7 per cent in 1900. 
The remarks of President Lowry in regard to the arrangements 
with the city of St, Paul on franchises are interesting. He says 
the company deems this decision and settlement of immeasur- 
able advantage. The following figures have been abstracted from 
the report : 

Statement of receipts and expenditures, 1904. 


Passenger earnings $4,269,408 

Miscellaneous 38,672 

Total earnings $4,308,080 


Maintenance of way and structures $196,520 

Maintenance of equipment 291,705 

Operation of power plants ,'^87,571 

Car service 867,319 

General expense 184,189 

Legal expense 22,999 

Injuries and damages 165,001 

Insurance 16,605 

Insurance fund 3i!39S 

Total operating $2,163,304 

Net earnings from operation $2,144,776 

Interest on debt and taxes $906,195 

Surplus applicable to di\ idends $1,238,580 

Dividends preferred stock $210,000 

Dividends common stock 825,550 

Total dividends $i,03S,550 

Income account, surplus $203,030 

Per cent total operating (including taxes) to total earn- 
ings 55 

Note : — But for the transfer of $206,268 to renewal funds and 

$31,394 to insurance fund, as explained in the report, the surplus 

for the year would have been $440,694, as compared with $419,296 

for year 1903. 

General balance sheet, December 31, 1904. 


Roadway, equipment, real estate, buildings 
machinery, tools and securities in 

treasury $35,230,714 

Surplus December 31, 1903 $3,410,642 

Less taxes unpaid, $280,290 

Less injuries and damages 50,000 330.290 3,080,352 


Additions during year 1904 . 2,250,224 


Current assets 629,402 

Notes and accounts receivable 29,737 

Cash in banks 393.264 

Construction material for current im- 
provements 206,400 

Stores, materials and supplies 141,068 

Invested funds 81,394 

Insurance funds $31,394 

Renewal funds 50,000 


Capital stock $19,511,000 

Common stock $16,511,000 

Preferred stock 3,000,000 

Funded debt 14,386,000 

Mmneapolis Street Ry. Co $4,998,000 

The St. Paul City Ry. Co 4,388,000 

Mpls. & St. Paul Sub. Ry. Co 500,000 

General mortgage 5 per cent 990,00 

Consol. mortgage 5 per cent 3,510.000 

Current liabilities 861,892 

Unpaid vouchers and accounts $82,266 

Interest accrued and not due 252,033 

Dividends common stock due and 

payable February 15, 1905 206,387 

Taxes accrued and not due 321,205 

Reserve funds 84,259 

Insurance $31,394 

Injuries and damages 52,864 

Renewal funds 206,268 

Way and structure $81,258 

Equipment 125,000 

Income account, surplus 203,030 


Minneapolis Street Railway Company. 
Statement of funded delit, January I, 1905. 


First mortgage, 7 per cent, due 1910 $190,000 

Second mortgage, 6 per cent, due 1913 600,000 

First cons, mortgage, 5 per cent, due 1919 4,208,000 


The St. Paul City Railway Company. 

First Mortgage, 6 per cent, due 1932 $224,000 

First cons, mortgage, 6 per cent, due 1934 456,000 

Cable cons, mortgage, 5 per cent, due 1937 3,708,000 


Minneapolis & St. Paul Suburban Railway Company. 

First mortgage, 5 per cent, due 1824 $500,000 

Minneapolis Street Railway Company and the St. 
Paul City Railway Company. 

General mortgage, 5 per cent, due 191 1 $990,000 

Consol. mortgage, 5 per cent, due 1928 3,510,000 

Total $14,386,000 




The Legislature of the State of Michig;in has refused by a very 
decided vote to submit to the people a proposition to amend the 
constitution of the State so as to provide for the municipal owner- 
ship of street railway lines. While the proposed amendment 
would of necessity apply to the entire State, it was introduced by 
a member of the legislature from the city of Detroit, and was un- 
derstood to mean that the people of that city would be given an 
opportunity to vote upon the question of the purchase and opera- 
tion by the city of the street railway line in the city now owned 
and operated by the Detroit United Railway. 

Since the action of the legislature in refusing to submit the ques- 
tion to- a vote of the people, an opinion has been given by the cor- 
poration counsel of Detroit to the effect that no amendment of the 
constitution is necessary to effect municipal ownership, as the city 
has a right under the present constitution and laws of the State 
to own street railway lines. Numerous court decisions are quoted 
in support of this posiWon, one of them being from the case re- 
cently decided where the Common Council of the city attempted 
to compel the Detroit United Railway to repair the foundation 
under its tracks in one of the city streets. 

Acting under this opinion and several others of a similar na- 
ture, the corporation counsel expresses the belief that the city has 
a right to construct and own street railway lines in the city, and 
it is proposed that an experimental case be tried, the city to con- 
struct a line in some street in the city, with the intention and ex- 
pectation of bringing the entire matter to some definite conclu- 
sion by such action. 

On March 28 the Common Council adopted a resolution looking 
to municipal ownership, for a resolution was introduced in Coun- 
cil directing the commissioner of public works to submit a supple- 
mental estimate calling for an appropriation of a small sum to 
build a short stretch of line to be leased to the Detroit United 

April 8, 1905.] 




The contract for equipping the Grand Rapids & Kalamazoo 
Railway, to which reference was made in the Street Railway 
Journal of April t, provides for the installation of the Westing- 
house single-phase system. The road will be built from Grand 
Rapids to Kalamazoo with a branch from Otsego to Allegan, and 
from Shelbyville to Gun Lake, and will be about 60 miles long. 
Twelve passenger cars, to be geared for high speed, and si.x fast 
express cars have been ordered. The road will use the city lines 
of the Michigan Traction Company for a terminal in Kalamazoo. 
The location of the central power house is not even intimated in 
the information to hand. 

The board of directors consists of W. H. Patterson and Frank 
Henry, of Kalamazoo ; E. J. Anderson, of Plainfield ; C. B. Kelsey, 
president of the Commercial Savings Bank, of Grand Rapids, and 
George Hefferan, secretary of the Michigan Trust Company, of 
Grand Rapids. The company is financed by Eastern capital, funded 
on a 30-year bond issue of $1,600,000, secured by a mortgage. Ex- 
Senator John J. Patterson, of Philadelphia, who is chief promoter 
of the company, has been elected president of the Michigan Con- 
struction Company, specially organized to take charge of the con- 
struction of the road. 



The final legislative committee hearing on the various inter- 
urban railway plans to connect Boston and Providence was held at 
Boston on March 28. Hon. S.' L. Powers, representing the so- 
called Gaston-Shaw line, offered a substitute bill limiting the 
road's right to sell electricity for power purposes ; modifying freight 
privileges by providing for the handling of express matter only ; 
making the local authorities the deciding power in reference to 
highway crossings ; adding the right to make traffic agreements, 
and leaving the eminent domain clause in the original bill about 
the same. The new draft also gave the company the right to sell 
real estate not required for its own purposes, and increased the 
capital stock from $2,000,000 to $2,500,000. Mr. Powers stated that 
it was the opinion of his clients that the Stone & Webster line, 
running in highways to a great extent and including grades as 
severe as 9 per cent, would never be in competition with their line, 
because the latter would run over a private roadbed outside the 
highways, and the grades would be slight. Regarding competition 
at the northerly end, where the Stone & Webster line — the Blue 
Hill Street Railway — is already in operation, he felt that if the 
new line could save time from Canton and Stoughton into Boston 
it would draw the through traffic, but the existing lines would 
have their local business developed in taking passengers to con- 
necting points of the new line. He also said that his road would 
bear all the expense of eliminating all grade crossings, subject to 
the desire of local authorities — a thing which no steam railway has 
or is willing to do — and that if new streets were built across the 
line in the future, the company would bear the expense of separat- 
ing the grades. 

Mr. Powers presented an estimate of the cost of his road — the 
Boston & Providence Street Railway. The general features of this 
line were described on page 571, Street Railway Journal^ Alarch 
25, together with the main facts pertaining to the Chapman and 
the Stone & Webster proportions. The estimate presented by Mr. 
Powers follows : 


80-lb. rail — double main line, cross-overs, car house connections — 61 

miles— 8046 tops, at $30.40 $244,598 

Distributing rails along line, 8046 tons, at $1.50 12,069 

22,528 joints, at $L65 37,171 

2048 kegs of spikes, at $4.50 9,21.6 

22,528 short bonds, at 35c 7,885 

22,528 long bonds, at 60c 13,517 

710 cross bonds, at 90c 639 

183,000 ties, at 50c., distributed along line 91,501 

150 tons 80-lb. guard-rails on bridges, at $30.40 4,560 

Distributing same, at $1.50 per ton 225 

Labor, laying 64 miles of track, at 20c. per foot 67,584 

Ballast, 138,375 cu. yds., at 40c 55,350 

Overhead work, iron-pole construction, SlVs miles, at $8,000 252,000 

40 cars, at .$12,000 480,000 

8 double-truck ,':now-plows, at $5,.500 44,000 

Power house and electrical equipment 475,000 

Car house, with addition .for office .32,000 

Telephone service 2,500 


Clearing and grubbing, 206 acres, at $90 ; $18,540 

Avoiding twenty-eiglit grade crossings, at $7,800 each 218,41)0 

Earthwork, 850,000 cu. yds., at 30c 255,000 

Solid rock excavation, 50,000 cu. yds., at $1.65 82,500 

Stone or concrete, 7020 cu. yds., at $7.50 52,650 

Steel work 40,000 

Drain-pipe culverts, 4000 ft., at $2 8,000 work, frogs and switches 15,000 

Fencing, 63 miles, at $330 20,790 

Cattle-guards 200 

Cattle passes, under or over 4,000 

Highway fencing. State highway construction 9,216 

Incidental woodwork, coffer dams, false work, etc 2,500 


Ten per cent 255,661 


Following Mr. Powers, various remonstrants were heard. The 
main objection urged by citizens was that the proposed routes have 
not as yet been definitely settled, and that any right of eminent do- 
main granted before the definite route had been published, or be- 
fore persons whose lands had been affected should have a chance 
to be heard, would be unfair and contrary to the policy of the 
commonwealth. The steam railroad attorneys present, W. H. 
Coolidge, of the Boston & Maine, and M. A. Maxwell, of the New 
Haven, based their opposition on the plea that if a new company 
should be allowed to do a railroad business, it should be subject to 
the burdens and safeguards imposed on steam railroads, and exist- 
ing steam roads should be given a fair chance to build the line 
if they saw fit. H. C. Forbes, representing parties wishing to build 
under the steam railroad law, spoke briefly in favor of his clients. 

The estimate presented by the Stone & Webster attorney, H. H. 
Newton, for a so-called moderately high-speed line was as follows: 

Approximate estimate cost of construction, mechanical and electrical equip- 
ment and rolling stock, Massachusetts & Rhode Island Street Railway and 
extension of Blue Hill Street Railway, completing second track of the Blue 
Hill Street Railway. 



Elevated surface track, about 4.5 

Blue Hill Street Railway track, about 10.0 

Massachusetts & Rhode Island Street Railway track, about 22.0 

Interstate Railway track, about 5.0 

Total, about 41.5 

Road to be double-track, center-pole construction, 70-lb. T-rail, oak or 
chestnut ties. 



Rail, 4840 tons, at $32 $154,880 

Rail joints, 15,600, at $1.90 29,640 

Spikes, 220,000 lbs., at 2y2C 5,500 

Cross ties, 115,000, at 50c 55,750 

Track laying and surfacing, 22 miles, at $1800 39,600 

Ballast, 132,000 cu. yds., at 80c 105,600 

Copper bonds, 31,200, at 50c 15,600 


rjverhead construction, 22 miles double track, at $6,000 132,000 

20 double-truck cars, semi-convertible, four motors, at $8,500 170,000 

5 snow-plows complete, at $5,500 27,500 

Extension to power house, mechanical and electrical equipment 200,000 

Car house 20,000 

Grading, masonry, etc., 22 miles, at $20,000 440,000 

Land for right of way, 22 miles, at $1,000 22,000 

Engineering, superintending, legal and incidental, 10 per cent 141,807 

Total estimate of proposed extension $1,559,877 


Rail, 660 tons, at $32 $21,120 

Joints, 2000, at $1.90 3,800 

Spikes, 30,000 lbs., at 2y2C 750 

Cross ties, 16,220, at 50c 8,110 

Track laying and surfacing, 6 miles, at $900 5,400 

Ballast, 18,000 cu. yds., at 80c 14,400 

Copper bonds, 4000, at 50c 2,000 

Overhead construction, 6 miles, at $3,000 1,800 

Grading, masonry, etc., 6 miles, at $3,000 18,000 

Damages 10,000 

Engineering, superintending, legal and incidental, 10 per cent 10,15S 

Total estimate of proposed second track $111,738 

Present value main line, Blue Hill Street Railway 450,000 

Total estimated cost, double-track line, Mattapan to Rhode 

Island line $2,121,615 

Average cost per mile of double track $66,300 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 


The local transportation committee of the Chicago City Council 
has given Mayor Harrison authority to advertise for bids for the 
construction of a municipal street railway on streets where the 
franchises owned by the Chicago Passenger Railway may have ex- 
pired. Lines on these streets are at present operated by the Chicago 
Union Traction Company. The bidders will be asked to submit 
bids which will offer one of two alternatives — city ownership 
and city operation or city ownership and company operation. The 
committee has engaged Bion J. Arnold to draw up detailed plans 
for the system proposed. Bids are to opened July i. 1905. The 
advertisement in part reads as follows : 

Proposals will be received for the construction and installation of a system 
of municipal street railways within the city of Chicago, upon the terms and 
conditions and the alternative plans hereinafter stated: 

First — Tlic said street railway system will first be installed upon the follow- 
ing-named streets and parts of streets, to wit: 

Adams .Street, from Clark to Desplaines. 

Desplaines Street, from Adams to Harrison. 

Harrison Street, from Desplaines to Western Avenue. 

Western Avenue, from Harrison to Twelfth Street. 

Twelfth Street, from Western to Crawford Avenue. 

It next will be extended over the following streets and parts of streets, upon 
which the rights of the present occupants already have expired: 

Halsted Street, from Harrison street south to the center of the Chicago 
River. Ogden Avenue, from Harrison Street to Fortieth Avenue, and will, at 
the pleasure of the City Council, be extended into any and every other part of 
the city of Chicago upon streets in which the rights of the present occupants 
have already expired or will expire during the years 19(B and 1906, and upon 
such other streets as may, in the discretion of the City Council, be deemed 
advisable for making connected routes and lines of street railways. 

Payments to be made by the city shall be made either by the delivery of 
street railway certificates to be issued under and in accordance with the pro- 
visions of an act of the General Assembly of Illinois, entitled "an act to 
authorize cities to acquire, construct, own, operate and lease street railways 
and to provide the means therefor," commonly known as the Mueller law, or 
in cash from the proceeds of the sale of such street railway certificates by 
the city, and separate bids may be submitted for payment by said certificates 
or for payment in cash from the proceeds of the sale thereof. 

If the bidder so elect, bids may be submitted upon the basis that the com- 
pleted system, when equipped and installed, shall be so leased to such bidder, 
and in case he shall submit with his bid the percentage of the gross receipts 
of the system or the amount of cash per year and the term of years, not to 
exceed twenty, which shall be provided for in such lease, the person bidding 
the highest percentage of gross receipts, other things being equal, shall be 
considered the highest bidder. In case of bids based upon a percentage of the 
gross receipts, other things being equal, the bidder who shall accept the lease 
for the shortest period shall be considered the highest bidder. 

Bids may also be submitted for the privilege of constructing and operating 
street railway tracks and a system of cars in the various streets herein referred 
to, and such other streets as the city may lawfully designate from time to 
time, and in such case the bidder who agrees to pay for such privilege the 
highest percentage of the gross receipts to be received from such operation 
for the shortest term, shall, other things being equal, be considered the 
highest bidder. In such case the bidder may specify the streets and parts 
of streets upon which he desires to bid. 



The second annual convention of the Iowa Street & Interurban 
Railway Association is to be held at Dubuque, la., on Thursday and 
Friday, April 20 and 21. The headquarters of the association are 
to be at the Hotel Julien. The session will be called to order at 
10 a. m., April 20. J. L. Lindsay, secretary and treasurer of the 
Union Electric Company, of Dubuque, will make the address of wel- 
come. Geo. B. Hippe, of Des Moines, la., the president of the asso- 
ciation, will then speak. After the report of the secretary and 
treasurer has been read, H. H. Polk, president of the Interurban 
Railway Company, of Des Moines, will read a paper entitled 
"Handling Freight by Interurbans and Interchange of Business 
with Steam Railroads." In the afternoon the delegates will at- 
tend in a body the session of the Iowa Electrical Association and 
hear a paper on "Steam Turbines," by W. E. Boileau, and a visit 
will be made to the power house of the LTnion Electric Company. 
This is a new steam turbine plant of much interest. Plans of it 
h.ave already been published in the Street Railw.w Journal. 
Friday morning three papers will be read. They are entitled : 
"Accounting as an Aid to the Operating Department." by R. A. 
Tenssler. secretary of the Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway ; 
"Car Shop IMethods," by John D. Fish, master mechanic of the 
Tri-City Methods," by John D. Fish, master mechanic of the 
F. McDonald, purchasing agent of the Waterloo. Cedar Falls & 
Northern Railway Company, of Waterloo. The first business for 
the afternoon session will be the reading of a paper entitled "The 
Adoption of Gasoline Motors for Street and Interurban Service," 

which is as yet unassigned. After the election of officers and the 
selection of a place for the 1906 meeting, the convention will ad- 
jotirn. The officers of the association are: Geo. B. Hippe, of Des 
Moines, president ; James F. Lardner, of Davenport, vice-presi- 
dent ; L. D. Mathes, of Dubuque, secretary and treasurer. 


The entertainment provided last week at its East New York 
ljuilding by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Employees' Benefit Asso- 
ciation, for its members and their friends, proved very successful. 
As stated last week, each employee was entitled to two tickets, 
which included transportation over the various lines of the com- 
pany to and from the entertainment. The professional talent, es- 
pecially engaged for the entire week, played each evening to a 
crowded house, and on Saturday afternoon at the special matinee 
entertained more than 1900 children. One of the important features 
of this matinee was a contest between a representative girl and a 
boy from each of the depots. The girls' contest was among four- 
teen children between the ages of seven and twelve years. It was a 
shoe-tying competition, and the prize was a handsome pair of ball- 
bearing roller skates. A similar prize was awarded in the boys' 
contest. Figures for the evening attendance show that the lowest, 
that of Tuesday night, was upwards of 900. On Monday there were 
1304 persons present, on Wednesday 1313, Thursday 1485, Friday 
1054, and Saturday upwards of lOOO. 

The large attendance on Thursday evening is mainly accounted 
for by the fact that, on that evening the officers of the company 
were made the guests of the association. From the president down, 
all the operating officials were invited, and they availed themselves 
of the invitation, too. George R. Folds, assistant to Vice-Presi- 
dent and General Manager Calderwood, was there as the personal 
representative of that official. Dow S. Smith, the general super- 
mtendent, was also in attendance. Others who were there were 
W. B. Graham, superintendent of surface lines ; W. O. Wood, 
superintendent of elevated lines ; F. D. Valentine, superintendent 
of employment, and the many division superintendents. 

In honor of these officials the regular programme was varied 
somewhat. A special feature was the appearance of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Employees Benefit Association Band of thirty 
pieces, which rendered several selections. This band is under the 
direction of W. S. Mygrant, band master of the 13th Regiment 
Band N. G. N. Y. Mr. Mygrant, who is one of the foremost cor- 
netists in this country, also rendered several selections, accom- 
panied on the piano by his daughter. Mr. Wolfram, of the en- 
tertainment committee, before permitting the regular programme 
to be resumed, invited the enrollment in the band of employees 
from all branches of the system, stating that instruments and uni- 
forms, as well as instruction, are furnished free by the associa- 
tion. The band was organized last October, and since then has 
made remarkable progress. Already engagements are being made 
by it for playing at affairs other than those given by the company. 

Following the entertainment the guests were invited to the class- 
room on the second floor, where an excellent course dinner was 
served to upwards of fifty guests. This room was tastefully deco- 
rated with American flags and palms, and a special arrangement 
of red and white incandescent lamps, the suggestion of Mr. Ed- 
wards, lent greatly to the general effect. 

Vice-President Wolfram of the association extended a hearty 
welcome to the guests, and in behalf of the association asknowl- 
edged its indebtedness to the company officials for their good will 
and support, and said he hoped the good will between the com- 
pany and its employees would always continue. He complimented 
Geo. W. Edwards, the secretary of the association, on his able 
management of its affairs. After dinner, Dow S. Smith, the gen- 
eral superintendent, introduced Mr. Folds, assistant to Mr. Calder- 
wood, who told several good stories to illustrate a point he was 
making, and assured those present of the interests of the manage- 
ment in the work of the association. 

This is the last social affair of the association before the open- 
ing by it of Luna Park, Coney Island. Through the generosity of 
Thompson & Dundy, proprietors of Luna Park, the association is 
allowed a commission on its sale of tickets for the opening and 
closing weeks at that resort, and to aid the association Thompson 
& Dundy, during these festivals, offer a coupon ticket giving $1. 
worth of attractions for 50 cents. The net income of the associa- 
tion from the sale of these tickets is used for educational pur- 
poses during the winter, and to aid cases of distress among mem- 
bers, and also for an occasional social feature. 

An idea of the excellent work done by the association as a 
benevolent organization is given by the abstract made in the 
Street Railway Journal of March 18, of the report of the sec- 
retary for the year ending Feb. 28, 1905. 

April 8, 1905.] STRKKT l^AILWAY JOURNAL. 687 


The Chicago City Railway Company last week placed an order 
for two hundred new cars with the J. G. Brill Company, of Phila- 
delphia. The cars are to be delivered in June, and will be placed 
on the Indiana Avenue and Sixty-Third Street lines. An expert 
examination of the company's entire system including rolling stock, 
car houses and power houses, is being made, and many improve- 
ments and additions will be pushed forward, so that in a short time 
the service will be such as will satisfy the highest expectations, 
and, at the same time, the lines will be operated in the most econom- 
ical manner possible. The company is proceeding with these im- 
provements without regard to what may be obtained from the 
City Council in the future in the way of franchises or grants. The 
engineering firm of Ford, Bacon & Davis, of New York, has been 
retained for the expert work in connection with the examination of 
properties and improvements with headquarters in offices adjoining 
those of Vice-President T. E. Mitten, under whose personal super- 
vision the work will be carried forward. 

The new cars, which are to be of the semi-convertible type, 
measure 32 ft. 5 ins. over the body, are 8 ft. 10 ins. wide over 
the posts at belt, and hai^e 6 ft. 2-in. platforms. They are to have 
several novel features, one of which is that though the windows 
are of the semi-convertible type, which admit of the window spaces 
being entirely cleared of ashes at the discretion of passengers, yet 
are- of the arched-type, twin arrangement, with a pair of sashes 
which are raised into pockets in the side-roofs. This is the first 
time that semi-convertible cars have been ordered with the twin 
window arrangement. With eleven windows to each side, the added 
window is provided for by a triple window at the center. The 
sash styles are to be of bronze, so arranged that the glass may be 
replaced m the same manner as with the ordinary wooden sash. 
Another novel feature will consist of an arrangement of platform 
steps, devised by the railway company, in which the steps are 
united under the platform timbers by metal bars which slide in stir- 
rups and are operated by a lever situated upon the platform. One 
movement of the lever draws back the step on one side under the 
platform and at the same time projects the step on the other side 
into its place, thus preventing persons from standing on the step 
on the closed side of the platform. The platforms at either end 
will be provided with these movable steps. Passengers also will 
be prevented from gaining a foothold on the bumpers by inclined 
metal sheathing extending from the edge of the bumper to the 
dasher. Longitudinal seats accommodating four passengers each 
will be placed at the corners of the cars to increase the aisle width 
near the doors and prevent crowding at these points. The other 
seats will be placed transversely to the car and will be 36 in. long 
and the aisle wide enough to permit two passengers to pass each 
other conveniently. The cars are to be richly finished in ma- 
hogany, and the trim will be of oxidized bronze. 

The contract for the trucks to go under these cars, and ten extra 
trucks for use as a repair shop reserve, was let to the McGuire- 
Cummings Manufacturing Company, of Chicago. The trucks, of 
which there are to be 424, will be on M. C. B. lines. 

The Consolidated Car Heating Company received an order for 
8920 electric heaters. Each of the two hundred new cars will 
have 12 truss-plank heaters and 8 panel heaters. The order also 
includes 12 truss-plank heaters and 12 panel heaters for each of 
205 of the older cars. 


The Allis-Chalmers Company is removing its general offices from 
Chicago to Milwaukee. This is another step in the direction of car- 
rying out the plans of the present administration, which are gradu- 
ally being brought to completion. One of the first conclusions ar- 
rived at by President Warren, after assuming office a year ago, 
was that for every reason connected with efficient administration 
of all branches of the work, from designing to manufacturing, and 
from selling to collecting and accounting, the chief offices of the 
company, covering all the ramifications of its business, should be 
concentrated in one place. That place was logically Milwaukee, 
because, although the company has four other works in three other 
cities, the largest works are in Milwaukee, and Milwaukee is where 
all the future expansion of the company's operations will take 
place. Besides, at the Milwaukee suburb of West Allis it has the 
land to build upon. 

Instead of handling the several departments at long range, as 
under the old system, they will all be concentrated in one place, 
thus eliminating the necessity for constant traveHng to and fro, 
effecting a great saving in time and expense, an enormous reduc- 
tion in correspondence, and, above all, the quickening of all move- 
ments of production. Only by concentration at the strategic point 
f-an the results that have been aimed at by the president be ac- 

complished. Plans for the workshop extensions at West Allis, 
which involve the construction of several more units, are practi- 
cally complete, and the extensions will be made in due course. 


The Cleveland Electric Railway Company is planning to increase 
the size of its Viaduct power station, which takes care of the 
downtown and west side sections of the city. A contract has been 
placed with the Westinghouse Company for a 1500-kw d. c. railway 
generator to be connected to a 32-in. x 68-in. x 60-in. Allis-Chal- 
mers vertical engine. Boilers, condensers and auxiliary equipment 
have not yet been ordered. An extension is being built at the west 
end of the power station building, and it will provide for two units 
of this size, and it is probable that another similar unit will be 
ordered later this year. The company is continuing its policy of 
taking care of peak loads by means of battery stations, and has 
recently placed a contract with the Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany for a chloride Ijattery with a capacity of 1825 amp. -hours to 
be installed in a station on Harvard Street, to take care of the 
Newburg district. The placing in service of more cars with a 
heavier equipment, and the adoption of power brakes, have made 
these additions necessary. 



Last summer the City Council of Sheljoygan, Wisconsin, ordered 
the Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Company to equip all its 
cars with fenders. The Council had a ■ committee investigate 
fenders, which approved the fender used by the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company. This fender was installed on the 
company's cars and was approved and accepted by the Board of 
Public Works of Sheboygan. After these fenders had been on the 
cars a few months, the mayor and a few of the councilmen asked 
the company to put on another style of fender. The company then 
ordered the Eclipse fender for its interurban cars, which up to that 
time had not been equipped with fenders of any kind, and offered 
to equip its city cars with the same fender, provided the city would 
reimburse the company for the cost of the original fenders. The 
fender commitee of the City Council accepted this proposition, 
which was nothing more than fair, in view of the fact that the city 
authorities had seen fit to change their minds within a period of a 
year, and had made written acceptance of the Milwaukee fender. 
However, this spring there was a city election in Sheboygan, and 
the city authorities were evidently for political reasons afraid to 
approve the fender committee's report and reimburse the company 
for the old fenders. Furthermore, the mayor of Sheboygan is a 
Socialist of the extreme type, and there happened to be dissension 
among the Socialistic ranks in Sheboygan this year, so that the 
mayor was having a hard fight. Apparently feeling the need of 
creating a diversion and getting the favor of the most radical 
wing of his party, the mayor decided it would be good politics to 
attack the street railway company, and without any notice ordered 
the arrest of all crews on cars not equipped with fenders. This 
grandstand play was made at a Council meeting one evening, and 
the following morning Ernest Gonzenbach, general manager of 
the company, was notified by the city attorney that he had been di- 
rected to make the arrests. Although most of the city cars are 
equipped with fenders, Mr. Gonzenbach thought it would be a good 
plan not to take any chances and ordered all cars into the car houses, 
where they stayed until evening. By that time all the local even- 
ing papers, even including the mayor's own organ, had come out 
denouncing the mayor's action. The public had a good taste of 
what the city would be like without street car service, and it was 
evident by night that the mayor, instead of making a shrewd po- 
litical move, had taken about the worst step possible. The com- 
pany also announced that all special rates would be withdrawn, 
and threatened to withdraw school tickets, six for a quarter tickets, 
commutation books, working-men's tickets, and clergyman's tickets. 
As the mayor evidently wanted war, the company started to give 
him what he wanted. One arrest was made of a motorman on a 
city car which runs as a single ender, and is provided with a fender 
at one end only. The motorman was arrested and the company 
furnished the bail. The city attorney in the Municipal Court the 
next morning was compelled to withdraw the case as the ordi- 
nance specifically states that the car shall be pro\ ided with fenders 
at the head end. 

Distance always lends enchantment to the view, and some out-of- 
town newspapers, particularly those in Milwaukee, lionized the 
mayor on account of his stand, all assuming that all the cars were 
actually being run without fenders of any kind in defiance of the 
city ordinance. That the citizens fully appreciated the situation is 
sliown hy the defeat of the mayor for re-election at the municipal 
election on ,\pril 4. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 


H. H. Polk, president of the Interurban Railway Company, of 
Des Moines, has announced that the companj^ has finally decided 
to construct the line to Perry as well as the line to Woodward, 
this year. In a former statement printed in the Street Railway 
Journal he had said that the Perry line would not be constructed 
during the present year. Mr. Polk states that the exact route of 
the Woodward line has not been decided upon. A decision will 
be made in a few days, however, as the company is anxious to 
complete grading specifications, and submit them for bids some- 
time during April. The line to Perry will branch off from the 
Woodward line several miles South of Woodward, and will run 
ill a northwesterly direction to Perry. Work will commence this 
week on the construction of a connecting line within the city 
limits of Des Moines, between the Highland Park line and the 
Old Flint Valley line of the Des Moines City Railway Company. 
Deems & Barnes have the contract for this work. The Old 
Flint Valley line is to be reballasted and the track relaid with 
heavier steel. The Highland Park line is to be double-tracked 
from the point where this connection is made to Second Street 
and Grand Avenue in the heart of the city. This will give the 
Interurban a line of its own into the business portion of the city. 
Mr. Polk states that the line to Woodward and the branch to 
Perry are to be constructed for high speed purposes, and the route 
on the Highland Park and Flint Valley lines will aid them in this 
respect, as practically all of the right of way belongs to the City 
Railway system, and is not constructed in the streets. 


The Niles-Bement-Pond Company has announced the purchase 
of a large factory property at Nicetown, Philadelphia, formerly 
occupied by the Cresswell & Waters Company, for an addition to 
its Philadelphia plants. This property will be greatly improved 
and equipped with modern facilities for use as a foundry for the 
Niles-Bement Works branch of the company at Twenty-First and 
Callowhill Streets, and also the Niles Crane Works branch, at 
Meadow and Miffiin Streets. This increase of facilities is one of 
the many important developments that have been made by the 
Niles-Bement-Pond Company recently, owing to the recent large 
increase of business and many large contracts which have been 
taken. The combined plants in Philadelphia, regardless of the 
three other large plants operated by the company at Hamilton, 
Ohio ; Plainfield, N. J. ; and Hartford, Conn., will now employ 
about 2000 men, making it one of the largest industrial plants of 
the country. 



This company, which was organized some time ago by a number 
of prominent officials in Ohio and neighboring States, is progress- 
ing rapidly in completing the amount of insurance which is to be 
underwritten before the amount set for commencing business, viz., 
$20,000,000, is reached. The company has decided not to insure 
any car or repair shop that is not equipped with automatic 
sprinklers having two independent sources of water supply. This 
decision has necessarily caused some delay in securing the mini- 
mum limit of insurance set by the organizers before commencing 
business, but the advantages of covering exclusively such a de- 
sirable form of risk is self evident. Some thirty companies have 
already requested the Traction Mutual Insurance Company to pre- 
pare plans and specifications for an aggregate of something like 
150 car houses, repair shops, power stations and sub-stations, and 
three engineers are constantly at work preparing plans for com- 
panies contemplating membership in the company. 

The rules of the company provide that the company shall be ad- 
ministered by 15 directors; that the members shall be liable for 
assessment for a sum not exceeding five times the actual cash pre- 
mium as written in the policy, and that the business shall be re- 
stricted to the insuring of electric light and power stations and 
their equipment against loss by fire and lightning. 

The officers of the company and of the Electric Mutual Insur- 
ance Company, which is afiiliated with it, are composed of: Hor- 
ace E. Andrews, president of the Cleveland Electric Railway Com- 
pany ; Warren S. Bicknel, president of the Lake Shore Electric Rail- 
way Company; Henry A. Everett, president of the Northern 
Ohio Traction & Light Company and chairman of the board of 
directors of the Detroit United Railway; A. E. Akins, president 
of the Western Ohio Railway Company and vice-president of the 
Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Company, and Henry N. 
Staats, Ohio manager of the Associated Factory Mutual Insurance 
Companies of New England, and an insurance underwriter of 
some thirty years' experience. 


Plans are rapidly making for the unification of the lines of the 
Consolidated Railway Company, operating the electric railway 
properties in New England owned by the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad. In the interest of these plans and of meas- 
ures before the Connecticut Legislature, which are essential to the 
perfection of changes now in contemplation. President Mellen, of 
the company, appeared before the committee on railroads of the 
Legislature in Hartford last Thursday. After discussing at length 
each of the measures, he invited those in attendance to interrogate 
him as to any points in doubt. 

The applications for rights that are before the legislature range 
from plans that are of comparatively little significance to those 
that foreshadow expenditures of considerable sums, and changes 
in operation that are in a way revolutionary in their character. 
Among these are plans for power development, and the operation 
in harmony of electric lines and steam roads wherever such 
operation is possible. Mr. Mellen summarized those measures to 
which objection might be made by the public as follows: 

"The right to acquire by condemnation the real estate necessary to 
correct the alignment and grades of our lines. 

"The right to acquire available water power and develop the 
same for furnishing the electrical power needed to operate our lines. 

"The right to acquire a right of way on which to erect lines of 
poles and wires for the transmission of such electrical power to 
the convenient points of use. 

"The right to acquire steam railroad lines, many portions of 
which can be used to better advantage by our company than by 
their present steam railroad owners. 

"The extension for two years from the rising of the present 
legislature of the rights heretofore granted the separate companies 
now owned by the Consolidated, to build certain branches speci- 
fied in their charters and amendments thereto. 

"The right to construct certain branches and extensions specified 
in the petition. 

"The right to eliminate the interest of dissenting stockholders 
upon terms and conditions most liberal and protecting the com- 
pany from the blackmail in the conduct of its business." 

While not commiting himself formally. President Mellen, in 
talking about the application for power rights intimated that exten- 
sive plans are in contemplation for the development of water 
power. He said that as the successful and economical operation of 
an electric system depends greatly upon the generation of the elec- 
tricity, the company is asking power to acquire and develop water 
powers not by condemnation, but by purchase, and no further 
right is desired regarding such water powers than has been freely 
granted by the State in connection with such powers when used 
for other purposes. As those powers are in many instances re- 
mote from the places where the electric current is used, the com- 
pany is also seeking to acquire right of way for a pole line, by 
which the power generated may be transmitted to such place or 
places as the same may be required for use. 

• Mr. Mellen said very plainly that the period of acquisition of 
electric railway properties having passed, the tying together of 
these lines and their general unification were the next things to 
be considered. Here, again, some of his statements were only in- 
dicative of changes. In several cases, however, statements were 
made that settle questions about which there has been doubt for 
some time. For instance, there can no longer be doubt as to what 
the company proposes to do in regard to the long-talked-of line 
between Baltic, Conn., and Worcester, Mass. Mr. Mellen says that 
the line diverges from the present Old Worcester & Connecticut 
Eastern in the town of Central Village Falls on the east side, to a 
connection with the present tracks of the Norwich & Worcester, 
which the Consolidated Railway Company is going to take down to 
a point very near Jewett City, thence through Jewett City, and 
crossing the river, and connecting with the Norwich Street Railway 
at a point called Okum, so that the company will have two parallel 
street railway lines, and all the steam trains will run on the west 
side to a point just north of Jewett City, thence both will go 
through the city, and thence diverging again to the New England 
road, and the abandoned line of the Norwich & Worcester will be 
used for a trolley, resulting in the elimination of twelve grade 
crossings, and accomplishing for a minimum expense, what has 
been wanted for a great many years, an electric railway, as well 
as a steam line, through Jewett City. 

Another statement of import made by Mr. Mellen concerned the 
Middletown Street Railway. He said it is the expectation to ex- 
tend the Middletown Street Railway to a point about Westfield on 
the Meriden, Middletown & Waterbury, and use that line to a con- 
nection with the Meriden Electric, and thus make a through route 
by electricity from Middletown to Meriden. Officials of the com- 
pany are working on the plans for this change, and if the report is 
what Mr. Mellen thinks it will be, the line will be built. 

April 8, 1905.] 




The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish, by 
Alvah Horton Sabin, M. S. John Wiley & Sons; 364 pages, 
with index. Price, $3.00. 
This is a broad handling of the subject of paints and varnishes, 
with a brief account of their modern uses. The book will com- 
mend itself to those having to do with electric railway matters, 
chiefly because of its chapters on the protection of metals against 
corrosion. The work might well have been extended to take in 
the subject of car painting, inasmuch as practically all of the other 
uses of paints and varnishes are discussed. 

Report of the Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the Street Rail- 
road Association of the State of New York. 295 pages. Pub- 
lished from the office of the secretary, W. W. Cole, vice-presi- 
dent, Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y. 
This is the complete report of the convention held in Utica on 
Sept. 13 and 14, 1904. The contents include all the papers pre- 
sented, with the ensuing discussions, the full report of the com- 
mittee on rules as now adopted, the questions and answers con- 
fined in the Question Box, the speeches at the banquet, etc. Among 
the illustrations are portraits of the officers, the group photograph 
of attendants taken in front of the meeting hall, and views in con- 
nection with the General Electric single-phase equipment on the 
Ballston division of the Schenectady Railway Company, and the 
temporary exhibition line erected on the Utica & Mohawk Valley 

Imperial Directory and Statistics of Electric Lighting, Power and 
Traction works. Edited and compiled by C. S. Vesey Brown, 
London. Hazell, Watson & Viney, 103 1 pages. Price, 12 
shillings 6 pence. 
This book gives financial statistics of the electric lighting, power 
and railway installations in Great Britain and Ireland and in the 
British colonies. The traction statistics published include the 
officers, mileage, number of cars, etc., also, in most cases, income 
account for the year and transportation statistics for from two to 
five years back, with the balance sheet for the private companies. 
In the case of very large companies, important extracts are given 
from the last annual report. The financial statistics for light 
and power plants are very similar to those published for the elec- 
tric railway plants. The volume includes statistics as to tube rail- 
ways and steam light railways. 

A Text-Book on Roofs and Bridges. — Part I. Stresses in Simple 
Trusses, by Mansfield Merriman and Henry S. Jacoby. John 
V/iley & Sons ; 312 pages. Price in cloth, $2.50. 
This is essentially a bridge engineers' text-book. The authors, 
Merriman, professor of civil engineering in Lehigh LTniversity, and 
Jacoby, professor of bridge engineering in Cornell University, have 
long ago qualified as expert authorities in bridge matters, and they 
present in this work a mass of data, theories and opinions, con- 
cisely condensed and logically arranged. The work first appeared 
in 1888 as the first edition of Part I. Since that date six editions 
have been published. Properly to record the changes that have 
taken place in the science and art of the construction of simple 
bridges, and to give the student the latest point of view, is the ob- 
ject of the present volume. Although primarily a treatise on high- 
way and steam railroad structures, the work will offer valuable 
aid to those charged with the design and erection of electric rail- 
way bridges. The text is elucidated and enriched by many 
sketches, full page illustrations of typical structures, and two inset 

Manual of Corporate Organization, by Thomas Conyngton, 352 
pages; buckram binding, $2.50; sheep, $3.00. Manual of Cor- 
porate Management, by the same author, second edition, 352 
pages; same price. Published by the Ronald Press Company, 
203 Broadway, N. Y. 
As their titles imply, the first volume treats of the problems that 
arise when incorporation is contemplated or is under way, while 
the second, Corporate Management, treats of the proper conduct 
of the corporation after it is organized. Each book is complete in 
itself and may be used without reference to the other. While this 
is true the two together cover both the organization and the man- 
agement of a corporation and make a very complete and practical 
set. The work has been prepared for use in any part of the United 
.States and without special reference to the laws of any particular 
section, though the principles should be applied, of course, in con- 
nection with the local statutes. The use of the corporate form is 
now so common that a treatise of this kind should be a most useful 
adjunct in the office of every business man, not for the purpose of 
dispensing with the services of the legal profession, but to assist 
the reader in conforming to the technical requirements of the law 
and in understanding its purposes. 


[This department is conducted by Rosenbaum & Stockbridge, 
patent attorneys, 140 Nassau Street, New York.] 


785,247. Noise Deadening Means ; Charles D. Wood, Boston, 
Mass. App. filed Jan. 2, 1904. Between the cross-ties and rails 
and between the cross-ties and girders is inserted vulcanized rub- 
ber or other suitable material to prevent vibration. 

785,284. Track Sanding Device ; John H. Watters, Augusta, 
Ga. App. filed Oct. 10, 1904. A jet of air is directed against the 
body of sand in a direction opposite that in which the sand must 
fiow, and another jet of air discharges into the outlet pipe to 
create a partial vacuum therein. 

785,290. Brake Shoe; Paul Carpenter, Chicago, 111. App. filed 
May 3, 1904. Comprises a back and a body attached to each 
other by an inclined tongue and groove connection and a wedge 
for fixing and retaining the parts together. 

785,293. Electric Tramway; Alfredo Diatto, Turin, Italy. App. 
filed Sept. 30, 1902. Mechanism whereby a trailer carried by the 
car will send a weak current through contact devices thereby en- 
ergizing electro-magnetic circuit closers for closing the main cir- 

785,303. Brake Shoe ; Joseph D. Gallagher, Glenridge, N. J. 
App. filed May 3, 1904. Comprises a cast body portion and a de- 
tachable steel back having thereon integral attaching means for 
the brake head. 

785,315. Electric Railway; Timothy Mahoney, San Francisco, 
Cal. App. filed Dec. i, 1903. As the car moves from one section 
to another, solenoids beneath the several sections are successively 
and temporarily e.xcited to lift the switches and cut in the current 
to the trolley rail and car, the solenoids becoming inert as soon 
as the rear brushes leave their respective sections. 

785,372. Trolley Head ; Eugene J. Parker and Louis N. Col- 
well, Providence, R. I. App. filed April 27, 1904. Provides facili- 
ties for readily inserting a new wheel, means for permitting a 
variation of the plane of the wheel during the passage of curves, 
and improved means of uniting the end of the harp and trolley 

785,421. Car Seat; Henry S. Hale, Philadelphia. Pa. App. 
filed April 29, 1904. A frame including at each end parallel plates 
having guideways arranged on arcs having different centers, a 
walk-over back, and back-supporting arms operating between said 
parallel plates and influenced in their inclination by said guide- 

785,482. Fender; Raffaela D'Oronzio, New York, N. Y. App. 
filed Dec. 7, 1904. Comprises a plurality of hinged sections, a 
latch for retaining the sections in a raised position, and means 
operable by the contact of an object with the fender-sections for 
moving the latch. 

785,570. Car Brake; Henry Poth, Elliott, Pa. App. filed Nov. 
28, 1904. A brake shoe adapted to contact with the ground or 
surface of the roadbed between the tracks. 

785,598. Trolley ; Clemens Dillhoff and Joseph Hastreiter, 
Morgantown, W. Va. App. filed Dec. 13, 1904. Details. 

12,2,27. Car Brake Appliance; Daniel Taggart, Indianapolis, Ind. 
App. filed Jan. 23, 1905. A novel form of drum by which the oper- 
ator may quickly take up the slack of the chain. 


785.758. Electric Railway System and Conduit ; George W. 
Olinger, Orchard, Ohio. App. filed June 19, 1903. A conduit com- 
prising main girder members, L-shaped in cross section and se- 
cured to the side of the main members to form the bottom and 
outer side of the conduit, and a combined guard and tie plate, 
channel-shaped in horizontal section, and connecting the ends of 
the secondary members to form a lateral space for the insertion 
and removal of the trolley arm and wheel. 

785.759. Metal-Tired Car Wheel; Adam J. O'Neil and Frank 
L. Wrenn, Scranton, Pa. App. filed Sept. 24, 1904. A car wheel 
having a metal center with a metal tire, means for fastening the 
tire to the center consisting of a dovetail projection on one side 
of the center, and a shrunk ring having a dovetail face hitting 
closely to the other side. 

785.780. Railway Switch ; Frederick Uhtbrock, New York, N. 
Y. App. filed May 20, 1904. Cog wheels mounted in the roadbed 
and suitably connected with the twitch-point are adapted to be en- 
gaged and rotated by suitable means mounted on the car, to 
thereby throw the switch in advance of a moving car, 

785.781. Car Construction; William B. Waggoner, Chicago, 111. 
App. filed Oct. 12, 1904. A hollow car sill made of metal, castings 
secured in the ends of the sill, and a truss-rod running from end 
to cud of the sill, the ends of the truss-rod being secured in the 



[Vol. XXV. No. 14. 

785,840, Car Fender ; Charles H. Turner, New York, N. Y. 
App. filed June 25, 1904. The fender is mounted upon a track se- 
cured to the under side of the car, so that it will slide underneath 
the car upon striking an unyielding obstruction, to avoid breaking 
the fender. 

785,909. Electric Railway System; John C. McDonald, New- 
York, N. Y. App. filed Feb. 9, 1904. Details of a switch for per- 
mitting the current to flow into a short length of the third rail. 

786,036. Trolley Wheel and Holder; Henry N. King, Adrian, 
Mich. App. filed June 20, 1904. A hard metal insert ring in the 
tread of the trolley wheel. 

786,188. Trolley; James L. Brownlee, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed 
June 10, 1904. Details. 

786,193. Railway Crossing Structure; Warner B. Cooke, Jenk- 
intown. Pa. App. filed Dec. 21, 1904. Details of a hard metal 
insert plate for crossings, etc. 

786,219. Trolley ; Sando Kasco, Allegheny, Pa. App. filed Dec. 
9, 1904. Details. 

■ ♦♦^ 


MR. B. H. WARREN, president of the Aliis-Chalmers Com- 
pany, sailed for Europe last week on a business trip. 

MR. A. L. ROGERS, formerly with the Sterling Company, has 
become connected with the Plat Iron Works Company, of Dayton, 
Ohio, in New York. 

MR. JOHN D. TWIGGS, city engineer of Augusta, Ga., has 
been made chief engineer of the Raleigh & Durham Passenger & 
Power Company, which plans to build an electric railway from 
Raleigh to Durham, N. C. 

MR. E. H. KEATING, formerly general manager of the Toronto 
Railway Company, of Toronto, Ont., has been appointed manager 
and engineer for Mackenzie & Mann of their street railway in- 
terests in and around Monterey, Mexico. 

MR. W. J. CLARK, manager of the General Electric Com- 
pany's foreign department, has been elected president of the Per- 
forated Music Roll Company. Mr. Clark's connection with the 
Music Roll Company will not, of course, in any way alter his 
present relations with the General Electric Company. 

MR. M. M. REID, master mechanic of the Appleyard lines, has 
been appointed acting superintendent for the Dayton, Springfield 
& Urbana and the Urbana, Bellefontaine & Northern Railways. 
Mr. Theodore Stebbins, general manager of the system, is de- 
sirous of securing an experienced man to fill this position per- 

MR. D. W. MURPHY, formerly electrical engineer of the New 
York & Queens County Railway Company, is now connected with 
the Manila Electric Railroad & Light Company, at Manila, P. I. 
Mr. Murphy has been associated with J. G. White & Company, of 
New York, for the past two years, for a large part of the time on 
their foreign work. His first service with the company was the 
installation for the White interests of a lighting plant for the 
Paxatany Electric Light Company, of Harrisburg, Pa. After the 
completion of that work he was sent to San Jose, Porto Rico, and 
from that place to Manila. 

MR. WILLIAM F. POTTER, president of the Long Island 
Railroad, died at his apartment in the Hotel Marie Antoinette, 
New York, on Sunday, April 2. Mr. Potter had been ill since 
March 3, when he was prostrated by a severe cold. He was born 
in Ithaca, N. Y., in 1846, and received his early railroad training in 
the West. In 1892, he became general superintendent of the Long 
Island Railroad, and on Jan. 13, 1905, was appointed president of 
the company to succeed Mr. W. H. Baldwin, deceased, under 
whom plans for the electrification of the road were all worked out. 
Mr. Ralph Peters, superintendent of the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis Railroad, in charge of the southwestern system 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad lines west of Pittsburg, has been 
elected to succeed Mr. Potter in the Long Island Company. 

MR. FRED W. BUTT has resigned as chief draughtsman of 
the mechanical department of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, to become assistant engineer in the electrical department of 
the New York Central Railroad, in charge of design of its new 
suburban rolling stock for electrical operation. Mr. Butt has been 
connected with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company for more 
than eight years, in charge of the draughting work for both sur- 
face and elevated divisions. His experience has covered all 
branches of the service, extending from the time of the earliest ex- 
periments in electrical operation on the elevated lines to the recent 
development in the electric operation and its extension to all lines 

of the company. He has been intimately associated with the recent 
reconstruction work upon the elevated rolling stock equipment, and 
is responsible for many important improvements in detail which 
have been incorporated, and also in the design of the large amount 
of new equipment recently ordered by the company. 

MR. J. B. N. CARDOZA, assistant engineer of the railway de- 
partment of the Virginia Passenger & Power Company, will leave 
April 17 for Norfolk, to become superintendent Berkley Street 
Railway Company, a constituent of the Norfolk Railway & Light 
Company. Mr. Cardoza began his street railway work with the 
Richmond Traction Company in 1898, in the purchasing depart- 
ment. He was soon promoted to the position of assistant to Super- 
intendent S. P. Cowardin. When the lines were consolidated Mr. 
Cowardin was made engineer of construction, and Mr. Cardoza was 
made his assistant. Later Calvin Whiteley, Jr., was made chief 
engineer of the railway department of the company, and Mr. Car- 
doza was promoted to assistant to the chief engineer. 

MR. T. A. CLELAND has been appointed superintendent of 
equipment of the Consolidated Railway Company, of New Haven, 
Conn., in charge of all car equipments. This company operates 
the electric railway properties owned by the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad, which now aggregate more than 400 miles. 
Mr. Cleland's experience has been chiefly with the Westinghouse 
Company, with which he was connected for more than 17 years. 
He entered the employ of th.-it company in 1888 as a machinist. 
Advancement came rapidly, and in 1890 he mounted the first two 
motors built by the Westinghouse Company on a 14-ft. closed car 
on the Pleasant Valley Railway in Allegheny, Pa. In the latter 
part of 1890 Mr. Cleland and Mr. Edward Gray equipped the first 
complete electric railway for the Westinghouse Company. This 
was in Lansing, Mich. In 1899 Mr. Cleland was selected to super- 
vise the equipment of the French works of the Westinghouse Com- 
pany at Havre. Here he remained as master mechanic for two 
years. His next important work for the company was in England, 
whither he went in 1901 to equip the company's Manchester works. 
Here he remained about two years, afterward returning to the 
company at Pittsburg. Mr. Cleland's headquarters are in New 

MR. W. W. WHEATLY, who went to Mexico City a little 
over one year ago to become general manager of the Federal Dis- 
trict Railways of that city, has recently been elected president of 
that company in place of the Hon. Chandos S. Stanhope, who has 
resigned. Mr. Wheatly has also been elected managing director 
of the Mexican Traction Company, an independent company, which 
was acquired about one year ago by Wernher, Beit & Company, of 
London. These companies, of which Mr. Wheatly is now the 
active head, own and control all of the street railway lines in the 
City of Mexico and its suburbs, and serve a population in the valley 
of Mexico estimated at nearly 1,000,000. The securities of all rail- 
ways are owned practically by the one firm — Wernher, Beit & 
Company, of London, who have extensive interests in mining in 
South Africa, and also in Mexico. The same firm also owns the 
street railways of Capetown and Port Elizabeth, South Africa ; 
Lisbon, Portugal, and city of Pueblo, in Mexico. It is reported that 
Mr. Wheatly's management of the Mexican tramway system has 
been very successful, and that the owners have decided to place in 
his hand the full responsibility for the administration of their prop- 
erties, which, in addition to the tramways, include other extensive 
interests in and around the City of Mexico. 

MR. WILLIAM OFFUTT MUNDY, of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, died at the East End Hospital, 
Pittsburg, Pa., on Wednesday, March 29, from blood poisoning. 
Mr. Mundy was a graduate of the Rose Polytechnic Institute, of 
Terre Haute, Ind., and was still a young man, not yet having 
reached thirty. Until a year ago he was master mechanic of the 
St. Louis Transit Company, of St. Louis, Mo., where his work at- 
tracted the attention of railway operators. The new shops of that 
company, embodying many of the best labor-saving devices, were 
built under his direction. His powers to originate were not con- 
fined, however, to the equipment of railway shops, for he did much 
toward the improvement of systems of electric train control. In 
fact, he made commercially successful the G. E. type-M system. 
He was also the inventor of an air brake appliance of much merit. 
Quite recently he invented a street car window, the construction 
of which permits the removal of window sashes to facilitate the 
repairing and cleaning of the windows. In April, 1904, Mr. Mundy 
resigned his position with the St. Louis Company to become a 
commercial engineer of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, of East Pittsburg, Pa. Mr. Mundy was a prominent 
member of the American Railway Mechanical and Electrical Asso- 
ciation, and was third vice-president of that body last year. He 
is survived by a widow, formerly Miss Kathleen Eddy, of Detroit, 
Mich., to whom he was married on Jan. 4, 1905. 

Street Railway Journal 

Vol. XXV. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, APRIL 15, 1905. No. 15. 

Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

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NEW YORK, Engineering Building, 114 Liberty Street. 

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Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjourn, London" — Lieber's Code 


Copyright, 1905, McGraw Publishing Co. 


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Street Railway Journal (52 issues) $3.00 per annum 

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Single copies. Street Railway Journal, first issue of each month, 20 cents; 
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Changes of advertising copy should reach this office by 10 a. m. Monday 
preceding the date of publication, except the first issue of the month, for 
which changes of copy should be received two weeks prior to publication 
date. New advertisements for any issue will be accepted up to noon of 
Tuesday for the paper dated the following Saturday. 

Of this issue of the Street Raihvay Journal 8ooo copies are 
printed. Total circulation for 1905, to date, 123,550 copies — an 
average of 8237 copies per zveek. 

Announcement Concerning Back Numbers 

The publishers of this journal have heretofore endeavored 
to keep on hand indefinitely a supply of the separate numbers 
of back volumes. Experience shows that there is very little 
demand for such numbers more than a year old, while the 
trouble involved in keeping them is wholly out of proportion to 
the value of the accommodation to subscribers. It has been de- 
cided, therefore, to keep separate copies for but twelve months 
back of the current issue. Orders for issues prior to May, 
1904, should be sent in immediately, as the stock on hand will 
be disposed of at an early date. Bound back volumes will, 
however, be kept on hand as heretofore. 

Proposed Reorganization of the American Street Railway As- 

The tentative plan for the proposed reorganization of the 
American Street Railway Association is contained in the report 
of the committee on reorganization which is printed in this 
issue. It outlines a radical change in the form and methods of 
the association and its allied societies, and will naturally con- 
stitute a topic of great interest, not only to the presidents and 
general managers, who are the active working officers of the 
American Street Railway Association, but to the various heads 
of departments interested in the departmental organizations. 
The plan proposed differs somewhat from that suggested by 
Richard McCulIoch, published in our issue for Feb. 11, but 
preserves the features of the formation of a parent organization 
and subsidiary bodies, which received general indorsement at 
the St. Louis convention, as well as at subsequent meetings of 
the executive committee. In the preparation of this plan, the 
working of all of the steam railroad associations was carefully 
considered by Prof. Norris, as was also the scheme of the 
American Society for the Advancement of Science and other 
similar bodies, to which frequent reference has been made. 
The features in all of these organizations, whi:h have proved 
most successful and which were appropriate to the purpose of 
the reorganized Street Railway Association, have been sifted 
out and have been combined so as to form a working plan. 

The complete report prepared by Prof. Norris is very vol- 
uminous, and we shall not attempt in this place to digest, even 
Ijrieflv, the abstract of the report which is pulilished elsewhere 
in this issue. We must refer, however, to two or three fea- 
tures which strike us as particularly admirable. One of these 
is the idea of charters for future subsidiary associations, which 
will prevent an unnecessary increase in the number of these 
bodies, while it gives the utmost freedom for the organization 
of those for which there is any real need. The second is the 
preservation of practically autonomous government for those 
subsidiary associations which may be authorized, and the grant 
to them of the funds necessary to carry out their work in the 
most efficient manner. The third is the arrangement for mem- 
bership, by which persons who are interested in the objects of 
the association or of any of the subsidiary associations can be- 
come associate members, thus enlarging the general interest in 
the association, while the dues of the active member companies 
are made proportional to their gross receipts. The latter pro- 
vision is especially liberal toward the small companies, as the 
number of delegates which each company can send to a con- 
vention is not made dependent upon the amount of dues paid 
Tills feature should attract to the association a large number 
of the smaller coinpanies which are not now members of the 

The point upon which we imagine there will be the greatest 
amount of discussion is that relating to the time of holding the 
annual meeting, or meetings. The committee on reorganization 



[Vol. XXV: No. 15. 

has made no recommendation on this point, but has outhned 
what it considers the advantages and disadvantages of both 
genera] and independent conventions. The latter is the method 
followed by the steam railroad companies, with whom the man- 
agers meet at one time, the master mechanics and car builders 
at another, the track engineers at another, and so on. The 
principal argument in favor of this method is that it does not 
interfere so much with the routine duties of a road to have one 
officer away at a time as to have a large proportion of the force 
called off to attend a convention. There is also the incidental 
advantage that the different departments can select periods of 
the year which would be most convenient for them ; thus the 
claim agents can meet in the summer when most of the courts 
are not in session; the track engineers can hold their conven- 
tion in the winter when there is little or no construction work 
in progress, etc. 

On the other hand, the advantages of having all of the asso- 
ciations meet at the same, or nearl}- the same, time are very 
great, and seem to us to outweigh any objections to this course. 
In the first place (and we consider it perhaps as important as 
any), independent meetings would interfere very seriously with 
any plan for exhibits. If the conventions, particularly those of 
the managers and of the mechanical departments, are to be held 
in different cities and at different times of the year, few manu- 
facturing companies could afford to install much of an exhibit, 
and this important feature of the annual conventions would 
practically disappear. Again, in many cases, especially among 
the smaller companies, one or, at most, two men have charge 
of the operating and mechanical, and even of the accounting, 
departments, and would be the ones who would attend the meet- 
ings of the principal sections. With the conventions at one 
place and at about the same time, these members could partici- 
pate in the sessions of several associations, while they could 
not absent themselves from home three or four times during 
the year. Even on the larger roads, many managers and heads 
of departments find it instructive and desirable to be brought 
into contact with gentlemen connected with some other depart- 
ment than their own at the annual conventions. But if the 
system of independent conventions were followed, no one would 
meet any railway representative other than those in his own 
particular department, unless he was away several times during 
the year. 

Finally, we believe that what is really the only objection to 
the common convention time and city — that is, the absence of 
too many officers at the same time — will not usually prove a 
very serious objection. If the convention is held at any cen- 
tral point in the country it will be only a niglit's journey, or 
slightly more, for the majority of the members, and if the ses- 
sions extended over several days we see no reason why certain 
officers could not attend during the days at which the subjects 
in which they are particularly interested are to be discussed, 
and then return to give others a chance. Altogether, it seems 
from the evidence in hand at present that the arguments in 
favor of the general convention, even if the meetings have to 
be extended over a week or ten days, outweigh those of widely 
separated conventions. 

The executive committee expects to hold its next meeting 
early in June, and by that time hopes to receive a general ex- 
pression of opinion upon the proposed plan from those mem- 
bers who are interested in it. The work already accomplished 
by the committee is admirable, and will, we are confident, re- 
ceive the hearty commendation of those street railway com- 
panies which have the interests of the association at heart. 

The committee has taken up the complex situation confided to 
its care in a most exhaustive manner, and with the changes, if 
any, which may be made at the June meeting and subsequently 
during the summer, we are confident that the Philadelphia con- 
vention will see a working plan ready for adoption by the sev- 
eral associations. 

The Ventilation Problem Again 

We are publishing an interesting communication on this 
topic from Mr. Taylor, and in view of several recent publica- 
tions bearing on the same subject, a discussion would seem to 
be in order. Mr. Taylor's paper is of value in bringing plainly 
to the front the technical points involved in the matter, as well 
as outlining a method of approximating the amount of carbonic 
acid in the air. The fact should be remembered, however, that, 
as Mr. Taylor points out, the percentage of carbonic acid 
present is only a very rough indication of the amount of con- 
tamination. From a hygienic standpoint, air in overcrowded 
places is always much worse than this percentage would indi- 
cate. The really dangerous elements in contaminated air are 
the organic excreta, which have definite toxic properties quite 
apart from the implied danger of special infection. The nor- 
mal carbonic acid in the air is only about 4 parts in 10,000, 
and an excess comes mainly from exhaled air loaded with or- 
ganic matter. A slight increase comes in cities from the large 
amount of fuel burned in a relatively small space, but so far as 
cars are concerned this is not likely to amount to more than 
I part or 2 parts in 10,000, the rest having a source much less 
reassuring to the fastidious. 

The method of testing suggested by Mr. Taylor is likely to 
lead, in our judgment, to an underestimate except in very skil- 
ful hands. Another, and quite as simple a method, con- 
sists in shaking up the sample of air obtained, as Mr. Tay- 
lor suggests, but much greater in quantity, with barium hy- 
drate, and then neutralizing the unaltered portion of the hydrate 
with a standard oxalic acid solution. The details of the test 
can be found in any handbook of gas analysis, and the results 
obtained in a few minutes with the simplest sort of apparatus 
are highly accurate. But as regards street cars in actual ser- 
vice it is unfortunately true that the air does not in many, per- 
haps most, cases reach even the low standard of 20 parts car- 
bonic acid in 10,000 assumed by Mr. Taylor. A series of tests 
recently laid before Surgeon-General Wyman showed only five 
out of nineteen analyses below 20 parts per 10,000, while some 
of the worst examples, oddly enough, were from cars in the 
early morning, showing the need of active ventilative measures 
at the car houses. The long and short of the matter is that 
there is no disguising the fact that a small enclosed space like 
a street car, normally crowded when in active service, must of 
necessity show seriously vitiated air unless actively ventilated. 
The doors do not in practice afford any considerable relief, for 
they are often blocked, and unless in a high wind do not let in 
much air, particularly when unassisted by ample ventilators in 
the roof. The analyses just referred to show in one instance 
nearly 20 parts per 10,000 of carbonic acid in a car only par- 
tially filled and running with the rear door wide open. Bad air 
will not leave unless it is kicked out by fresh air. The trouble 
is that no means has yet been devised of adequately ventilating 
a small, low studded space like a street car without creating 
drafts, and, what is more, we do not see any hope of accom- 
plishing the feat, however desirable it may be. 

In fact, one may as well frankly face the situation at its 
worst and realize that ventilation is a most difficult problem, 

April 15, 1905.] 



rendered all the more difficult by those passengers who insist 
on having the cars hot and loudly protest if . the ventilators are 
opened. The most sensible word we have heard on the subject 
is the reported statement from Gen. Bancroft, of the Boston 
Elevated, who is cjuoted as saying that his company had done 
its duty in providing adequate ventilators and instructing its 
men to follow the wishes of the passengers as to opening or 
closing them. Until the passengers come to some conclusion 
as to whether they prefer fresh air or foul and hot air nothing 
much more can be done. One cannot ventilate properly a 
closed space 8 ft. x 8 ft. x 30 ft., crowded with passengers, 
without a perceptible influx of the exterior air. The public 
takes a street car in cold weather while clothed for sufficient 
protection against a Northern winter, and if it would only 
realize the danger of an overheated car when one is thus clothed 
there would be fewer colds caught and ventilation would be 
easy. But so long as a chorus of protest arises whenever sofne 
sensible person opens a ventilator the average condition of the 
air will be bad. We believe that every street railway company 
in the country wants to see its cars properly ventilated and is 
perfectly willing to provide adequate apertures for the purpose, 
but it must have the sympathy of the public in carrying out its 
good intentions. We are glad to see the subject agitated, and 
wish only that the campaign of education could be directed to- 
ward the hot-air fiends who kick at the very smell of fresh win- 
ter air. We all know them — the shriveled old gentlemen who 
come into the car, look about for the heaters, cuddle up over 
them, throw open their fur-lined overcoats and then raise 
shrill protests if they catch sight of an open ventilator. Doubt- 
less improvements may be made in car ventilation, and we shall 
welcome them, but in the long run fresh air depends on the 
willingness of the passengers to have it let in. Boards of 
Health have perhaps the power to direct that ventilators shall 
be kept open, and if they do so we advise the posting of a 
placard in each car stating that such orders have been given 
and will be vigorously obeyed. Then it is formally up to the 
passengers, and if they do not like it they can have it out with 
the Board of Health. No street railway man will ever pose as 
the champion of foul air. That function is reserved for the 
fussy passenger who scolds the conductor for letting in 
the outside atmosphere. 

Chicago and Municipal Ownership 

The result of the last city election in Chicago seems to show 
unmistakably that the majority of the people of Chicago have 
set their hearts on municipal ownership of the street railways 
in that city. The vote taken on municipal ownership of the 
street railways as a question of public policy at the Chicago 
election of a year ago was so overwhelmingly in favor of 
municipal ownership that the turn which the mayoralty cam- 
paign toolf this spring is not altogether a surprise. We can 
simply say now what we said a year ago, that not one voter in 
ten in Chicago understands the present status of the traction 
question in his city. The majority simply knew that the pres- 
ent service was bad, and that controversies and discussions over 
franchises had been going on for the past eight years without 
tangible results. Without going into any of the legal questions 
and difficulties, the same majority of voters simply reasoned 
that municipal ownership would put an end to all this, and 
voted that way. A year ago we were inclined to take it that 
the overwhelming vote in favor of municipal ownership as a 
question of public policy was the result of a desire to have the 
possibility of municipal ownership as a kind of a club to hold 
over the heads of the traction companies while dickering about 

franchises. The result of the election this spring, however, 
shows unquestionably that the majority of the people of Chi- 
cago really believe in the municipal ownership idea. Both the 
Republican and Democratic candidates for Mayor advocated 
ultimate municipal ownership, which bears testimony to the 
fact that whatever might be the private convictions of the 
party leaders as to the feasibility of municipal ownership, they 
realized that public sentiment in its favor was strong enough 
to defeat any candidate for Mayor who would not advocate it. 
to defeat any candidate for Mayor who would not advo- 
cate it. 

The situation in Chicago just now is therefore most interest- 
ing. In fact, the most interesting it has been at any time in 
the past eight years. The outcome will be either a sale of the 
street railway lines and existing franchises to the city or a 
series of long continued bitter legal battles. Prominent trac- 
tion financiers, soon after the election, announced that the com- 
panies would be entirely willing to sell to the city at a reason- 
able price. The rub will, of course, come when the city and 
companies get together to name a "reasonaljle price." Failure 
to agree on that will mean either a peaceful arbitration of dif- 
ferences or a long struggle in the courts. The question of pur- 
chase of street railway lines by the city was provided for by 
legislation passed by the Illinois State Legislature two years 
ago and known as the Mueller law. This law provides that 
the city can purchase street railways, giving in payment cer- 
tificates which shall be a first lien upon the receipts of the 
street railway lines, and that in case default is made of the in- 
terest on these certificates, the holders thereof may step in and 
operate the lines themselves for twenty years. The legality of 
the issuance of such certificates has not been tested in the 
courts. We imagine also that this kind of "certificate" would 
be looked at askance in Wall Street, when backed up by a man- 
agement appointed for political reasons, as that in Chicago 
would be apt to be. There is no precedent for the sale of this 
kind of security, which would, of course, be on an entirely 
different basis than that of a municipal bond, which has the 
entire credit of the city back of it. In the meantime franchises 
on Adams Street and a few other streets belonging to the Chi- 
cago Passenger Railway Conipany having expired, according 
to the city, the latter is advertising for the construction of 
municipal street railway lines thereon. This will test the 
legality of the Mueller law certificates and, in a sense, the 
ability of the city to operate a railway line. 

It is indeed unfortunate that conditions have existed in Chi- 
cago for several years past which have made it impossible for 
the companies and the representatives of the city to get to- 
gether and agree on terms which would enable the companies 
to go ahead and give the city the first-class service it should 
have. The trouble has not been with the companies, which 
were willing and eager to negotiate reasonable terms for fran- 
chise extensions, nor with the local transportation committee 
of the Chicago City Council, which is composed of honest and 
capable business men able to take a fair view of the situation. 
Proposition after proposition-has been advanced for the settle- 
ment of the question on a franchise basis, but by the time one 
plan had got through the ponderous machinery of the city gov- 
ernment, and to a point where action could be taken, another 
city election would come along and postponement would be 
made pending the reorganization of the Council, and so on ad 
nauseam. W^e expect to have a good deal more to say about 
the situation as it develops in Chicago, l)ut the interminable 
delay and inaction over the preliminaries presages anything 
but a business policy if the Council should ever assume the 
operation of the transportation properties, 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 


The Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Railway, which 
was completed a few months ago, is an easterly extension of 
the Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Traction Company's 
line from Columbus to Newark, one of the best known and most 


prosperous properties in Ohio. While separate from a financial 
standpoint, the two lines are operated under one management, 
and cars run through from Columbus to Zanesville, 65 miles. 
The Newark & Granville Railway and the Newark city lines 
were merged with the Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Elec- 

Railway Journal of Aug. i, 1903, while the Canton- Akron 
Railway, Canton-New Philadelphia Railway and Tucarawas 
Traction Company's lines, also part of this chain, were de- 
scribed in the issue of May 28, 1904. 


The building of this 27-mile extension presented engineer- 
ing difficulties such as have seldom been encountered in the 
comparatively level country which is the rule in the Central 
W^est. The district was exceedingly rough, cut up by rocky 


hills, almost approaching mountains in extent. The engineers 
found it desirable, therefore, to follow the example of the Bal- 
timore & Ohio Railroad, which the road parallels, and follow 
the valley of the Licking River. The steam road follows one 
bank, while the electric road parallels the other. The track 



trie Railway about the time the extension was ready for opera- 
tion. The entire lines under the management of J. R. Har- 
rigan, of Newark, embrace about 85 miles, and form important 
links in the chain of lines which Tucker, Anthony & Company, 
of Boston, are building in Ohio. The Columbus, Buckeye Lake 
& Newark property was thoroughly described in the Street 

was built on a natural ledge, and at all points it is above high 
water mark. Some filling was necessary at certain low points- 
and a great deal of expensive rock cutting was done. The river 
occupies a deep canyon, and at many points the solid rock 
walls rise precipitately 300 ft. to 400 ft., giving the traveler 
the impression that he is in Colorado instead of in the generally 

April 15, 1905.] 



level Ohio. The river makes frequent turns and the road has 
numerous curves, all of which, however, were laid out to permit 
high speeds. The scenery is beautiful, its equal being hardly 
offered by any other traction line in that part of the country. 

trict for hunting and fishing. So many hunters are carried 
that the company adopted the rule of requiring every hunter to 
take his gun to pieces before entering the car, thus relieving 
the passengers of the lial^ility of being shot. There are several 



At one place an enormous jutting rock made it necessary to 
tunnel nearly 400 ft. through solid stone. Views of the tunnel 
and some of the river scenes are presented herewith. 

small parks and picnic groun<ls along the route, and with the 
better transportation facilities the district will undoubtedly be- 
come more ])()pular for pleasure seekers. Black Hand Rock, 


The plan of following the river made it impossible, of course, 
to strike the centers of towns, and the line is wholly on private 
right of way except in the terminal cities. The towns are back 
on the bluffs, and one seldom sees a house, although the line 
has considerable intermediate population. Station buildings 
are provided at towns and principal stopping points; one of 
these is illustrated. The wild country makes this a good dis- 

where the tunnel mentioned is located, is rich in Indian legend, 
and it is said that the face of the rock formerly showed a huge 
black hand. 

Zanesville, which has a population of about 25,000, is the 
seat of Muskingum County. The intermediate population be- 
tween Newark and Zanesville is about 3000. Zanesville is an 
important railroad center and coal shipping point, with several 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

large iron working factories. The interurban cars enter the 
city over the tracks of the Zanesville Railway, Light & Power 
Company, crossing the new concrete Y bridge, one of the at- 
tractions of Zanesville. This bridge provides facilities for 
turning the cars. The latter run to the business section on 
the main street, where there is a ticket office and waiting room. 

copper, are in a 36-in. equalateral triangle and are transposed 
at intervals. Two 330,000-circ. mil aluminum feeders are car- 
ried on the second arm, with pins for another set installed. 
The third arm carries two block signal wires and two tele- 
phone wires. The brackets are Ohio Brass wrought-iron pipe, 
2 ins. in diameter and 11 ft. long, of the flexible suspension 


The city company has a franchise for a loop in the business 
district, and as soon as possible this will be utilised by the in- 
terurban cars, when it is probable that the company will have 
its own station, with a siding for freight. 

Zanesville promises to become an important interurban cen- 
ter, as no less than seven roads have been projected out of the 
town in various directions. It appears reasonably certain that 
within a year or more a road will be built north 
from Zanesville to Coshocton and New Phila- 
delphia, which will complete the chain of lines 
between Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, 
and as the Columbus, Newark & Zanesville is 
in the direct route to the State capital and hun- 
dreds of points in Ohio and Indiana, it will 
benefit greatly by the feeders being built to 
Zanesville and the resulting through traffic. 

The track and overhead construction is of 
the most approved type. Located high above 
the river, the track drainage is excellent, and 
as the roadbed follows almost a water level the 
maximum grade is ij4 per cent, this being on 
a bridge crossing Licking River and over the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad approaching Zanes- 
ville ; the bridge has a 1400-ft. timber approach 
and a 200-ft. truss steel span. The tunnel men- 
tioned is 364 ft., and required an unusual 
amount of blasting and drilling, as the rock is 
very hard; it is 14 ft. high and 10 ft. wide. 
There are several long curves, one of them a 
6-deg. curve 2600 ft. long around the face of a mountain of 
rock. This is illustrated, the same view showing the details 
of the overhead work. 

The poles are 35 ft. with 8-in. tops. There are three cross- 
arms, all of them braced with iron. The upper arm carries two 
of the high-tension lines mounted on Hemingray triple petticoat 
glass insulators. The pin for the third insulator is set into the 
top of the pole. It has a weephole and a porcelain plate to 
keep out water. The high-tension wires, No. 4 hard drawn 


type. General Electric type MD lightning arresters are placed 
on every twentieth pole and grounded with an iron rod. Rails 
are 70-lb., ties are standard white oak, and six-bolt fish-plates 
are used at the joints, with 8-in. 0000 Ohio Brass copper bonds. 
The trolley is 0000 grooved. 

To provide for the extension, the company bought four sixty- 


passenger coaches and one freight car built by the Jewett Car 
Company, of Newark, Ohio. The passenger cars, which have 
three compartments — baggage, smoker and passenger — were 
described in the July 2, 1904, issue of this paper. The cars 
are used interchangeably with those of the Columbus, Buckeye 
Lake & Newark Traction Company, and all cars run through to 
Zanesville, giving hourly headway. As outlined in an article 
on "Limited Service and Interline Business," in the issue of 
Feb. I, the companies operate limited cars between Columbus 

April 15, 1905.] 



and Zanesville, giving two trips each way a day. For this 
service is used a fine 55-ft. chair car built by the Barney & 
Smith Car Company. The aisle is at one side of the center, 

The Hebron power station of the Columbus, Buckeye Lake 
Newark Traction Company was enlarged to provide power 



and there are two rows of chairs on one side and one on the 
other, thus giving a maximum seating capacity of thirty-three 
passengers in the car. The rear end has an observation ex- 
tension and a dozen passengers may be seated on camp stools; 



this space may be also used for carrying baggage. Excess of 
15 cents to Newark and 25 cents to Zanesville is cliarged, and 
the cars are well patronized. It is probable that another car 
will be installed and the service increased to four daily trips 
each way. 

for the new line. The old equipment consisted of two 8oo-kw 
generators operated by Hamilton-Corliss cross-compound en- 
gines. To economize space it was decided to install a vertical 
unit having a capacity about equal to that of the other two 
machines. The building was extended 
40 ft. and built with a monitor roof. 
The engine is a Reynolds-Corliss ver- 
tical cross-compound type built by the 
Allis-Chalmers Company. The cyl- 
inders are 34-in. and 68-in. x 48-in. 
stroke, and the engine revolves nor- 
mally at 98 r. p. m. The fly-wheel 
is 20 ft. in diameter and weighs 125,- 
000 lbs. The shaft is 26 ins. at jour- 
nals and 29 ins. at fly-wheel. On the 
shaft is a General Electric revolving- 
field type 1500-kw generator, produc- 
ing alternating current at 13,200 volts. 
The engine has Reynolds-Corliss au- 
tomatic valve gear, with double eccen- 
trics on both sides for operating steam 
and exhaust valves independently. 
The main bearings are water-jacketed. 
The eccentrics are encased and oil 
drips over them. Automatic sight- 
feed lubricators lubricate the cylin- 
ders and exhaust valves. There is 
a safety stop governor which oper- 
ates on the throttle at 8 r. p. m. over speed. The speed varia- 
tion is guaranteed not to exceed 2j;4 per cent when work- 
ing at any range between minimum and maximum speed. The 
guarantee provides that when the engine is running 94 r. p. m. 
with 150 lbs. steam at throttle with condenser maintaining 



[.Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

26 ins. vacuum in low-pressure cylinder, that it will require not 
more than 13 lbs. steam per indicated horse-power per hour 
when developing 2300 hp, not including steam for the con- 
denser. The engine will develop 3500 hp maximum. The 
condenser system was kept separate 'from that of the old por- 
tion of the house. The condenser is a Blake vertical twin jet 
condenser, steam cylinder 16 ins., water 40 ins., with 21 -in. 

Water for steam and condensers 
Pay roll 


Total $2,481.53 

Cost per kw-hour $.0042 

Note — In previous report cost of water was not figured. 
In providing current for the extension, a sub-station outfit 
was installed in a new car house erected at Newark and a sub- 
station built at Pleasant Valley. The 
general scheme is the same in both 
places, the high-tension lines enter- 
ing through a tower and passing 
down over a tubular rack through 
hand-operated oil switches. Each 
station has two 300-kw General Elec- 
tric rotary converters of the standard 
type ; two 330-kw air-cooled trans- 
formers, reducing the current from 
13,200 volts to 370 volts, with reactive 
coils for each ; two Buffalo Forge 
Company's fans driven by 2-hp induc- 
tion motors, together with necessary 
switching apparatus. The basement 
below is sealed off for an air chamber 
for cables and for ventilation of ro- 
taries and transformers. 



stroke, and is designed to give 27 ins. vacuum. There is a 
primary heater lietween the exhaust and the conden.ser. Be- 
tween the engine cylinders is a reheater receiver with a capac- 
ity approximately one and a half times that of the low-pressure 
cylinder. The exhaust to the atmosphere is provided with a 
26-in. hydraulic relief valve. Spiral riveted pipe is used for 
the exhaust line. 

Two 310-hp Sterling water-tulie boilers were installed to 
take care of the new engine. Natural gas is used for fuel, the 
furnaces being fitted with Gwynn gas burners. Each member 
consists of two tubes, one inside the other, with perforations 
on the inner tube. The arrangement gives the gas a rotary 
motion, and the air and gas are thoroughly mingled. Both the 
air and the gas can be regulated. Owing to the low cost of fuel, 
gas at 8 cents per 1000 cu. ft., the excellence of the ecjuipment 
and careful management, the Hebron station has been con- 
sidered one of the most economical interurban stations in this 
district. The advantages of a larger output with but com- 
])arativel}' little increase in labor, together with the superior 
efficiency of the new unit, has brought the cost of current down 
considerably lower than it was before. The following state- 
ment for August, 1904, was before the new unit was installed, 
and the second statement is for January, 1905 : 

AUGUST, 1904 

Total generated output kw-hours 609,210 

Total gas used, cubic ft 29,256,300 

Cost of gas used $2,340.50 

208 gallons cylinder oil at 49^ cents 102.96 

248 gallons engine oil at 18 cents 44.64 

250 lbs. waste at 5^4 cents 13.12 

Repairs and supplies 21.00 

Pay roll 492.00 

. The preliminary jilans for the car 
house and repair shop were given in our issue of Aug. i, 1903. 
Exterior and interior views of the building are shown here- 
with. It is designed to take care of both the city and inter- 

Total $3,014,22 

Cost per kw-hour ,00494 

JANUARY, 1905 

Total generated output kw-hours 586,504 

Total cost of gas used (21,020,000 cu. ft.) $1,681.60 

260 gals, cylinder oil, at 44 cents 114.40 

118 gals, engine oil, at 18 cents 21.24 

203 lbs. waste, at 5K cents 10.65 

100 lbs. rags, at 3 cents 3.00 

Repairs and supplies 53-98 


urban cars. The wing at the right contains the sub-station, 
stock room, lounging room, lockers and bath for employees and 
offices of master mechanic and superintendent. The repair 
shop is on the right and the car house on the left. 

The repair shop is divided about the center with a brick wall 
and fireproof doors, and the front portion has three pits for 
pit work and a wash rack for car cleaning. In the repair shop 

April 15, 1905.] 



section is a transfer table connecting three 
tracks. In one of these tracks is a 75-ft. pit, 
on either side of which are 2-ton Garry Iron & 
Steel Company's pneumatic air lifts, so that the 
end of the car can be raised and the trucks 
transferred to another track for repair work. 
Covering the other two tracks with a range of 
about 50 ft. is a 2-ton hand crane, with an air 
hoist, built by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool 
Company. In one corner is a forge with cement 
floor around it. Adjoining is a J. T. Sheafer 
150-ton wheel press. A 20-in. American drill 
press is next to this, and the two are driven by 
a 5-hp motor. The drill press is used for small 
shop work and saves interrupting the machine 
shop men. A swinging crane serves the drill 
press and wheel press. It was originally in- 
tended to place all tools in this shop, but it was 
found more desirable to partition of¥ a room 
from the corner of the car house and do all 
machine work here. A line shaft extends 
through the center of the shop and is operated 





by a 30-hp Crocker-Wheeler motor, all machinery being 
operated by this. The equipment includes a 36-in. x i6-in. 
engine lathe built by the Springfield Machine Tool Works, 
Springfield, Mass., used for wheel turning, armatures, axles 
and all heavy work ; a 28-in. American Tool Works' 
shaper; a i6-in. x 8-ft. American Tool Works' lathe fitted with 
quick-change gears ; a 28-in. American drill press ; a hack 
saw; a No. 10 Wells Brothers' nut and bolt machine for tap- 
ping and threading pipe ; a grindstone ; a Yankee drill grinder, 
and an emery wheel. On a shelf is a 4-ft. x i6-ftt. tank sup- 
plied by a D-4 Christensen compresser outfit, the same as used 
on the cars, which supplies air for the hoists and for blowing 
out armatures and car seats. The machine shop is served by a 
i^-ton chain hoist. There is a small paint shop outside, but 
no woodwork is done, as the shop is but a short distance from 
the plant of the Jewett Car Company, where it can have all 
work of this character attended to without delay. The plan of 
eliminating the woodworking and paint shops from the main 
building, of course, reduces insurance. 

The company uses a trolley wheel supplied by the Edna 
Smelting & Refining Company, Cin- 
cinnati, and gets from 3000 miles to 
3500 miles on high-speed interurban 
service. Oil and waste lubrication is 
used for the armature bearings, 
which average 160,000 miles. Solid 
steel gears weighing 240 lbs. are used. 
The company has been using steel- 
tired wheels with tires 2j4 ins. thick, 
which have been giving from 30,000 
miles to 40,000 miles without requir- 
ing returning, and which have a life 
of about 140,000 miles. At present, 
tires 35^ ins. thick are being put on 
to allow five turnings. Diamond S 
brake-shoes are used on steel tires, 
giving a life of from 18,000 miles to 
20,000 miles. 

A rather novel line car has been 
built recently by the Jewett Car 
Company. It has a substantial body 
35 ft. over all, and has a 3-ft. 6-in. 
door on either side at a corner, and 
a door at each end, so that poles and 
line material can be carried. A 
tower in the center is fitted with a 




[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 


sliding taljle and provided with a pivoted 
searchlight of high power to locate wire tron- 
bles at night. 


The despatching system has recently been 
improved. A 20-drop switchboard, built by 
the North Electric Company, of Cleveland, has 
been installed in a special room in the general 
offices at Newark. The Columbus division 
has one line, the Granville spur line another 
and the Zanesville line a third. In addition 
to the telephone boxes at sidings, the operator 
has communication with all sub-stations, 
freight stations, ticket offices, car house, repair 
shop, superintendent's office, superintendent's 
house and an emergency 'phone. The board is 
equipped with a night bell, and when a drop 
falls this bell rings until the drop is raised. 
The standard despatcher's sheet is used. Cars 
must have clearance orders at terminal points, 
and if on time they do not call for orders unless 
the block is against them or if it fails to light. 
The United States block signal system is used 
at all sidings. Sub-station attendants report all 

cars as they pass, and have a block signal to stop cars. Orders 
are written on a manifold blank, three copies being made, one 
for each of the crew and the third is dropped in a box pro- 
vided for the purpose. Orders are collected at regular inter- 
vals and checked with train sheets. 


The company is preparing to erect a seventy-five-room hotel 
with all modern conveniences at Buckeye Lake at the park of 
the same name near Hebron. This resort, which the company 
is making immensely popular, was described and illustrated in 
the previous article on this system. 

The engineers for the power station were Sheaff & Jaastad. 
of Boston. Acknowledgment is due to J. R. Harrigan, general 
manager, and A. M. Frazee, superintendent of motive power 
of the system, for the details of the improvements. The Zanes- 
ville line, as well as the balance of the system, was built by the 
Great Northern Construction Company, of which C. A. Alder- 
man is chief engineer. 


Through the courtesy of John Kerwin, superintendent of 
tracks, Detroit United Railway, the accompanying views of a 




motor-driven derrick are shown. The derrick 
is used at the yards of the Detroit Company 
for hoisting heavy material, as trucks, etc., and 
finds its particular application in unloading 
material from steam railroad flat cars, in 
which work it has made itself indispensable. 

The derrick is operated by a 30-hp type "D" 
steel motor, and is capable of hoisting 7 tons 
at the rate of 60 ft. per minute. The hoisting 
machinery is connected to the mast of the der- 
rick and travels on a circular track. There is 
a pinion underneath which meshes into a large 
bull-wheel that is fastened to the foundation 
and serves to swing the derrick. AH the levers 
are on the platform above the drums. There 
is one lever for hoisting the boom, one for 
hoisting the load and one for handling the re- 
versible gear for swinging the derrick. The 
mast is 45 ft. high and the boom is 58 ft. long. 

Al'RIL 15, 1905.] 



It will be noticed the mast is braced by means of two heavy 
beams reinforced by truss cables, and there are no guy ropes, 
as these would be in the way in yards of this nature. 




Electric railway engineering has been referred to as being a 
case of following the fad or fashion in vogue at the time, and 
many installations would seem to bear testimony to this accusa- 
tion. Undoubtedly there are many cases of Jones purchasing 
a given motor because Manager Smith has been having good 
results with the same motor on his road, entirely ignoring the 
fact that the operating conditions upon the two systems may 
be totally dissimilar. 

When the need was felt for a generating and distributing 
system of wider scope than the d. c. 600-voIt system, thus giv- 
ing rise to the development of the rotary converter, it was 
thought the converter system was proposed and installed in 
many instances because the tide of railway engineering fashion 
was turning in that direction, rather than on account of its 
superiority over the d. c. system. While some managements 
have been slow to avail themselves of the advantages of a. c. 
generation and transmission for this reason, it is a noteworthy 
fact that d. c. systems continue to be replaced by the a. c, but 
no instance has come to the writer's notice of the management 
of a road abandoning the a. c. transmission system after trial 
and readopting the d. c. system as being superior. 

The introduction of high potential a. c. transmission to the 
rotary converter made possible the suburban and interurban 
electric roads of to-day, and greatly broadened the possibilities 
of electric railroading. In the development of the single-phase 
a. c. motor, now in successful commercial operation, we have 3 
new influence at work of a far-reaching character. As the 
field of the railway motor has expanded, so the requirements 
of the motive power have become so varied as to make it diffi- 
cult for any one motor system to meet successfully all the con- 
ditions imposed. The d. c. series motor is a highly developed 
and efficient piece of apparatus, and, moreover, very adaptable 
to the diversified character of general railway conditions. The 
large sums spent in developing the different types of alterna- 
ting-current motors are not due to any dissatisfaction with the 
direct-current motor as such, but because it has become neces- 
sary to reduce the cost of the secondary distribution system, 
which is still high with direct current, even with the advantage 
of the rotary converter. The advantages of high potential 
transmission are now evident to all, and it is proposed to carry 
this advantage still further, reduce the cost of the secondary 
distribution by raising the potential and dispense with the 
rotary converter. 

The case is not quite analogous to the introduction of the 
rotary converter, as the adoption of the latter did not interfere 
in any way with the motive power question itself. The change 
from a direct-current to an alternating-current motor is more 
radical, and is advocated only on account of the lesser first cost 
of the trolley distributing system, and is not due in any way to 
any superiority of the alternating-current motor itself. 

The alternating-current single-phase motor with its attend- 
ant step-down transformer constitutes a heavier, more expen- 
sive and less efficient equipment than is offered by the direct- 
current motor with the series parallel controller. The alter- 
nating-current motor is also less flexible in its design, gives a 
pulsating torque and is restricted to a commutator potential of 
about 200 volts, but, nevertheless, its adoption for certain 
classes of railway service may be well justified. The car equip- 
ment constitutes but one link in the system of transmitting 
power from engine to car axle, and while the limitations of the 

alternating-current motor are regrettable, they do not in every 
instance introduce objections sufficiently serious to outweigh 
the considerable reduction in expense of the distribution sys- 
tem which the adoption of the high potential trolley affords. 
Limitations in design are reflected in the cost and bulk of the 
apparatus employed, but the copper and sub-station economy 
effected by the use of a 3000-volt trolley may outweigh the 
extra expense of installing an alternating-current car equip- 
ment for certain classes of service. 

Perhaps it is too early in the history of the alternating-cur- 
rent railway motor to attempt to define its precise field of use- 
fulness, but some of its advantages as well as some of its limita- 
tions stand out so prominently as to make possible some general 
comparisons with its direct-current competitor. 

Both the single-phase commutator and three-phase induction 
types of motor have been proposed for city service. This class 
of service demands frequent stops and high schedule speed, 
thus calling for successive overloads on the motors in order to 
obtain the high rates of acceleration required. The schedule 
s]jeed of frequent stop service is always the result of a compro- 
mise between the rate of acceleration permissible without dis- 
comfort to the passengers and the frequency of stops required 
to pick up and drop the passengers. 

The chief requirement of the motive power is that it shall 
be able to commutate heavy applications of current at very fre- 
quent intervals without experiencing a rise in temperature 
above the 65 degs. to 70 degs. C. permissible with reasonable 
life of the insulation. The method of control must permit of a 
high "efficiency of acceleration" — that is, all losses external to 
the motor, such as starting resistance losses, must be eliminated 
so far as possible. The requirements for frequent stop service 
are most exacting upon the motive power and its control, and 
the direct-current series motor and series parallel controller 
may be looked upon as the survival of the fittest, having proved 
superior to the horse, cable and steam locomotive for such 

, The three-phase induction motor has been proposed for rapid 
transit frequent stop service, but has fortunately never had an 
opportunity to demonstrate its unfitness for the work. Aside 
from the complication of double-trolley construction in cities, 
the induction motor system is inherently inefficient during ac- 
celeration, even though concatenation of motors be resorted to. 
Being a motor of synchronous characteristics, no motor curve 
running is possible, and the external resistance losses during 
acceleration or fractional speed running are necessarily large. 
The absence of the commutator does not compensate for the 
extra energy consumption required with induction motors oper- 
ating on frequent stop service, due partly to the poorer effi- 
ciency of acceleration compared with that possible with direct- 
current motors, and partly due to the increased weight of the 
induction-motor equipment itself. The induction motor is in- 
herently a constant speed, constant duty motor, and does not 
possess the qualifications of a successful motor for rapid transit 

The single-phase commutator motor possesses all the advan- 
tages of variable speed characteristics enjoyed by the direct- 
current series motor, which, together with the possibilities 
opened up by potential control, led to many predictions being 
made that the direct-current motor was destined to be super- 
seded for frequent stop service. An examination of the effi- 
ciency, curves published of the single-phase motor indicate a 
curve rising rapidly at light loads, but drooping on overloads, 
the qualification of a motor adapted to infrequent stop service. 
In accelerating, the larger part of the motor duty is performed 
on the drooping portion of the alternating motor efficiency 
curve, thus giving rise to an internal motor loss considerably in 
excess of that experienced by a direct-current motor with its 
sustained high overload efficiency. In order that the single- 
phase motor may dissipate this excess energy loss without an 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

injurious temperature rise, it is necessary to increase its 
weight and bulk in proportion. As an example, a comparison 
may show that the average efficiency during acceleration may 
approximate 85 per cent with an a. c. motor and 90 per cent 
with the d. c, thus calling for an alternating-current equip- 
ment weighing fully 50 per cent in excess of the standard' 
direct-current equipment, making the broad assumption that 
each type of motor can dissipate equal losses per square inch 
of radiating surface for the same temperature rise. While the 
alternating single-phase motor can be built to commutate suc- 
cessfully the heavy starting currents required in accelerating, 
the extra weight and cost of the equipment is a serious handi- 
cap in a class of service where the frequency of cars makes the 
cost of the rolling stock a matter for earnest consideration. 
The single-phase motor has thus far shown no indication of 
being superior or even equal to the direct-current motor, and 
when operated with an equal trolley potential seems to offer no 
advantages warranting its adoption. The direct-current motor 
is capable of being built for any potential considered safe for 
city or urban operation, and provides the lightest, cheapest and 
most efficient equipment yet developed for a class of service 
requiring frequent and rapid acceleration of the moving units. 
Continued development may bring the single-phase motor to a 
degree of perfection where it will compare favorably with the 
direct-current motor, but even so, the alternating-current motor 
system is permanently handicapped by higher track resistance 
and higher maximum trolley potential for the same average, 
still retains the commutator, while our experts leave us in 
doubt about its completely curing the electrolysis evil. 

Where the use of a high potential trolley is permissible and 
stops are infrequent, conditions obtaining upon our private 
right of way suburban systems, the single-phase motor system 
offers claims for recognition which cannot be ignored. The 
success of our electric roads and the demand for better facili- 
ties has led to the introduction of heavy cars operating at such 
high schedule speeds that the cost of the trolley or third-rail 
distributing system has l)ecome a serious item, even with the 
advantage of the rotary converter fed from a high potential 
transmission line. Just as our city railway systems exceeded 
the economical limits of direct-current distribution, so are our 
large long-distance electric roads demanding a higher potential 
than can be furnished by direct-current generation and used 
by the subdivided motive power on a car. A 1200-volt d. c. 
system ofifers relief in this direction, and in some instances 
may prove of considerable value in solving the problem of a 
cheaper secondary distribution system. There is also the pos- 
sibility open of using three-wire systems with 600 volts or 
T200 volts on a side, so that we have not as yet reached the 
limits of (1. c. distribution. Any considerable increase of poten- 
tial over the 6oo-volt systems now in use necessitates abandon- 
ment of the third rail and the adoption of some overhead third- 
rail or trolley construction. Although it may be possible to 
design certain constructions of protected third rail which can 
be used for more than 600 volts, it is probable that high-voltage 
systems of the future will be compelled to use overhead con- 

The synchronous characteristics of the three-phase induc- 
tion motor debarred this type of motor from the suburban field 
with its broken profile. The single-phase commutator motor, 
however, adapts its speed to the grade, and in this respect is 
equal to the direct-current series motor, while the use of poten- 
tial control gives the opportunity of continued operation at any 
speed called for by the profile of the road without impairing 
the efficiency of operation. With infrequent stops, the heating 
due to accelerating losses is minimized, while the efficiency of 
the motors during free running is excellent. 

While the single-phase motor appears limited by the low- 
voltage commutator and other considerations to a moderate 
output, it has been developed in capacities large enough to meet 

the requirement of single-car suburban service. Recognizing 
the necessity of terminal operation over city tracks equipped 
with direct-current trolley, the manufacturers have brought out 
alternating-current railway equipments capable of both a. c. 
and d. c. operation, thus providing a system of great flexibility 
and one well adapted to avoid conflict with existing systems. 
Thus, while the single-phase motor equipment offers no as- 
surance of better or cheaper operation, it does permit of a con- 
siderable reduction in the first cost of installing a suburban 
system operating single cars on private right of way, where 
the use of a high potential on the trolley is permissible. 

The successful operation of high potential trolley roads has 
made it possible to consider the equipping of certain sections 
of our steam roads now using the steam locomotive under con- 
ditions unfavorable to its economic operation. The conditions 
imposed by the different problems presented again call for qual- 
ifications not possessed by any one single electric system. The 
steam road operator has found it necessary to divide his sys- 
tem into sections, design his locomotives for local conditions 
and proportion the tonnage of trains according to the profile. 
So the system of electric operation well adapted to take care 
of the needs of one section of the road may fail to respond to 
the requirements of another section, thus emphasizing the 
necessity of adapting the motive power to local conditions. 

Electrical engineers are able to produce a successful system 
of operation for even the heaviest character of railroad service, 
but rather disagree upon which method of operation is most 
economical and can be installed for least expense. Undoubt- 
edly, this apparent lack of agreement is brought about by the 
attempt to reconcile engineering recommendations made where 
the operating conditions are widely different. Thus, the induc- 
tion motor is well adapted for haulage work where the profile 
is regular, either level or a continuous unbroken grade, but the 
locomotive so equipped makes a poorer showing over a road 
having a broken profile than would other types of motors hav- 
ing good variable speed characteristics. 

The economies of freight haulage tell us that the lowest cost 
of carrying a ton i mile is secured by the operation of the 
heaviest train which the design of the locomotive and strength 
of the drawheads will permit. This means a much more infre- 
quent service than that obtaining in the majority of electric 
roads, and seems to exclude any system of operation that does 
not employ a high potential trolley. The local demand for 
power imposed by such heavy train units operating at infre- 
quent intervals brings the first cost of any direct-current trol- 
ley or third-rail system too high for serious consideration. 

Perhaps the most vulnerable point in the operating sheet of 
a steam locomotive system lies in the present high cost and 
dangers of operating heavy mountain grade sections. Not only 
does the steam locomotive give poor economy and small output 
when working at nearly full stroke at speeds of 6 m.p.h. to 10 
m.p.h., but its cost of maintenance is excessive and crew ex- 
penses high, due to the small mileage obtainable. The energy 
stored in lifting trains up grade is all wasted in braking com- 
ing down. This loss of energy may be partially restored with 
an electrical haulage system effecting an economy in the coal 
consumption, but more especially relieving the brake-shoes and 
preventing accidents from broken wheels due to overheating. 

Whether the system adopted for a given installation be the 
single-phase commutator motor, the three-phase induction mo- 
tor, or motor-generator sets on the locomotives feeding direct- 
current motors on the axles, will depend upon the requirements, 
as no one of these systems is flexible enough to meet all the 
conditions that may arise in an extended system. The advo- 
cates of the single-phase commutator motor must contend with 
the difficulties of a low-voltage commutator, pulsating torque, 
not very high efficiency and a preference for high rotative 
speeds, inherent in this type of motor. While these difficulties 
have been overcome and a commercially-operative systertj 

April 15, 1905.] 

evolved for the smaller capacities of motors suitable for sub- 
urban single-car high-speed service, considerable difficulties in 
regard to commutation, ventilation and general mechanical de- 
sign of the locomotive itself must be overcome before pro- 
posing such a radical departure from the successful designs 
possible with the greater latitude allowed in direct-current and 
induction motor design. For high-speed service on level track 
on the contrary, the single-phase motor may be developed for 
considerable output. The commutator motor, the three-phase 
induction motor and the various combinations of motor-genera- 
tor sets may all receive power from a high potential trolley, 
and a judicious selection of the proper system to meet the gen- 
eral conditions involved seems better than a strict adherence to 
any one system of operation when it shows its inferiority in 
specific instances. 

Uniformity in type of equipment is very desirable, but may 
sometimes be purchased at too high a cost, and the best in- 
terests of a large electric railroad system are conserved by 
properly adapting the motive power to the requirements of the 
different sections. 



Inasmuch as there has been a considerable amount of agita- 
tion recently as to whether the cars of certain electric railway 
systems were properly and sufficiently ventilated, and in view 
of an editorial in a recent issue of the Street Railway Jour- 
nal, calling attention to the lack of literature on this im- 
portant subject, the writer thought that perhaps it would be 
advisable to make public certain information and data that he 
has acquired while investigating the conditions on an impor- 
tant city electric railway system. The observations should be 
of interest to any one concerned with the proper ventilation of 
rolling stock equipment. The method of testing hereafter de- 
scribed, while readily understood and carried on by railway 
men who have no knowledge of chemistry, is nevertheless 
based on certain laws of that branch of science, and if care- 
fully pursued can be depended upon to give reliable results. 

Before entering into a discussion of the methods of testing 
the efficiency of ventilation, it should be of interest to look into 
the causes of the recent increase in complaints on the part of 
the public and health officials, in so many of our cities, against 
the poor ventilation of street railway cars. Until quite re- 
cently the standard construction of such cars rendered the dis- 
cussion of ventilation unnecessary, as the "monitor" construc- 
tion of the roofs, with the liberal space provided for dome sash 
windows, afiforded the most thorough renewal of the air within 
the cars. But within the past year or two local conditions of 
operation, on certain roads, have made it advisable to change 
the construction of their cars, and as a result the managements 
have had their attention called by the health departments of 
their respective cities to the fact that insufficient ventilation 
was provided for on their equipment. Upon this condition 
arising, certain companies sprang into cxistance, having for 
their object the manufacture of various devices which, it is 
claimed, will afford a means for putting an end to this trouble. 
The most common of such devices is based on the idea that the 
velocity of a car when in motion will project a current of air 
into its interior through an opening provided with a wing de- 
flector, by which the amount and direction of tlie current may 
be regulated. The wing is so located as to create a partial 
vacuum on the side opposite to that which is deflecting air into 
the car, thus affording an exhaust and consequent circulation 
of the car's atmosphere. 

Although the writer has tested a number of these devices, 
and is familiar with the advantages and defects of the most 


important makes, he will not speak of them in this article, as 
he desires not to explain means for alleviating trouble with 
ventilation, but to point out a metiiod of ascertaining if trouble 
actually exists in any local case. A simple and practical test, 
that involves no expert knowledge and no elaborate equipment 
apparatus to carry about, should be of the greatest importance 
to every road, as should poor ventilation exist it is far more ad- 
visable to correct the condition at once than to wait for the 
publicity and annoyance connected with an order from the 
authorities. And, furthermore, in case, as often occurs, a com- 
plaint is made without just grounds, a ready and reliable method 
of demonstrating the efficiency of the car ventilation may prove 
of considerable benefit. 

On the principle, however, that "an ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure," it seems to the writer that a broader 
scope of knowledge on this subject by those responsible for 
the design of cars might cause more intelligent means of ven- 
tilation being provided in the construction of the same. For 
this reason we will briefly consider what is meant by "good 
ventilatioiL" Fresh country air^ which is always considered 
the standard for all comparisons, consists of practically 21 per 
cent of oxygen, 79 per cent of nitrogen and a very minute 
fraction of a per cent of ammonia and nitric acid gases, to- 
gether with organic and inorganic matter held in suspension, 
the exact amounts of each constituent depending upon the 
local conditions ; a certain amount of water or aqueous vapor 
is always present, varying with climatic conditions, and there 
is, further, a fairly constant proportion of carbon dioxide, or 
carbonic anhydride, of from 3 to 5 parts in 10,000 parts of air. 
A very slight increase in the relative amounts of certain of 
these constituents, particularly in the carbon dioxide, and in 
the organic matter, protoplasm, bacteria (or germs, as it is 
variously referred to), produces the condition of a vitiated at- 
mosphere or impure air. As, however, it has been found that 
the increase of any impurities in the atmosphere is almost in- 
variably accompanied by a corresponding increase in the 
amount of carbon dioxide, and as this gas is most easily de- 
tected and its amount readily determined, the proportion of 
carbon dioxide to the total body of air has been agreed upon 
as an index to the degree of impurity of the air. 

This does not necessarily mean to imply that carbon dioxide 
is the most deleterious element in the atmosphere. On the 
contrary, amounts of carbon dioxide far in excess of that con- 
tained in what is considered very foul air can be introduced 
into any body of air, without injurious results, if it is unaccom- 
panied by the other elements commonly found with it. For in- 
stance, air containing from 20 to 30 parts of carbon dioxide in 
10,000 is considered, as a rule, to be very impure, and under 
ordinary conditions would prove highly injurious, but as high 
as 700 to 800 parts in 10,000 is often found in mines, an amount 
sufficient to extinguish a flame, but in which the miners have 
remained for a long period without injury. But. in general, in 
buildings or vehicles where the fouling of the air is caused by 
respiration or combustion (either of stoves, furnaces or lights), 
the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide, taken as an index, 
must be kept within narrow limits, or positive injury to the 
inmates will result. 

According to the most careful investigators, it may be said 
that air containing above 10 parts of carbon dioxide in 10,000 
ceases to be pure, and the degree of harm that any percentage 
may produce will depend chiefly upon the time that any person 
is compelled to endure it. As the effect of impure air is cumu- 
lative rather than immediate, except in the most extreme cases, 
a person of sound health could endure even as high as 40 parts 
in 10,000 for some time without any serious or permanent ill 
effects. But where, as in the tenement houses of large cities, 
which are notoriously poorly ventilated, the foul air must be 
endured for long periods by the inmates, their health invariably 
suffers, and to this fact may be laid a part of the high rate of 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

mortality of persons compelled to live and sleep therein. Cases 
coming under the writer's own observation in such quarters 
gave as high as 33 parts of carbon dioxide in 10,000, a condi- 
tion that could be endured for short periods with impunity, 
but for a living atmosphere is exceedingly dangerous. 

But owing to this cumulative effect, ventilation is a relative 
term, and "good ventilation" may have a number of meanings, 
depending on what is being referred to. A sleeping room or 
hospital should have facilities for introducing enough air to 
keep the percentage of carbon dioxide below 10 parts in 10,000. 
In schools, public halls or theaters it is quite permissible to 
have the amount rise to 14 or 15 parts without injury to those 
in their interior, as the time to which a person is exposed to the 
impure air is comparatively short. On steam railway cars, and 
those of interurban lines, where long runs are made and in- 
dividual passengers may remain several hours in the car's at- 
mosphere, about the same degree of ventilation would be re- 
quired as in public buildings. But in ordinary street railway 
traffic where from one-half hour to one hour is nearly the 
longest ride of a passenger, a- higher amount of carbon dioxide 
might be introduced into the atmosphere without any injury 
to the passengers resulting, and it is the writer's opinion that 
20 parts of carbon dioxide in 10,000 would not be excessive un- 
der these circumstances; or in other words, that a ventilation 
that will keep the carbon dioxide from rising above that pro- 
portion may be considered entirely sufficient. 

It may be asked why the Jiigher standard is not demanded 
in spite of the time that passengers remain in the cars. Theo- 
retically, all ventilation should reach the highest possible 
standard, but it must be remembered that on railway cars the 
lowness of the roof, and the small air space per passenger, as 
compared with buildings, necessarily resulting from the design 
of cars, which nuist have as little clearance and wind friction 
as possible, renders it impracticable to very thoroughly venti- 
late crowded cars without subjecting the passengers to dis- 
agreeable drafts that would be more injurious than a slight 
excess of impure air. 

In order to keep from exceeding the proportion of carbon 
dioxide previously mentioned (20 parts in 10,000), it will be 
necessary to introduce a certain amount of fresh air per hour 
or per minute into the car, the exact amount depending upon 
the number of passengers, and if other than electric lights are 
employed, upon their size and number. As, however, the 
greater portion of modern street railway equipment is both 
heated and lighted electrically, giving rise to no products of 
combustion within the car, the effects of the respiration of the 
passengers need alone be counteracted hy the ventilation. 
Whenever a number of persons are gathered together in a 
poorly ventilated apartment, the air soon becomes oppressive. 
This is partly due to the excess of carbon dioxide, as a man 
exhales about .62 of a cubic foot of carbon dioxide per hour, 
but it is chiefly caused by the large amount of moisture or 
aqueous vapor which is given off from their lungs, which, 
suspended in the air, causes a heavy or oppressive feeling. 
The micro-organisms or bacteria contained in such air are also 
found to be unusually high. The presence of moisture in air, 
causing a feeling of suffocation among the passengers, is 
shown by the dull sensation usually felt in well-warmed cars 
unless exceptionally well aired, and the non-observation of this 
on comparatively cold cars. To keep these products of respira- 
tion from accumulating to dangerous limits, a certain amount 
of fresh air per person must be introduced. The exact amount 
depends partly upon the cubic feet of air contained in the car. 
but in general 353 cu. ft. of fresh air per hour, or 5.89 cu. ft. 
per minute, should be introduced per passenger, in order that 
the percentage of carbon dioxide may not rise above the point 

We can now discuss, therefore, the first points that must be 
considered in the making of a test to determine whether the 

facilities for ventilation on any specified car will be sufficient. 
As a rule, the first problem concerns the number of passengers 
for whom ventilation shall be provided. It is obvious that the 
maximum standing load cannot be used as a basis, as a car 
well ventilated when crowded with passengers would neces- 
sarily have currents of air sweeping through the car with un- 
comfortable and dangerous velocity. Repeated tests on cars 
upon various lines have shown that cars in all day service 
carry less than their seating capacity on an average, and the 
writer considers that if ventilation is provided for the number 
of passengers that can be seated, the best results will be ob- 
tained. Presuming that the car in question will seat fifty-eight 
passengers, 341.6 cu. ft. of air per minute should be admitted, 
either continuously or on an average. 

In making a distinction between continuous or average air 
supply, it must be remembered that car ventilation is, as a rule, 
intermittent. The air coming ni through the ventilators or 
dome sash windows, and through the cracks in the doors, etc., 
is what must be depended upon for ventilation during the time 
the car is in rapid motion, and, as a rule, only during such time 
does air in any appreciable quantity enter the car in this man- 
ner. But immediately preceding a stop, and during the stop, 
one or both end doors of the car are thrown open, admitting 
a large volume of air, the exact amount being indeterminate, 
in view of the fact that variable conditions, such as the tem- 
peratures inside and outside the car, the direction and strength 
of the wind, etc., are functions of the calculation. This item 
can usually, by approximation and experiment, be closely esti- 
mated, but all conditions must be considered if reliable results 
are to be obtained. 

Assuming, though, for illustration, that a door has an area 
of 15 sq. ft. and that the inrush of air throughout the time it is 
open has 3-ft. per second velocity, there will be a displacement 
per second of 45 cu. ft. of fresh air. If the doors are open for 
twenty seconds, which is not far from the average figure in 
service, 900 cu. ft. of fresh air will have been introduced. 
.A.gain assuming that during the running time there is intro- 
duced but 200 cu. ft. of air per minute, and assuming that the 
time between stops is five minutes, an unusually long run in 
city service, there would have been brought into the car dur- 
ing the five minutes and twenty seconds of one run and stop a 
total of 1900 cu. ft. of fresh air. In other words, the replace- 
ment of air would have proceeded at an average rate of 358 
cu. ft. per minute, while, as before stated, only 341 cu. ft. were 
required to maintain an efficient ventilation. 

Having outlined the general idea of what should be sought 
for, I will explain the details a little more fully. The exact 
area of all openings, doors, windows, ventilators, etc., should 
be carefully measured. An anemometer reading should be 
taken of the velocity of the air entering or leaving each such 
opening, both while car is at rest and while in motion. It is 
evident that the area of any opening multiplied by the velocity 
of the air current passing through the same will give the cubic 
displacement of air through the orifice. In all calculations, the 
local conditions must be kept in mind. The number of stops 
and length of stops compared to the running time ; the point as 
to whether one or both doors are thrown open at each stop ; 
on elevated trains, the difference between the air admitted on 
the front or rear car of the train, etc.. must all be considered 
and the effect of each item approximated. For instance, on all 
lines operating three or more cars in trains, such as is the 
practice in elevated or subway service, it will be found that 
the head car of the train will be much more thoroughly venti- 
lated than the rear car or cars. This condition is produced by 
the suction of air by the leading car, which reduces the flow 
of air through the ventilators of the middle cars, the rear car 
having a strong exhaust. Only the leading car receives the 
full pressure of the atmosphere caused by the train's velocity, 
consequently the following cars will have a slower rate of dis- 

April 15, 1905.] 


placement through their front ventilators. On the other hand, 
the middle cars of such trains at each stop have both front and 
rear doors thrown open, and consequently receive a double 
amount of air throughout the stop. 

The method outlined above of actually measuring the amount 
of air is open to a number of criticisms. It is difficult to carry 
out the readings while in actual service, and quite impossible 
on a crowded car. It will give a very accurate idea, if carried 
out on a car or train run without passengers, of what can be 
expected in service, but, of course, is subject to all the varia- 
tions caused by local conditions. 

For this reason I will explain a simple but reliable method 
of directly testing the air in any car under any conditions. 
The entire apparatus consists of five ordinary clear glass bot- 
tles and a small amount of lime water. By means of this ap- 
paratus the amount of carbon dioxide, which, as mentioned 
before, is considered by hygienists to be a sufficient index to 
the relative impurity of the air, can be determined very easily 
and quickly, and with sufficient accuracy for all practical pur- 
poses. One bottle should be the ordinary i-oz. size of the drug 
stores, and is used for measuring the lime water. The other 
four should be respectively 4-oz., 8-oz., i6-oz. and 32-oz. 

These four bottles are to be filled with samples of the air 
under question, and should be clean and dry, and fitted with 
dry, clean, tightly fitting rubber stoppers. Taking them into 
the car whose air is to be examined, they are uncorked and 
filled by means of a hand bulb syringe, repeatedly forcing air 
into the bottle until it is certain that it is filled with the car air. 
As each is filled it is carefully recorked and the four taken to 
the testing room. Into each bottle is then poured from the 
i-oz. bottle I oz. of fresh lime water and each immediately re- 
corked. These should be thoroughly shaken for at least two 
minutes and then turned upside down, allowing the liquid to run 
into the necks. Holding them up against a dark background it 
will probably be found that in one or more of the bottles the 
liquid has changed in color, becoming cloudy or possibly of a 
strong milky tinge. Should all four bottles show a color in the 
liquid, it indicates that the air contained above 20 parts in 
10,000 of carbon dioxide, and is therefore above the safe limit 
of impurity. Should the three largest bottles show a milky 
tinge in their contents, the 4-oz. bottle remaining clear, the air 
contains approximately 14 parts in 10,000 of the carbon dioxide. 
A color in the i6-oz. and 32-oz. bottles, the two smaller remain- 
ing clear, indicates 10 parts in 10,000; and a milky liquid in 
only the 32-oz. bottle, the others being clear, shows about 6 
parts in 10,000, or very good air. Should no trace of color 
appear in the'liquid in any bottle, it proves that the air is prac- 
tically pure, and will demonstrate ideal ventilation. 

The precautions to observe in conducting this test are few, 
but important. The bottles should be all of very clear, white 
glass, and should be clean and dry. The stoppers should be 
tight fitting, and after the sample air is secured should not be 
removed for longer than absolutely necessary. Before uncork- 
ing the bottles to pour in the lime water be sure that the bot- 
tles are of the same temperature as that of the room in which 
they are opened; this is important, as if the bottles are warmer 
than the surrounding air the air in their interior will expand 
and a certain amount be lost when the stoppers are removed. 
For men unfamiliar with the effects of carbon dioxide upon 
lime water, it might be well to breathe a few times into a bottle 
before conducting the test, and shaking up with lime water in 
above indicated relative proportion. This will give a very 
strong tinge or milky appearance that will convey an idea of 
the effect of mixing lime water and impure air. 

While this test would be considered by a chemist to be ratiier 
crude, the results, if carried out with the degree of care neces- 
sary, will prove to be sufficiently accurate for all practical 

The matter of properly ventilating the passenger cars of elec- 
tric railways is one that commands attention, inasmuch as sani- 
tary conditions generally are being brought to a higher stand- 
ard. New and more stringent laws are being enacted or old 
laws amended on the subject of public hygiene, and each suc- 
ceeding head of a health department is more vigorous in their 
enforcement. An order from their department and the facility 
with which an injunction can be secured, provides an ever- 
ready weapon whereby a disgruntled passenger can, at the least, 
cause annoyance to the management of a road by the publicity 
which a discussion in the press of an always popular subject 
of this sort engenders. It is, of course, the wisest plan to antici- 
pate such conditions by liberal provision for ventilation of the 
cars, but when charges are falsely made, as often occurs, the 
above method of testing will ahord a quick and convenient 
method of ocularly demonstrating to the proper authorities the 
actual facts as they exist, without subjecting the company to 
the delay necessitated by an expert chemical analysis. 



G. B. McLean, chief draftsman in the electrical engineering 
department of the Pacific Electric Railway Company at Los 
Angeles, is the inventor of a device that has been installed in 
the new Huntington Building in that city, by which the trolley 
poles of the cars are automatically turned. The invention is 
simple, and consists of nothing more than a "Y" formed by 

the overhead trolley line, while the track 
remains straight. After the cars have en- 
tered the building the trolleys take the 
switches overhead into a wooden trough 
lined with sheet iron, and are completely turned around while 
the cars proceed little more than their own length. 

This will mean the saving of much time to the Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway Company in operating its cars through the new 
building, where they are to be switched around and started out 
again on their respective lines at the rate of one each minute, 
if necessary. With the use of McLean's invention, all the 
motorman has to do is to take off the levers of his controller 
and air brake and walk through the car to the other end. The 
conductor steps from the rear platform, holding the rope at- 
tached to the trolley pole, and boards the car on the other end 
as it passes by. 

Mr. McLean has not taken out any patent on his invention 
and says it is not his intention to do so. When the switching 
system inside of the Pacific Electric Railway Company's' build- 
ings is completed it will be the most complete of its kind in 
the world. 

The Toledo & Western Railway Company is at work on a 
systematic campaign for building up its freight business by 
inducing industries to locate along its line. During the past 
year it has secured two industries for Sylvania, one for Berkey, 
three for Pioneer and one for Blissfield. The last mentioned is 
an immense beet sugar plant which will give the company a 
large amount of business from surrounding territory, as it will 
have a capacity of 600 tons of beets per day. The company is 
planning to increase its freight car equipment and may decide 
to install a steam locomotive for hauling trains at night. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 


Chapter VIII. discusses the tendency during the past decade 
toward the consolidation of street railway companies, and re- 
fers to it as being one of the most important factors in street 
railway progress during the last ten years. The advantages 
are much more pronounced with electric traction than when 
animal power is used, so that in almost every great city in the 
United States the different properties have been brought to- 
gether into one system. The increase in the importance of in- 
dividual companies is brought out by the following table: 


Length of Line (Miles). 



of Com- 

Length of 

of Com- 

Length of 

10 but unflrr 

20 but under 30 

80 but under go 






' 557 



178 o_| 


100 and over 







' 5,119-53 

1 Exclusive of 663.94 miles, estimated, in 1890 

The report then discusses the methods of comliination h}- 
merger, lease and stock ownership, and gives exaniples of each. 

This is the title of Chapter IX., which contains a resume, in 
twenty-three pages, of the laws of the different States. Only 
the main requirements are given, as the Census Office states 
that the actual regulations differ widely among the different 
companies in the same State, or even in the same city. The 
regulations between the different States also differ widely ; 
thus, all municipal ordinances in Colorado, South Dakota and 
Utah are subject to the referendum and petition; in Nebraska 
and Arizona all public franchises in cities luust be submitted 
to popular vote, and in Montana and Colorado to the vote of 
the tax-paying electors. In Iowa one-fifth of the voters in any 
city may require any franchise to be submitted to popular vote; 
in Detroit the local ordinance provides that proposed franchises 
shall be submitted to popular vote, luit such vote is purely ad- 
visory, not binding. In California, Nevada, Kentucky and 
Virginia the general State laws require competitive bidding, 
but contain no provision specifying the character of the bids, 
which apparently might, at the discretion of the local authori- 
ties, be either in the form of lump sums or of annual payments. 
In New York and Louisiana the bids must be on the basis of a 
percentage of the gross annual earnings. In Ohio the fran- 
chise must be granted to the bidder offering the lowest rates of 
fare. * A similar method is required by the individual charters 
of certain cities, and in a few others it has been adopted volun- 
tarily by local authorities. The city ordinarily reserves the 
right to reject all bids. In Virginia the local authorities may. 
if for any reason they deem it to be for the interests of the 
people, grant the franchise to some other than the highest bid- 
der, but they must give their reasons for the grant in the fran- 
chise ordinance. 

In rnost States there has been as yet comparatively little ex- 
perience with the working of the method of competitive bid- 
ding for public franchises. The method has, however, been 
employed long enough in California. New York and Ohio to 
afford a fair basis for a judgment as to its success. As a rule, 
there is little or no competition for the franchise, so that the 

result is not very satisfactory. The report discusses this con- 
dition at some length, and states that the best results are se- 
cured where the system of competitive bids is supplemented by 
careful bargaining on the part of the local authorities. This 
method is provided for in the charter of New York City. 

There is an equally wide variation in regard to duration of 
franchises. Most States, including those which limit the dura- 
tion of corporate charters, provide in their constitutions that 
the Legislature shall have the right to repeal or amend any 
general or special incorporation law if passed subsequent to 
the adoption of the constitution. This provision has been in- 
serted in view of the judicial doctrine announced in the famous 
Dartmouth College case that, in the absence of such provision, 
an act conferring privileges upon a private corporation con- 
stitutes a contract on the part of the State. It is probably safe 
to say that nearly all important street railway companies in 
the United States hold charters which are either limited in 
duration or subject to amendment or repeal by the State Legis- 
lature. In case of such amendment or repeal, however, the 
courts are disposed to require that regard l)e given to vested 
property rights, and the Legislature is subject to lirnitations in 
those States whose constitutions prohibit special and local leg- 
islation, and in which, accordingly, changes must apply to an 
entire class. 

Many street railway franchises, particularly those of early 
date, are perpetual, and there is no State or local provision un- 
der which they can be revoked or amended. Where, however, 
a corporation whose charter is subjact to revocation or amend- 
ment holds such an unlimited franchise, the State Legislature 
can virtually annul it, or change the terms of the franchise, 
through its control over corporate existence. Even if both the 
charter and the franchise of a public service company are un- 
limited in duration, the State may, subject perhaps to certain 
self-imposed limitations, exercise, directly or through local gov- 
ernments, its right of eminent domain to purchase the property 
for public use. The payment in such a case would ordinarily 
include not merely the tangible value- but the full franchise 

Franchises which arc perpetual, and not subject to modifica- 
tion by the local authorities, are still permitted by the State 
laws of New York (except as regards certain cities), New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Indiana, all of the New Eng- 
land States and a few others. Many of the most important 
franchises in the largest cities of the country are perpetual and 
cannot be modified by the local governments. In a majority of 
States the present policy is to limit the duration of street rail- 
way franchises by State law. The limit of life is ninety-nine 
\ears in Louisiana (the law applying only to parishes), fifty 
years in Arizona, Idaho and second-class cities of New York, 
and by special act (the constitutionality of which is in litiga- 
tion) in Cincinnati, Ohio; thirty years in Michigan, Virginia, 
Alabama and Florida; tv/enty-five years in Ohio, Iowa (in 
cities under special charters), San Francisco, Cal., St. Paul, 
Minn., and Portland, Ore.; twenty years in Illinois, Kentucky, 
Nevada, South Dakota and Montana ; and ten years in Wyo- 
ming. There is apparently a tendency to shorten the duration 
of franchises, the more recent enactments usually prescribing 
the shorter periods. In many cases cities have limited the life 
of franchises where no State restriction existed, or have fixed 
terms shorter than those prescribed by State law. 

The statistics as regards the compensation for franchise 
privileges is equally varied. License fees of one kind or an- 
other are collected from street railway companies in a large 
number of cities. They are particularly common in the South- 
ern States, where licenses are commonly employed as a method 
of taxing all kinds of occupations. In New York, Chicago and 
Philadelphia the car licenses are $50 yearly, and in St. Louis, 
$25. In most other important Northern cities the fees are 
lower. In Cincinnati, at least formerly, and in one or two other 

April 15, 1905.] 


places the license is based not on the number of cars, but on the 
total length of the cars used, the idea being that a large car 
should properly pay more than a small one. In some cases car 
licenses are based on the total number of cars owned, in others 
on the average number in use daily during the year. The latter 
method would seem to be preferable, especially where a differ- 
ent type of car is used for summer travel, since such cars lie 
idle for a good portion of the year. An objection to car licenses 
lies in the possibility that they may reduce the number of cars 
operated, to the disadvantage of the patrons of the railway. In 
a few States it is common for local governments to charge an 
annual license fee on the poles of trolley railways. This prac- 
tice exists, for example, in several cities of Pennsylvania. 

The requirement to pave part of the street is very common. 
The other most common form of special compensation is a per- 
centage of the gross receipts. Thus, in New York City, by 
State law, all surface railways built after 1884 must pay at 
least 3 per cent of their gross receipts to the city during the 
first five years of their franchises, and at least 5 per cent there- 
after. The rate of 5 per cent is found also in Richmond, Va. ; 
Providence, R. I. : Newark, N. J., and one or two other cities. 
In Cincinnati, Ohio, the company pays 6 per cent of its gross 
receipts into the city treasury, and in Baltimore, Md., no less 
than 9 per cent, the rate in this city having been originally 20 
per cent. In Buffalo the leading company pays 3 per cent. In 



A meeting of the committee on reorganization of the Ameri- 
can Street Railway Association was held at the Holland House, 
New York, on April i. President Ely announced at the meet- 
ing that, as authorized by the executive committee, he had re- 
quested Prof. Henry H. Norris, of Ithaca, to make a prelim- 
inary study of a plan for reorganization of the several street 
railway associations along the lines which had been recom- 
mended at the St. Louis convention and approved at the execu- 
tive committee meeting held in New York, February 3 and 4. 

The idea of this reorganization is to bind together more 
closely the several affiliated associations in order to promote 
efficiency. This preliminary study has now been completed by 
Prof. Norris, and his report, which was presented at the meeting 
on April i, is partly reproduced herewith. The constitutions 
and proceedings of a number of steam and electric railway and 
lighting associations were digested in making this report, which 
in its complete form is voluminous. Certain recommendations 
were made and a proposed constitution suggested, and these 
are now under consideration by the members of the committee 
for suggestion and criticism. 

The committee decided to make the main features of this 
report public, so as to secure a consensus of opinion of it, and 


Length of 








Great Britain and Ireland 


' 1,848 




Germany, excluding Prussia 











Holland ■' 




Exp. and Tixes 



Car Miles. 


■* 18,752,258 
' 29,535,800 



. 23,446,179 
° 1 1,424,000 
^-^ 17,850,000 
* 13,812,000 

' 1,808,953 




^ 140,359,006 
^ 217,171,429 

1 1,180,384 




1 First main track. ^ Additional trackage of double-tracked railways, exclusive 
of lines not yet in operation. * On 1283 miles only. ^ Excluding taxes. ^ Based 
they probably include taxes, and possibly interest on bonds. " Items included 

St. Louis, Mo., varying percentages are required by different 
franchises. Occasionally a provision is found for an annual 
payment based on profits rather than on gross business. Thus, 
in the State of Massachusetts and in the city of Philadelphia, 
railway companies are required to pay a certain proportion of 
the excess of their dividends if the latter exceed a fixed rate. 
In Des Moines, Iowa, a percentage of net earnings is demanded, 
and in Topeka, Kan., one-tenth of the excess of net earnings 
over 10 per cent on the investment. In none of these cases is 
any important revenue derived by the local governments. 

Chapter IX. concludes with a condensed digest of the State 
laws and local franchise regulations in the leading cities. 

Chapter X. is devoted to street railways in European coun- 
tries, from which the accompanying table has been prepared. 
The statistics not only give figures from different countries, but 
also from individual cities in a few cases. 

Part II. of the Census Report has been prepared by Thomas 
Commerford Martin, and is devoted to an exceedingly interest- 
ing and valuable discussion of the mechanical and electrical 
status of the industry, and it is also illustrated by typical en- 
gravings of street railway apparatus and installations. This 
portion of the report is followed by a series of tables giving 
financial and other data of the different companies; bridges, 
feeder conduit systems, water wheels, gas engines, sub-station 
equipment, etc. 

The system of electric traction installed in Manila by J. G. 
White & Company, of New York, was formally opened to the 
public on Monday, April lo. The general manager is Richard 
T. Laffin, formerly of the Worcester Consolidated Street Rail- 
way Company, under whose supervision the lines were built. 

of sidings and switches, 852.7 miles. ^ Includes expenditure for construction 
on 1479 miles. 'On 1815 miles only. ^ The reports do not define expenses; 
not indicated. Not including mountain railways. " Includes light steam 

will welcome any comments from members of the association 
throughout the country. Any criticisms will be laid before the 
committee at its full meeting to be held in Philadelphia during 
the month of June, upon the return of the chairman from 
Europe, and during this temporary absence of Chairman Ely, 
they should be sent to Prof. Norris, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 

In analyzing the methods anrl practice of the various other 
railroad and other associations whose methods were studied, 
their work was divided into the following sections: 

(a) Object. 

(b) Means of attaining same. 

(c) Members. 

(d) Privileges of same. 

(e) Officers. 

(f) Meetings. 

(g) Lines of work undertaken. 

(h) Dues. 

The study has resulted in the following suggestions as In im- 
portant matters which should have consideration, and these 
are incorporated in the ])roposed constitution: 


The central body would lie known as the American l^leclric 
Railway Association, which woidd concern itself with the gen- 
eral management of electric railway properties by: 

a. Considering those general questions which are connected 
with the relation of electric railways to the public. 

b. Receiving reports from the branch or affiliated organiza- 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

tions, which would contain digests of progress made during 
each year in their particular fields, and which would recommend 
for the consideration of the central organization those features 
in which each special department requires the co-operation of 
the others in order to more perfectly accomplish its work. 

c. Exercising such control over the branch affiliated organi- 
zations as would produce most efficient and economical progress 
as a whole, while interfering to the minimum extent with the 
autonomous government of the separate association. 

In order to accomplish the desired compactness of the entire 
organization, the following "binding" features are recom- 
mended : 

1. A "blanket" fee from company members paid to the cen- 
tral organization, from the treasury of which annual grants 
would be made to the several affiliated organizations. 

The fee would be graduated upon a gross income basis so 
that the large roads bear a proportionate share of the expense.* 

The grants would be made by the executive committee, and 
so proportioned as to meet the specific needs of each branch 
or affiliated organization, which would have the option of 
assessing its individual members in case its grants did not cover 
their needs for the year. 

2. The printing and substantial binding of one or more vol- 
umes of proceedings, including the work of all branch or af- 
filiated associations, at the expense of the central organization. 
The proceedings would be edited by a committee representing 
all of the organizations. 

3. The granting of charters to and the approval of the con- 
stitutions of all branch or affiliated associations, all of which 
would be in harmony with those of the group of organizations. 

4. The recommendation to the branch or affiliated associa- 
tions of such topics for investigation and report as are within 
their particular fields. The committee on subjects, which makes 
these recommendations, contains representatives from all of the 

The executive committee of the central organization would 
consist of: 

1. The president of the American Electric Railway Asso- 

2. Three vice-presidents of the American Electric Railway 

3. A member, preferably the president, of each of the af- 
filiated associations. 

The secretary of the American Electric Railway Association 
would devote his time to the work of the association and would 
have duties and salary as arranged by the executive committee. 

Membership in the American Electric Railway Association 
should comprise the following: 

Active members, consisting of railway companies or individ- 
uals operating electric cars. Each company or individual 
owner would be entitled to one vote regardless of the dues paid 
and would be encouraged to send as many delegates to the con- 
vention as possible. 

Associate members, comprising persons who have been ac- 
tively identified with electric railway affairs or whose work is 
of such a nature as to make their connection with the asso- 
ciation desirable. These members would pay, say, $5 per an- 
num, and they would have all the privileges of active member- 
ship in the association except those of voting and holding office. 
It is suggested that this class of membership be made attractive, 
as it spreads interest in the work of the association and at the 
same time does not weaken the central active membership. 
These members would receive copies of the proceedings, the 

* From figures published in "American Street Railway Investments" for the 
year 1904, the total gross receipts of 104 of the members of the American Street 
Railway Association during the preceding year amounted to a total of ap- 
proximately $178,800,000, which figure covers the incomes of all of the large 
roads and many of the small ones. The range of gross receipts was from 
$15,436,574 to $30,301. The assessment would be a certain percentage of the 
receipts sufficient to cover the expenses of the association for the year. 

cost of which would be more than covered by the fee men- 

It is proposed that such branch or affiliated associations as 
are deemed necessary for the proper covering of the field of 
electric railway work be encouraged to organize, with the ap- 
proval of the American Electric Railway Association. 

These associations would prepare their own constitutions 
and would submit the same for the approval of the parent asso- 
ciation. The field of activity of each would be designated by 
the executive committee of the parent association. 

The names of the branch or affiliated associations would be 
selected in harmony with a general system for which the fol- 
lowing are suggested: 

American Electric Railway Association, 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Association, 
American Electric Railway Claim Agents Association, 
American Electric Railway Engineering and Maintenance 
of Way Association, etc., or 

American Association of Electric Railway Accountants, 
American Association of Electric Railway Engineers, 
American Association of Electric Railway Claim Agents, etc. 
The branch or affiliated organizations would be free to work 
out their own plans except for the limitations already pre- 

It is suggested that there be no company members in the 
branch or affiliated associations, and that the terms of individ- 
ual membership be prescribed by each affiliated organization. 
They would make their rules as to the matter of dues if such 
are found necessary to supplement the grants made by the cen- 
tral organization. 

In regard to the proceedings of the separate organizations, 
arrangement could easily be made by which these could be 
printed in separate pamphlets at a nominal price per copy, as 
it is evident that the technical features of each association's 
work would be most useful to its own members in this form. 
At the same time the feature of a complete set of proceedings, 
edited and published through the general secretary's office and 
distributed to members to the parent association, is a most 
valuable one. 


There are two possible plans for holding conventions, both 
of which have many points in their favor. One of these, as 
suggested by Richard McCulloch, consists in arranging all of 
the conventions at one time and place in such a way that one 
member can a>ttend more than one convention. This plan gives 
concentration and efficiency of convention work, although it 
does disturb to some extent the routine work o. the member 
companies. It also restricts the time allotted to each associa- 
tion to a small number of hours unless the conventions be ex- 
tended over a week or more. It would be possible also to hold 
these conventions in rapid succession, one following the other 
immediately, or two or more at the same time where the lines 
of work were absolutely diverse. 

The other general plan dictates a separate convention for 
each group of associations held at different times and places. 
These vvould result in the following advantages : Minimum 
disturbance of routine work of the member companies; relief 
of congestion of convention work ; efficiency of convention 
work through concentration upon particular topics and ab- 
sence of distraction ; maintenance of continuity of work 
throughout the year instead of concentration within a few days 
at the general convention. The weakness of this plan consists 
in the lack of social features which have been prominent at 
previous conventions. However, it appears to be the conviction 
that these social features should now be allowed to take second 
place and that they should be turned over largely to the manu- 
facturers' committee, which appears desirous of assuming the 

April 15, 1905.] 



In order that the manufacturers' committee, which has taken 
such, an interest in the material welfare of the members of the 
association at the time of holding conventions, shall have offi- 
cial recognition, it is suggested that a standing committee on 
conventions and exhibits, containing a representative of the 
manufacturers' committee, should control the question of ex- 
hibits to be held in connection with conventions and to deter- 
mine what should be the nature and extent of the entertain- 
ment features. The manufacturers' committee would be con- 
sulted as to these matters as at present, .but in addition, the 
official representation on the standing committee would give 
the manufacturers' conunittee official recognition by the asso- 



I. The name of the Association shall l)e "The American Elec- 
tric Railway Association," and its office shall be in the city of New 


II. The objects of this association shall be as follows: 

a. The discussion and recommendation of methods for the man- 
agement and operation of electric railways. 

b. The establishment and maintenance of a spirit of fraternity 
among the members by social intercourse, and the encovn-agement 
of friendly relations between the roads- and the public. 

c. Through the medium of the branch or affiliated organiza- 
tions, the acquisition of experimental, statistical and scientific 
knowledge relating to the construction, equipment and operation 
of electric railways and the diffusion of this knowledge among the 
members with a view of increasing the accommodation of passen- 
gers, improving the ser\'ice and reducing its cost. 


III. The membership of this Association shall consist of two 
classes as follows : 

The ACTIVE MEMBERS of the Association shall consist of 
American Electric Railway Companies, or lessees, or indi\'idual 
owners of electric railways ; and each member shall be entitled to 
one vote. Said vote may be cast by tb.'e properly accredited 

The ASSOCIATE MEMBERS of the Association shall consist 
of individuals who have at some time been actively identified with 
electric railway interests and other persons who, in the opinion of 
the Executive Committee, have had experience of such a nature as 
to render desirable their connection with the Association. Asso- 
ciate members shall enjoy all the privileges of active membership, 
excepting those of voting and of holding office. 


IV. This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present at a regular meeting, after the proposed 
amendment shall have been submitted, in writing, at the preceding 
regular meeting and a copy sent to each of the active members. 


I. Every applicant for membership shall signify the same, in 
writing, to the Secretary, enclosing the requisite fee, and shall sign 
the Constitution and By-Laws. 


II. The Officers shall consist of a President, three Vice-Presi- 
dents and one member from each of the branch or affiliated asso- 
ciations, who shall constitute the Executive Committee, and a Sec- 
retary and a Treasurer. The representatives of the branch or 
affiliated associations shall be appointed by their respective asso- 

The Executive Committee shall have the entire charge and man- 
agement of the affairs of the Association. The officers and Execu- 
tive Committee shall be elected by ballot, at each regular meeting of 
the Association, and shall hold office until their successors shall be 
elected. A two-thirds vote of the members present at any meeting 
of the Executive Committee shall be necessary to a decision. The 
duties of the Secretary and Treasurer may be performed by the 
same person. The Secretary and the Treasurer shall not be mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee and may or may not be identified 
with active members of the association. 


III. Tlie officers of the Association shall assume their duties 
immediately after the close of the meeting at which they are 

elected; they shall hold meetings at the call of the President, or, 
in his absence, at the call of the Vice-Presidents in their order, 
and make arrangements for carrying out the'objects of the Asso- 


IV. The President, if present, or in his absence, one of the 
Vice-Presidents, in their order, if present, shall preside at all meet- 
ings of the Association and of the Executive Committee. 


V. The duties of the Treasurer shall be to receive and safely 
keep all moneys of the Association ; to keep correct accounts of 
the same, and pay all bills approved by the President ; and he shall 
make an annual report to be submitted to the Association. He 
shall give a bond to the President in such sum, and with such 
sureties, as shall be approved by the Executive Committee. 


VI. The duties of the Secretary shall be to take minutes of all 
proceedings of the Association and of the Executive Committee 
and enter them in books proper for the purpose. He shall conduct 
the correspondence of the Association, read minutes and notices 
at all meetings, and also papers and communications, if the authors 
wish it. 

The Secretary shall maintain an office in the city of New York 
at which shall be on file for the benefit of the members a collection 
of information in regard to all matters affecting the operation of 
electric railways. 

The Secretary shall attend to the publication of the proceedings 
of this Association as well as those of the branch or affiliated or- 
ganizations. He shall perform whatever duties may be required 
in the Constitution and By-Laws appertaining to organizations. He 
shall perform whatever duties may be required in the Constitution 
and By-Laws and appertaining to his department and such other 
duties as shall be assigned him by the Executive Committee. He 
shall be paid a salary to be fixed by the Executive Committee. 

VII. The regular meeting of the Association shall be held at 
such time between the fifteenth day of September and the fifteenth 
day of December, in each year, as the Executive Committee may 
decide to be best suited to the locality in which the meeting is to 
l^e held ; the time to be decided upon and each member of the As- 
sociation notified of the selection by the first day of March in the 
year in which the meeting is to be held. Special meetings may be 
held upon the order of the Executive Committee. Notice of every 
meeting shall be given by the Secretary, in a circular addressed to 
ejch member, at least thirty days before the time of the meeting. 
Fifteen members shall constitute a quorum of any meeting. 

All sessions excepting those of an executive nature shall be open 
to all members, who shall have the privilege of discussing all re- 
ports and papers presented. Active members only shall attend ex- 
ecutive sessions unless a special invitation is extended to others by 
the presiding officer. 


VIII. At the regular meeting of the Association the order of 
business shall be : 

1. The reading of the minutes of the last meeting. 

2. The address of the President. 

3. The report of the Executive Committee on the management 
of the Association during the previous year. 

4. The report of the Treasurer. 

5. Reports of Special Committees. 

6. The election of Officers. 

7. Reports of Standing Committee. 

8. The reading of reports from the affiliated Associations. 

9. The reading and discussion of papers of which notice has 
been given to the Secretary, at least thirty days prior to the 

10. General business. 


IX. At other general meetings of the Association, the other 
business shall be the same, except as to the 3d, 4th and 6th clauses. 


X. The Secretary shall send notices to all members of the As- 
sociation at least thirty days before each meeting, mentioning the 
papers to be read and any special business to be brought before the 


XI. The Executive Committee shall meet one hour before each 
meeting of the Association ; and on other occasions when the 
President shall deem it necessary, upon such reasonalile notice as 
the Committee shall, by vote, determine, specifying the business to 
be attended to. 


XII. Tn order to ol)tain continuity of the work and uniformity 


[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

of general purpose the following Standing Committees shall be 
appointed each 3-ear by the Executive Committee : 

A COMMITTEE^N SUBJECTS to select topics for the work 
of the American Electric Railway Association and the allied asso- 
ciations for each year in advance. This committee shall be com- 
posed of three members from the central organization and one 
from each of the branch or affiliated associations. The commit- 
tee shall present its plans for the coming year at each annual 

An EDITING COMMITTEE, the duty of^which it shall be to 
prepare for publication all papers and reports. This committee 
shall consist of one member from the American Electric Railway 
Association and one from each of the branch or affiliated associa- 

consisting of two members of the parent association and one from 
each of the branch or affiliated associations and one from the 
Manufacturers' Committee. This committee shall have charge of 
the plans for exhibit and entertainment features of conventions. 


XIII. All votes except as herein otherwise provided, shall be 
viva voce; and in case of a tie, the presiding officer may vote. 


XIV. Any member, with the concurrence of the presiding 
officer, may admit a friend to each meeting of the Association; 
but such person shall not take any part in the discussion, unless 
permitted by the meeting. 


XV. All papers read at the meetings of the Association must 
relate to matters connected with the objects of the Association, 
and must be approved by the Executive Committee before being 
read, unless notice of the same shall have been previously given to 
the Secretary, as hereinbefore provided. 


XVI. This Association shall do all in its power to promote the 
welfare of other associations organized to investigate technical 
matters connected with electric railway operation. To this end, 
it will in the following ways and in others which may be determined 
by the Executive Committee, assist in the work of such associa- 
tions : 

By granting of charters to and approving the constitution of such 

By admitting to the Executive Committee a member from each 
of such organizations. 

By granting financial assistance for specific purposes. 

By editing, printing and binding the reports of proceedings. 

Through its Secretary and Committees it will assist in arranging 
for conventions, suggesting suitable subjects for investigation; it 
will file information for reference and in every way endeavor to 
stimulate interest in all of the affiliated organizations. 


XVII. All papers, drawings and models submitted to the meet- 
ing of the Association shall remain the property of the owners, 
subject, however, to retention by the Executive Committee for ex- 
amination and use, ])ut at the owner's risk. 


XVIII. Members shall pay an admission fee of twenty-five dol- 
lars, and annual dues of ten dollars, payable in advance. In addi- 
tion there shall be an annual assessment made by the Executive 
Committee and based upon the gross annual receipts. The Execu- 
tive Committee shall have no power to expend, for any purpose 
whatever, an amount exceeding that received, as hereinbefore pro- 


XIX. No member whose annual payment shall be in arrears 
shall be entitled to vote. 


XX. Any member may retire from membership by giving writ- 
ten notice to that effect to the Secretary, and the payment of all 
annual dues to that date, but shall remain a member, and liable to 
the payment of annual dues until such payments are made, except 
as hereinafter provided. 


XXI. A member may be expelled from the Association by 
ballot of two-thirds of the members voting at any regular meeting 
of the Association, upon the written recommendation of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 


XXII. All rules not provided for in these By-Laws shall be 
those found in Roberts' Rules of Order. 


XXIII. All propositions for adding to or altering any of these 
By-Laws shall be laid before the Executive Committee, which shall 

bring them before the next regular meeting of the Association, if 
it shall think fit ; and it shall be the duty of the Committee to do 
so, on the request, in writing, of any five members of the Asso- 

XXIV. Each member of the Association shall be furnished by 
the Secretary with a copy of the Constitution and By-Laws of the 
Association, and also a list of the members. 


A meeting of the executive committee of the American Street 
Railway Manufacturers' Association was held at Philadelphia 
on Friday, April 7, on account of the coming street railway 
convention in that city next September. The principal purpose 
of the meeting was to consider the facilities for an exhibit hall. 
Several halls, any one of which would be satisfactory, were 
inspected, but no actual decision was reached. 


Earnings of the United Railroads of San Francisco continue 
to increase. For the year just ended they were $6,652,628, or 
$404,411 more than in 1903. Indications for this year point to 
a still larger increase. For February, 1905, the gross earnings 
were $516,966, a gain of $34,563 over February, 1904. Changes 
in equipment being gradually effected will also tend to increase 
the earnings. Only a few days ago the electrified steam dummy 
line between Central Avenue and California Street was placed 
in operation. 

The question of additional power facilities is being worked 
out slowly. Officials of the California Gas & Electric Cor- 
poration say that the gas engine reserve plant, which is being 
installed on the Bay Shore, in San Mateo County, will be com- 
pleted by Jan. i, 1906, when the contract to supply 16,000 hp 
to the United Railroads goes into effect. The greater part of 
this power will, of course, be transmitted for the corporation's 
water-power plants, as noted in an article on this subject in 
the Street Railway Journal at the time the contract was; 


The Toledo Railways & Light Company is planning to con- 
vert a number of its long double-truck summer cars into semi- 
convertible cars, following the plan adopted by the Cleveland 
Electric Railway, whose scheme for converting cars was de- 
scribed and illustrated in this paper some time ago. The cars 
will be equipped with air brakes^ hot-water heaters, and De- 
troit platforms will be built. The company has decided upon 
the erection of a commodious office building adjoining its shops 
on Central Avenue. It will contain the offices of division super- 
intendent, despatchers, a clubroom and lounging room for em- 
ployees, baths, lockers and other conveniences for the men. 

The Boston & Worcester Street Railway has aroused much 
interest among its employees by an ofTer of prizes for the best 
suggestions for improvement in handling traffic. A year ago 
it was announced that prizes of $25, $15 and $10 would be 
offered for the three best ideas suggested, and the winners have 
just been announced. They are Motorman M. G. Hutchings, of 
Wellesley; Conductor George J. Moran, of Marlboro, and Con- 
ductor Frank E. Wall, of Wellesley, the awards being made in 
the order named. 


The management of the Detroit, Yysilanti, Ann Arbor & 
Jackson Railway has announced that the rate on the west end 
of the road from Ann Arbor to Jackson has been doubled. The 
rate was formerly i cent per mile throughout the line, but be- 
ginning April I the rate was made 2 cents. 

April 15, 1905.] 


In this issue of the Question Box a number of general topics 
are discussed. Questions and answers on the handHng of em- 
ployees are continued and special attention is given to the sub- 
ject of medical examinations. Under the heading of master 
mechanic's department are described and illustrated several 
forms of racks for holding freshly varnished window sashes 
and doors. 


A 13. — In the electric railway business, is an accident liabil- 
ity insurance company — mutual or otherwise — feasible ? Why ? 

The writer does not think accident liability insurance feasible 
for the reason that it would mean too much delay in the adjust- 
ment of claims. It would be necessary also to employ agents to 
look after this part of the business, and thereby take the matter of 
claims entirely out of the hands of the company, but as so many 
other things in regard to operating enter into and make up claims, 
it would not be policy to place this department out of the control 
of the operating officials. I am under the impression that all at- 
tempts in this direction have proved a failure or very expensive 
to the companies. Superintendent of Transportation. 

No. Immunity from damages encourages laxity of discipline, 
hence there will be more accidents. Premiums would be pro- 
hibitive. L. M. Levinson. Mgr., 

Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 

A 14. — Do you carry United States mail over your road? If 
so, please describe how you do it. 

We carry mail on city cars going by sub-stations and post- 
office. Mail is delivered to car and placed on platform in charge 
of conductor, who delivers it at destination. Mail is handled on 
interurban line on express trips by messenger in same manner as 
in practice on steam roads. R. P. Stevens, Supt., 

Everett (Wash.) Ry. & Elec. Co. 

Mail is picked up and delivered from and to the postoffices 
along our line by the motormen and conductors. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

We carry U. S. mail in regular mail pouches on front platforms 
of our regular passenger cars from central postoffice to the va- 
rious suburban postoffices, but not to any sub-stations. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 15. — Relative to carrying United States mail and mail 
carriers, what are the salient points of the contract between 
your company and the Government? 

It is of great advantage to have city mail delivered to cars, 
otherwise conductors would frequently forget it. Postoffice au- 
thorities will try hard to place this work on the railway company, 
but if the company insists the postal authorities will assume this 
responsibility. R. P. Stevens, Supt., 

Everett (Wash.) Ry. & Elec. Co. 

Our mail business is very light since we refused to carry mail 
to the sub-jtations on account of the inadequate compensation 
which the government desired to allow. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 16. — What would be a proper basis on which to formulate 
contract with the Government for carrying United States mail 
on electric railways? 

Street railway companies have looked upon the carrying of 
United States mails as a protection from the United States Gov- 
ernment against interruption of service by lawless persons. This 
belief is a fallacy. The fact that the company carried mails has 
never worked out to the advantage of the company in times of 
disorder. If the United States Government wants the electric 
railway companies to transport mails, it should pay a fair and just 
remuneration for the service. Anonymous. 

The carrying of mail should be contracted for by the pouch 
or bag. C. E. Palmer, Supt., 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

I think the government should pay at least 25 cents per car-mile 
for regular postal car, with guarantee of at least $15.00 per day 
income from each car so furnished by the railway company. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 17. — At one time the use of trail cars was quite general on 
electric railways throughout the country. Then came a period 
when the running of trailers was looked upon with more or 
less disfavor. There seems to be a decided tendency at the 
present time to go back to trailers. Please give your ideas and 
experience relative to trailers. Under what conditions do trail 
cars properly find a place in the operation of a modern electric 
railway? Do trail cars cause a greater number of accidents? 
If they do, what can be done to make them safer? What is 
the economy in running trailers? 

Trailers are all right on straight lines. Economy in operating 
them is great. W. T. Nary, Supt., 

Hoosac Valley St. Ry. Co., North Adams, Mass. 

On an interurban road the same as ours, I do not think it 
practical to run trailers. If business would warrant, it would be 
practical to run cars in trains, with each car equipped with mo- 
tors. On city properties, where the volume of business would 
warrant, I think that it is preferable to run trailers rather than 
cars on 5/2-minute headway, if trailers were properly equipped. 
Trailers should be equipped with air, one motorman handling two 
cars. If the collection of fares could be done by one conductor, use 
only one conductor. H. C. Page, Gen. Mgr., 

Berkshire St. Ry. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Our standard interurban car is 62 ft. long. We consider 
trailers impractical for operation through cities, partly on account 
of the curves. 

Theodore Stebbins, Gen. Mgr. for Receivers, 

The Appleyard Lines in Ohio, Columbus, Ohio. 

We have not made a practice of running trail cars on our road, 
for the reason that we have such abrupt curves on our line, espe- 
cially in the cities, that it is almost impossible to operate two 60-ft. 
cars, one as a trailer and the other as a regular, around the 
corners. There is a large advantage in running trail cars, and I 
would recommend it if cars are equipped with multiple control, 
which can be handled with one motorman and two conductors. 
However, the cars should be vestibuled. I would recommend the 
handling of a small trail car, but would say that the motor car 
should be long enough and heavy enough to ensure that it will 
hold the track and not derail. J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 

Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

For city service the writer believes it better practice to increase 
the number of motor cars for short haul traffic rather than to run 
trailers. This also applies to all lines with heavy grades. Trailers 
increase accident on short haul lines, time is lost in making stops, 
and an additional conductor is required to handle each trailer in 
order to properly perform necessary duties and - collect fares. 
Trailer cars on suburban and interurban lines can be run to ad- 
vantage without increasing cost in conducting transportation. Trail- 
ers should be equipped with power brakes under control of the 
motorman. Supt. of Transportation. 

Trail cars are inexpensive as an investment, and as a rule will 
accommodate as many and often more passengers than a motor car. 
The wear and tear on track is trivial ; the public like them in sum- 
mer, and they are easily handled on a belt line, where no switching 
is necessary. They save two men, i. e., conductor and motorman, 
and where the headway cannot be shortened are often necessary. 
Accidents on account of trail cars are more numerous than with 
motor cars, but as a rule they are due to carelessness of passengers, 
•and not to fault of company or employees. The greatest danger 
to trail car travel is derailments on special work, draw-bars pulling 
out, and cars becoming grounded at night. These are causes of 
damage suits. The excessive heating of motors pulling trailers 
causes loss. If trailers are included in the equipment, motors should 
])e of 20 per cent greater capacity. 

L. M. Levinson, Mgr., Shreveport (La.) Tract. Co. 



We have fitted up a number of trailers which we employ during 
"rush hours" on various lines where 4-motor cars are used. We 
find them very satisfactory for the following reasons : It requires but 
one conductor to take charge of both cars ; the current consump- 
tion of the train is but 20 per cent to 35 per cent more than that 
of a single car ; the investment in trailers is very light compared 
with keeping extra motor cars at hand for "rush" hours and emer- 
gency travel. All trail cars in use here run in one direction only, 
and have a rail or strip on the outside. We have not experienced 
an unusual number of accidents on account of running trailers ; in 
fact actual number of accidents has decreased. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 18. — Give suggestions based upon your experience for 
handling the extra traffic during the rush hours, and on special 
occasions, as ball games, fairs, etc. 

In handling traffic at rush hours, extra cars should be put in to 
handle the crowd. On our system, which is a single track road, 
cars are run in sections with markers on each car, which indi- 
cate that there is a car following, the last car in the block carry- 
ing no signals. In the daytime we use green flags to indicate that 
there is another section following ; at night, lanerns with green 

H. C. Page, Gen. Mgr., Berkshire St. Ry. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Have the extra cars mai^ked so they can be easily mentioned, and 
take no local passengers. Also run cars from some common point 
when passengers are liable to congregate direct to amusement 
resort. H. A. Tiemann, New York City. 

Have plenty of cars, and have a surplus ready to start from the 
fair, ball game or park as soon as the home rush starts. 

Francis G. Daniell, New York City. 

As soon as you have a big crowd to handle, all moving to a 
common point of attraction, take off your big cars. It has been 
our experience that long cars are in the way when there are 
crowds to be handled at a park, circus, ball game or other attrac- 
tion. Although one long car will carry 120 passengers to the 
grounds, it will take from two to three minutes to unload the car, 
and in the meantime there will be twelve small cars waiting to 
move into the terminal and unload. Provide enough single-truck 
cars, 24 ft. or 25 ft. in length, and you will handle your crowds in 
shorter time with less confusion than you can with any number 
of long cars. Moreover, it is impossible for one conductor to 
collect and register all the fares on a heavily loaded long car. 


For rush hour traffic on city lines the writer thinks the best re- 
sults are obtained by making a schedule with close headway, using 
the leeway (or lay over) to run up some of the cars on the line, 
and adding a sufficient number of extra cars to make up gaps 
caused by changing headway. After the rush is over, take off the 
extra cars and place the cars back on the regular schedule. This 
changes the runs of the line somewhat, but gives a more uniform 
schedule, unless the conditions require that double the number of 
regular cars or more be run during the rush, and in that case 
make a schedule of the extra cars to split the time of headway 
with the basis cars. On suburban and interurban lines that are 
run on is-minute, 20-minute, 30-minute, 40-minute and one-hour 
headways, my experience is that it is better to run sufficient num- 
ber of cars in trains to handle traffic, rather than extra cars be- 
tween time-table trains, as this method saves time and expense. 
Patrons soon become familiar vvith time-table and look for regular 
trains, whereas it is difficult for the public to keep track of extras, 
as it is sometimes necessary to change them on short notice, and 
frequently the traffic does not justify running them daily. We 
only run extras on special occasions on interurban and suburban 
lines. When time-table trains cannot handle the traffic, the extras 
then take care of the overflow. For special occasions, as 
ball games, etc., we do not interfere with our regular 
schedules, but run all extra cars required from the park 
to central portion of the city, making up a schedule for these cars 
and having them properly signed for destination. We find that by 
this method the extra cars can be put on the lines and withdrawn 
without inconvenience to the public, and we are enabled to get 
double trips out of these cars, as against one trip if they were put 
into regular line schedule. This also avoids running the extra cars 
empty over portions of the route, and enables the extras to be 
banked for the homeward rush at the close of entertainments, 
which is a necessary procedure on some occasions, if the best 
service at minimum cost is to be given. 

Supt. of Transportation. 

[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

We are fortunate in having a central loop, from which cars 
going to summer resorts, baseball grounds, parks, etc., run. We 
also have side tracks and car storage room at central loop. We 
fill the side tracks with "extras," station a division superintendent 
or inspector at the place where the rush of travel is expected, and, 
having a despatching system with a telephone at each end of the 
line, the superintendent is kept advised through the despatcher as 
to the travel. Such extra, or loop cars are sent out as may be 
needed. The official placed at the resort notifies the superin- 
tendent as to the number of people at such resort, when they will 
come away, etc. The superintendent then sends the number of 
cars to "bank" on side track at this place, as may be required to 
bring the people away. We have sufficient trackage at such places 
to hold the required number of banking or side-tracked cars. 

S. W. Cantril, Supt., 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 19. — Has the running of so-called "sightseeing cars" been 
a popular and profitable experiment? 

The so-called "Seeing Denver" enterprise was started in Den- 
ver a number of years ago by an enterprising real estate firm, and 
has been worked up into a very profitable business, and is very 
popular with the traveling public. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 20. — When "sightseeing cars" are operated over an elec- 
tric railway system by outside parties, what is the usual com- 
pensation paid by the "sightseeing" company to the railway 
for the use of the tracks ? 

The "Seeing Denver" cars are operated by The American Sight- 
Seeing Car & Coach Company; they paying us a flat rate of so 
much per trip. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 21. — Is there any reason why an electric railway company 
should not operate its own "sightseeing cars"? 

Depends largely upon local conditions and amount of sight- 
seeing and tourist business obtainable, and whether or not the 
local company can obtain more of this business than an outside 
company which may have better facilities for keeping in touch 
with the railroads and the excursion business throughout the 
country. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

A 22.- — Has the running of funeral cars been a popular and 
profitable experiment? 

Yes. Always give special car at regular rates from church to 
cemetery. W. T. Nary, Supt., 

Hoosac Valley St. Ry. Co., North Adams, Mass. 

Yes. We operate funeral cars occasionally on interurban serv- 
ice, using baggage compartment for the casket. 

Theodore Stebbins, Gen. Mgr., for Receivers, 
The Appleyard Lines in Ohio, Columbus, Ohio. 

We have no regular funeral cars, but we have an average of 
from two to three funeral parties every month over our road. A 
charge per car is made for each party. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Tract. Co. 

Profitable and becoming more popular. We use a regular 
combination car for funeral parties, and this has proven satisfac- 
tory. C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

Funeral cars have been very popular and profitable on our road. 
We work up this business and average one funeral car per day. 

R. P. Stevens, Supt., 
Everett (Wash.) Ry. & Elec. Co. 

We have fitted up a trailer into a casket car. This car is used 
in connection with an ordinary motor car, or our special chartered 
car. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

April 15, 1905.] 




B 9. — What physical examination do you require of appH- 
cants ? 

In addition to meeting the requirements as to age, weight and 
height, apphcants are subjected to a physical test made by our 
examining surgeon. The test is conducted in a rigid manner, and 
is similar to that used by many insurance companies. Upon the 
recommendation of our examiner depends the applicant's posi- 
tion, and also his election to membership in our mutual aid asso- 
ciation. S. W. Cantril, Supt., 

Denver City Tramway Co. 

Before the applicant is accepted he is sent to the company's 
surgeon, who makes a thorough examination and reports his find- 
ings on a blank (8 ins. x 13 ins.) sample of which is reproduced 

SURGEON'S Certificate of Examination. 

(c) Weight 

1. Name (a), Age 

2. Have you now or ever bad any of the following diseases? 

(B) Height.. 


Rheumatism' .... 

Habitual Cough 

Chronic Diarrhcen 

Tumors of any kind 

Delirium Tremciis 

Spinal Disease .- 

e of disability in (a) Legs and Feel 

.«,.«"rv^'^ (B> Armband hands.... 

■d»«orpr<,ioBBdi«bUiiy.) ' ' (c ). Urinary OTgans 

4. Is applicant ruptured ? (a) Has he ever suffered from Hi 

(c) Present condition? 

J 5. Has applicant a varicocele? . 

6, Has he ever had aay severe illness or injury, or undergone any surgical operation 
(a) State when, where and give particulars 

Disease of Brains 







Has he any present s 

Fistulu — 


Gravel ... 
Syphilis . 

? (BJ What form ? 

(b) If so was recovery complete ? -. 

Does he use intoxicating liquors? (a) Are there any indications that would lead you to believe 

that the applicant leads, or has led, anything other than a sober and temperate life?.. 

Does he smoke Cigarettes?— (a) Heart Sound (b) Pulw--- 

^as be had Smallpox ? — (a) Has he beerf recently successfully vaccinated ? 


Distance Vision, R, E. 

Near ■■ R. E. 


Does the applies 
Should the appli 

R. E. — 

R. Ear 

wear Glasses?.. 
3t wear Glasses? 

Distance ' 
, Color 

, L- R..-. 
L, — 
L. E.— 
L Ear.. 

1 hereby certify that I have examined the applicant 

named in the foregoing application, and find that he is physically and mentally competent to discharge the duties 

Dated 190... 

Examiniag Surgeon, 


herewith. On the reverse side of the form are diagrams of the 
human skeleton and form, by means of which the surgeon indi- 
cates any deformities. C. Loomis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

An examination by the company's physician for defects of color, 
perception, vision, hearing and physical defects that would dis- 
qualify for the position of conductor or motorman. 

E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

None. We accept their statement and rely on our observations. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lgt. Co. 

Weight and height taken and examination by a company sur- 
geon for heart and lung action and physical deformities. 

J. W. Brown, Supt. Trans., 
Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connellsville Ry. Co. 

A thorough examination by a medical expert, and satisfactory 

Right eye....- ""Green 

Left eye '' Red . , 

Combined, Purpli 

Letters recorded when rejected, | Numbers recorded .when rejected. 

Left e 



What diseases has he suffered 
■ irom > 

Has he ever suffered from hernia? What form? hi present conditio 

Has he ever suffered from injury? If so what and when? , . 

, Is he the subject of any deformity, from injury or otherwise? 

note here and locate on skeleton blank bercwith 

[ Heart 

i' Lungs 

Has he any present source ot disability in , J Veins 

(Applicants should be stripped for this exam- ] peet and L»gs 
ination Note with care varicose veins, enlarged Hands and Arms.' ' . 
joints and anythmg lending to produce or pro- I _ . 
long disability.) i 

.[ Urmary Organs 

Does he use intoxicating liquors? Is his appearance that of a temperate man 

he smoke cigarettes? Has he had small pox or been recently vacc 

His height is feet inches; weight lbs. ; color of eyes ; of hai 

( First-class 

He is pliysically a < .^veraRe subject (or position as 


Signature o( applicant to betaken at Surgeon's office. 

(Sign here) . 

Remarks : 

(Anything lacking in spaces above should be added hei 


answers to the questions on the surgeon's certificate (reproduced 
herewith). J. E. Duffy, Supt., Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

B 10. — What is the method of testing for eye-sight and 

The eyes are tested by Hghts of various sizes and colors, and 
also by small and large letters. The hearing is tested with a 
tuning-fork. C. Loomis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

The method used by our physician is similar to that ordinarily 
used for testing eyesight and hearing. E. J. Ryon, Supt., 

Schenectady Ry. Co. 

Rigid examination by our oculist and aurist, and a certificate 
issued by him which is filed in the superintendent's office 

J. R. Hareigan, Gen. Mgr., 
C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

Thorough examination by specialist. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., 
Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

The company's surgeon thoroughly examines every accepted ap- 
plicant for eyesight, hearing and general physical condition. 

Southern Superintendent. 

None if the applicant is apparently sound. 

J. R. Harrigan, Gen. Mgr., 
C. B. L. & N. and C. N. & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

Thorough physical examinations. Applicants pay $i to surgeon 
for this examination. 

Jno. J. Akin, Supt., Los Angeles Ry. Co. 

Their eyesight and hearing must be good, and their general con- 
dition healthy. C. E. Palmer, Supt., 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

Eyesight is tested by the color test. Hearing is tested with a 
watch. C. E. Palmer, Supt., 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract. Co. 

Applicant is sent to company oculist who tests vision of each 
eye by card method with distances based on the metric system. 
Applicant must show 6-6 in each eye. Color vision in each eye is 
tested by combination of red and green, varying in shades by the 
use of an electric screen. Hearing is tested by laboratory standard 
tuning-fork. The eye and ear records of each applicant are entered 
on a card, 4 ins. x 9 ins. in size, which card is uniform with cards 
covering accidents, complaints, fare registration and totalizer cards. 
The cards are filed alphabetically under the men's names. 

J. W. Brown, Supt. Trans., 
Pittsburg, McK^cesport & Connellsville Ry. Co. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

B II. — What methods do you employ for training new mo- 
tormen and conductors as to their duties? 

After having passed the physical examination and filled out his 
application blank the applicant is given a card, one side of which 

reads : "To the Despatcher at . Please put the bearer 

on as ■ , beginning with the above date," which is signed 

by the superintendent of transportation. This he takes to the 
despatcher. The despatcher then puts him on with some reliable 
man for two or three days on each of the lines, first during the 
day, and then the same time on these lines at night. This occu- 
pies probably fifteen days. The last man with whom he runs signs 
his name on the opposite side of the card, thereby certifying that 
the beginner is capable of taking charge of a car. The learner is 
then turned over to the master mechanic for two or three days, 
who instructs him in regard to the machinery of the car. The 
card is then signed by the master mechanic and the despatcher 
and is taken by the beginner to the superintendent, from whom he 
receives his rule book, badge and final instructions, 

C. LooMis Allen, Gen. Mgr., 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co, 

Motormen entering the employ of this company are first sent 
out with experienced motormen to learn how to handle a car. 
After this has been accomplished they are required to report to 
the master mechanic, who gives them a course of training in the 
shops, requiring them to do whatever work they might be called 
upon to do with a car on the road. After from three days to a 
week in the shop they are given an examination by the master 
mechanic, and if the examination is satisfactory are sent back to 
the transportation department, where they are examined on the 
rules. They are then sent to the claim department, where they 
are thoroughly instructed in their duties pertaining to an acci- 
dent, and if found satisfactory all around, are placed on the extra 
board. Conductors are sent out on the lines to be broken in, and 
when they have learned all of the lines and to properly call streets, 
and are thoroughly posted on the duties of collecting and regis- 
tering fares, making reports, etc, are given an examination by the 
transportation department and by the claim department, and if 
found satisfactory are placed on the extra board, 

' E. J. Ryon, Supt., Schenectady Ry, Co. 

Applicant for the position of conductor is placed on the car 
under the instruction of an experienced employee and serves for 
seven days, or more if necessary, until he becomes familiar with the 
bell signals, collection of fares, issuing and accepting of trans- 
fers, names of street and public places and transfer points. The 
new man then serves one day on each of the other lines of the 
company, making in all about fourteen days. He is then sent to 
the starter for examination as to his knowledge of the rules and 
transfer points, etc. The same routine is gone through with ap- 
plicants for the position of motormen, and, after they have fin- 
ished their time on the road, they are sent into the car houses 
for instruction and examination as to their knowledge of the elec- 
trical equipment. This examination is made by the master me- 

J, E, Duffy, Supt,, Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry, Co. 

A term of two weeks in the car shops, and training under at 
least two motormen, chosen for their experience and good judg- 
ment, until pronounced competent to handle a car. Afterwards an 
examination on the rules conducted by the superintendent. 

J. R. Hareigan, Gen, Mgr,, 
C, B. L, & N, and C, N, & Z., Columbus, Ohio. 

After being interviewed by the superintendent they are supplied 
with badge, rule books and are given special instructions by the 
assistant superintendent. They are then turned over to the student 
""^'■"'^tor, Jno. J. Akin, Supt., 

Los Angeles Ry, Co. 

They are put on with a regular man and instructed by him. 

C. E. Palmer, Supt. 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tract, Co. 

Motormen and conductors are trained on cars in service by 
regular motormen and conductors, and in addition are drilled by 
an instructor, and they are finally examined and lectured by super- 
.intendents. Southern Superintendent. 

Put them on for instruction with an experienced man. 

J. Chas. Ross, Gen. Mgr., 
Steubenville (Ohio) Tract. & Lgt. Co. 

Before a man is permitted to go on the front end of a car for 
instruction, he is sent to our repair shops to spend a few days in 
the motor and truck department. In this department we have a 
"student's car," which consists of a platform on a truck equipped 
with two motors and raised from the rail, so that the wheels will 
revolve when current is turned on. The car wiring, resistance, 
lightning arrester, etc., are all shown in a convenient manner for 
instruction, and the controller and brake-rigging are also exposed 
for inspection. The studies of the new men are carried on under 
the tutelage of a competent man. After the man has become fa- 
miliar with the working of the motors, controller, brakes, etc, he 
is sent to one of the car house foremen for special instruction, and 
afterwards spends a night in the car house at which he is expected 
to report. Here he learns the process of running cars in and out 
of the house, and receives some further enlightenment in taking 
care of the equipment. Then he is ready to "break in" as motor- 
man. During the week or ten days that he spends on the car, he 
is carefully instructed on the running time, and is required to be- 
come familiar with all lines belonging to the division on which he 
runs. We find that the best results are obtained by breaking 
motormen in on the late cars. It seems to give them a familiarity 
with the lines which they do not acquire on the day cars. After 
being "turned in" by the motorman instructor, the student makes 
a "trial trip," and if found satisfactory, is recommended for ex- 
amination. He then writes answers on a list of printed questions 
to test his knowledge of the company's rules. If he passes in this 
he receives his badges and is ready for duty. After beginning 
work, new motormen are required to put in their spare time learn- 
ing the lines and running time of other divisions so that they may 
be familiar with such lines in case it becomes necessary to send 
them out on extra cars at busy times. Conductors are not re- 
quired to enter the shops and car houses for instruction, but are 
immediately placed on a car for the usual practice, afterward mak- 
ing "trial trip" and passing written examination. 

S, W, Cantril, Supt,, 
Denver City Tramway Co. 

E 82a. — What is the best remedy for preventing sleet and ice 
from forming on car windows, particularly on the vestibule 
windows ? 

Glycerine is about the best preventative we have found, but it is 
not entirely satisfactory. 

Wm. F. Dement, Washington (D. C.) Ry. & Elec. Co, 

E 83, — Do you know of an improved form of table or rest 
for expediting the work of varnishing window sash? If so, 
please give description, with photograph or drawings. (Rough 
sketch will do.) 

A revolving table with a top small enough to bear only on the 
glass. A high revolving office stool makes a good table for this 

Francis G, Daniell, New York City. 

In the foreground of the photograph reproduced under question 
E 84 in this issue, showing the sash rack used in the paint room of 
the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway Company, will be seen the 
revolving stands used at these shops for varnishing sash. The 
top of the stand contains four small blocks tipped with rubber upon 
which the glass in the sash rests, thus there is no slipping, and the 
varnishing of the sash is very easily accomplished. 

W. J. Harvie, Elec. Engr., 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

E 84. — Please give description with photograph or sketch of 
good form of rack for holding freshly varnished window sashes 
and doors. 

The rack used at the shops of the Detroit United Railway for 
holding freshly varnished sash consists of a strong wooden frame 
closed at the ends and top, but with front and back open. The par- 
titions are movable, being clamped as shown in sketch, and have 
cleats fastened to them which are beveled on top, thus allowing the 
sash to rest only on the edges. Curtains are placed on front and 
back to keep out the dust after the rack has been newly filled. For 
stacking freshly varnished doors two low horses are used as a 
foundation. On each of these, two wooden wedges are laid far 
enough apart to allow only the edge of the door to rest on them. 
Two bridges consisting of blocks of wood are then placed over 
the door, one on each horse outside of the wedge. These act as 
a new surface for more wedges and bridges, and by continuing the 

April 15, 1905.] 



process the doors may be piled as high as desired, and a cover 
placed over them. After the doors are dry they are placed stand- 

4 ft. long and placed at an angle of 3 to 4. The top is ceiled with 
matched stuff to prevent dust from settling on the newly varnished 

( 1 

- Portable Shelf 



ing on the floor with the back edge resting against an arm project- 
ing from the wall. 

Sylvester Potter, M. M., Detroit United Ry. 


- — Wedges 


Sirp.'l Rv.J" 



work, and across the front at the top is. a ^yi-'m. blackboard strip 
for the numbers of the cars to which the sash belong. 

W. J. Harvie, Elec. Engr., 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

The Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway Company has in use in its 
paint shop at Utica Park the rack for drying car window sash 
shown in the illustration. The sash are supported on slides placed 
at an angle, so that only the edge of the varnished surface can come 
in contact with the rack. There are two sections of the rack, each 
14 ft. 6 ins. long, 6 ft. 6 ins. high and 4 ft. deep, divided into five 


After trying various forms of racks for holding freshly varnished 
window sash we hit upon the scheme illustrated in the photograph. 
As shown, the sash rest upon adjustable wooden pegs having small 
parts with 14 slides in each part, making accommodation in all for caps at one end, upon which the glass rests, so there is no chance 


T40 sash. The partitions are spaced to take the sash in use by the 
company, but the slides project 4 ins. from the vertical supports, and 
thus allow a range of 8 ins. in the width of sash that can be placed 
in any division. The slides are of }i-in. planed maple 5% ins. wide, 

of marring the varnished surfaces. The racks will take any size 
sash and there is no danger of a rack full of sashes dropping in a 
heap as sometimes occurs with racks in which the upright stand- 
ards are made adjustable. Master Mechanic. 


[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 


Recent legislative projects in regard to rapid transit in Bos- 
ton and its vicinity are interesting in view of their relation to 
the symmetrical development of the city's transportation facili- 
ties as a whole. At a hearing held before the committee on 
metropolitan affairs at the State House three bills were dis- 
cussed providing for extensions of the present system, or new 
routes, the sections of the city under consideration being South 
Boston, the Back Bay and the western suburbs of Allston, 
Watertown and the Newtons. The propositions in hand in- 
cluded additional facilities other than the surface lines afford 
between South Boston and the city proper, an extension of the 
present Public Garden branch of the existing subway to Copley 
Square, and as a third scheme the construction of a tunnel and 
subway from Scollay Square under Beacon Hill and the pro- 
posed Charles River embankment to Massachusetts Avenue. 

The South Boston situation appears scarcely ripe for the ex- 
tension of the elevated structure in that direction, according to 
the facts brought out at the hearing. High-speed transporta- 
tion is naturally desired by all sections of the city, but there is 
every reason to believe that the short distance of South Boston 
from the business district, and its comparatively limited popu- 
lation as a suburb, do not at present justify the costly provision 
of elevated or subway routes, particularly as the situation can 
be adequately treated by due provision of surface cars. The 
other two bills were designed largely to relieve the rush-hour 
congestion on Boylston Street, which is the main artery of 
traffic in the Back Bay. About 160 cars an hour are now pass- 
ing over this street in rush hours, between the subway and 
Copley Square, and although the traffic is handled with all pos- 
sible skill and energy the conditions are greatly against any- 
thing like rapid transit. The situation is complicated by the 
presence of innumerable vehicles and pedestrians, which tend 
to hold back the cars long after passengers have alighted or 
come aboard. 

President Bancroft, of the Boston Elevated Railway Com- 
pany, pointed out that, although the number of cars on Boylston 
Street is very great, the extension of the subway to Copley 
Square would not diminish the number of cars seeking that 
route. As for the Beacon Hill scheme, he stated that it was 
in his mind more tentative than anything else, and that with 
but one or two stations it was difficult to see how the residents 
of Beacon Hill would be more than incidentally accommodated. 
The principal advantages would be reaped by the communities 
lying to the west. At the present time over 50 per cent of the 
cars running on Boylston Street enter the city via the Massa- 
chusetts Avenue or "Harvard" Bridge across the Charles 
River. These cars pass through Cambridge in coming from 
Somerville, Cambridge, Arlington, Belmont, Watertown, and 
indirectly from Brighton and Newton. A large portion of these 
cars go out of their way in traversing this route, which is an 
indirect means of getting down town in comparison with the 
projected elevated road to Cambridge. General Bancroft 
stated that with a schedule time of eight minutes over this new 
route between Harvard and Scollay Square, in comparison with 
the present running time of twenty-six minutes or thereabouts 
under favorable conditions, the relief experienced by Boylston 
Street ought to be enormous, in view of the large number of 
people whose objective point is Park Street or Scollay Square. 

Furthermore, the operation of six or seven-car trains in the 
new Washington Street Tunnel and the consequent removal of 
the elevated trains from the existing subway will enable the 
company to put certain surface cars back. Thus, some of the 
crosstown cars originating in Roxbury or the extreme south end 
and now passing through Massachusetts Avenue to Hunting- 
ton Avenue and Boylston Street can be then diverted down 
Columbus Avenue through Berkeley Street to lower Tremont 
Street, and thence through the old subway. Boylston Street is 

not a natural route for many of the cars now operating upon it. 

The population of the Back Bay, Brookline, Brighton and 
Newton is not relatively large, although the area of territory 
included is large. The rapid transit scheme of the community 
provides two trunk lines or axes at right angles, roughly speak- 
ing. One of these is the north and south line from Forest Hills 
to Sullivan Square, via the elevated structure and the Wash- 
ington Street Tunnel, and the other is the east and west line 
between East Boston and Harvard Square, Cambridge. It is 
of doubtful expediency at this time, in view of the great devel- 
opments now under way, to add another spoke reaching from 
the Hub, as suggested in the proposed bill, toward the section 
at the west of the city. 


A system of investigating troubles and delays to the schedule 
has been in use for some time on the South Jersey Division of 
the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, and has been 
found to give very satisfactory results. The system was in- 
stituted several months ago by W. E. Harrington, who was 
then general superintendent of the South Jersey Division. Its 
object was to determine the cause and place the blame, if any, 
of all delays and accidents, so that a remedy could be applied 
by which similar troubles would be avoided in the future. To 
do this properly, Mr. Harrington decided that all troubles of 
this kind should be considered by a committee of the foremen 
of the road so that each department should be represented. In 
this way there can be no opportunity of any one department 
laying the blame unjustly on another, as might occur if the 
report was submitted by the head of one department only. For 
instance, delays caused by trolley wheels leaving the wire might 
be attributed by the master mechanic to defective overhead 
construction, but by the lineman to the trolley wheels; bent 
axles can be caused both by poor track or an imperfect over- 
hauling, and so through the entire category of street railway 

In consequence of this condition, an investigation committee 
was appointed consisting of the superintendent of transporta- 
tion, the chief engineer, the inaster mechanic, the line foreman 
and the superintendent of track. This committee was instructed 
to meet every morning and go over the record of all car delays 
for the preceding day. The record of car delays considered by 
the committee is made up from the despatchers' reports. For 
instance, if a car is held at a railroad crossing, or if there is 
any trouble with the motors, the motorman reports the cause 
of the delay to the despatcher at the end of the line, whose re- 
port is handed in to the master mechanic's clerk, and is then 
typewritten and manifolded for the heads of the departments 
for consideration at the meeting. Another report which is also 
before the committee at these meetings is that sent in of the 
material used for quick repairs at the terminus of the line by 
the general utility man kept at this point by the master me- 
chanic. The form in which these reports are submitted is as 
follows, which is an actual record of the delays on Jan. 17: 


A. Car 174, block loi, 10:34 a. m. Late 10 minutes; received 
car late at B. L. J. W. Garwood. 

B. Cars on Market Street lines blocked 13 minutes by the 
bridge being off. Time, 11:34 a. m. 

C. Car 160, block 126, 6:54 p. m. Late 10 minutes; due to car 
159, block 127, being off the track at Cooper Avenue, Woodlynne. 
F. Urshin. 

D. Cars of Broadway line blocked 20 minutes by a furniture 
wagon being broken down on inbound track. Disp. Geary sent to 
scene of trouble, 2 :s8 p. m. 

E. Car 130, block 132, 8 :48 a. m. Bad brakes. W. H. Deets. 

F. Car 126, block 132, 9:08 p. m. Broken seat; delayed 7 min- 
utes trying to fix same; car 129 in place. C. S. Daily. 

G. Car 133, block 135, 6 :40 a. m. Motor trouble. D. Marshall. 

April 15, 1905. j 


H. Car 136, block 136, 8 :o8 a. m. Delayed 5 minutes at Ferry 
with motor trouble. J. Kabinsky. 

I. Car 108, block 153, 4:23 p. m. Very dirty car, also late 15 
minutes, due to crippled cars lying in front of her. C. Wheat- 
land, D. McClure. 

J. Car 139, block 154, 12 143 p. m. Repairing motor leads ; de- 
layed 5 minutes. W. T. Abbots. 

K. Car 74, block 155, 9:00 a. m. Grounded. V/. W. Quar- 

L. Car 74, block 155, 7:50 p. m. Stove loose; came to barn 
from Third and Federal. Had no passengers. Thornton. 

M. Car 123, block 162, 9:38 a. m. Bad brakes, and bolt out of 
motor support. F. Cassidy. 

N. Car 14s, block 162, 1 144 p. m. Air motor trouble. Car 147 
in place. J. Ward. 

0. Car 133, block 163, 4 132 p. m. Late 10 minutes ; left barn 
late, due to crippled cars lying in front. C. Diehl. 

P. Car 15s, block 212, 7:25 p. m. Trolley base trouble. Lost 
one and one-half trips. R. B. Crawford. 

Q. Line down Kaighn's Avenue Ferry. Sent wagon. 


Market Street line 12.5 

Broadway line 12.5 

Haddonfield line 25.0 

South Second and Third Street line 25.0 

North Cramer Hill line 18.7 

Pensauken line 06.3 

Total 100 

As described, these troubles were taken up seriatim by the 
investigation committee, after each foreman had been given a 
copy so that he could confer about them with his subordinates. 
The report of the entire committee on each trouble is type- 
written in concise language. It is then manifolded and a copy 
kept by each department and one is sent to the general man- 
ager. The report on the troubles given above appeared as in 
the form below : 

report of investigating committee 

January 17, 1905. 
Committee present : Hewett, Johnson, Crawford, Cox, Wilson. 
Investigated January 21, 1905. 

A. Car 174. Unavoidable. 

B. Car 174. Unavoidable. 

C. Car 160. Bad track. Ferry Avenue and Parker Avenue, 

D. Car 160. Wagon broken down. 

E. Car 130. Night man censured. 

F. Car 126. Seats defective, contract now placed with Heyv^'ood 
Bros. Company. Gradually replacing this type of seat. 

G. Car 133. Motor axle bearings. No stock. Mr. Johnson to 
take up with Mr. J. R. Wilson ; stock ordered some time in De- 
cember, 1904. 

H. Car 136. Mr. Crawford has to report. Mr. Hewett to see 
J. Kabinsky. 

1. Car 108. Further investigation at next meeting. 

J. Car 139. Referred to P. N. Wilson for prices etc., for dif- 
ferent type of connector. 

K. Car 74. Roasted fields. Shop to test new insulating varnish 
as against that which is now being used and which is not water- 

L. Car 74. Came to barn, finished run. 

M. Car 123. Bolt in motor support broken. Brakes taken up. 

N. Car 145. Open circuit in air armature. Break is caused by 
wire making a sharp bend over mica (V) ring back of commuta- 
tor. A remedy is being tried. 

O. Car 133. Future investigation. (See L) 

P. Car 155. Cannot locate. 

Cox reports no interference to car movement. 

(Signed) F. A. Hewett, 

Chairman Inquiry Committee. 

As a rule, the delays occurring on one day are investigated 
the following morning, but in case of a large storm or some 
other occurrence which prevents the committee from meeting 
there is sometimes a delay of two or three days. 

The result of this practice has been very satisfactory, even 
in the case of delays at steam railroad crossings. Previously 
nothing especial was done in regard to them, but all occur- 
rences of this kind are now recorded, and if they happen too 
frequently the matter is taken up with the steam railroad 


The efficient operation of direct-current machinery depends 
so largely on the quality of the commutator that, should the 
original segments be replaced by inferior ones, more or less 
trouble is bound to occur. This is often the case, because the 
spirit of false economy tempts many purchasing agents to order 
inferior renewal parts. While the 
relative merits of drop-forged, cast 
or hard-drawn copper for com- 
mutator segments have never been 
definitely decided, still it is in- 
teresting to note that one of the 
leading commutator builders, the 
H. P. Cameron Electric Manufac- 
turing Company, of Ansonia, 
Conn., is a firm adherent of the 
hard-drawn copper bar, although 
it has had extensive experience 
with and manufactures the other 
types also. This company states complete COMMUTATOR 
that it has found the hard-drawn 

copper bar to be denser, uniform throughout, of unequaled 
conductivity, and at least as hard as drop-forged or cast bars. 

A valuable auxiliary which this company makes in connec- 
tion with its commutator segments, when so ordered, is an in- 
serted lug completely prepared for the armature lead connec- 
tions. This lug needs no milling, which in itself saves a great 
deal of labor. The lug is riveted in a narrow slot sawed in the 
end of the segment where the connection is to be made; two 
rivets with countersunk heads are used, which are machined 
off flush with the side of the segment, thus leaving no obstruc- 


tion. To strengthen this connection mechanically and insure 
a perfect electrical bond, the entire end of the segment, lug 
and all, is thoroughly sweated in solder, which also results in 
tinning the lug for facilitating the soldering of the armature 
leads in it. The lug is built up of two copper straps, separated 
at the top sufficiently to take on the armature lead, as shown. 

The other illustration shows a complete commutator as built 
by this company. 


A motorman and a conductor in the employ of the Denver 
City Tramway Company took into camp two highwaymen who 
attempted to hold up a car at the east end of the line. The 
conductor was reporting to the despatcher when he was sud- 
denly requested to throw up his hands. Instead of complying, 
he attacked his assailant. The motorman came to his aid at 
once, armed with the controller. One of the robbers was 
scared off at once, and the other, at the hands of the tramway 
men, received such rough handling that an ambulance had to be 
called to care for him. Both the employees are old and trusted 
men. They have been substantially rewarded by the company 
for their daring. 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 


A useful tool for track work* is the security drill clamp mar- 
keted by the F. Bissell Company, of Toledo, Ohio. This clamp 
is made to attach to the base of any rail and to remain there 

firmly while in 
use. The end 
hooks over one 
side of the flange 
and the sliding 

C.-,„^^,«,?™ ^ ^^^^^^H claw fits over the 

" M ..-jJ ^^^^^^H other. There is no 

bend nor spring 
to it, and when 
the drill is in use 
the alignment is 

The vertical 
arm holds two ad- 
justing screws, 
each I in. X 8 ins., 

which follow the drill forward. They are of ample size, 
can stand heavy use and are cupped to receive a ratchet head. 
Two screws are provided to save time for the workman, and 
their centers, respectively, are set 2 ins. and 6 ins. above the 
horizontal arm. In use, this arm comes tight against the rail 
base, so these measurements apply to the rail itself. The com- 
plete tool is very light, weighing only 34 lbs. when boxed. 




In bringing out the new tenoner No. 8, shown herewith, it 
has been the aim of the builders, the J. A. Fay & Egan Com- 
pany, of Cincinnati, Ohio, to make it as labor-saving as pos- 
sible, and as it is entirely automatic, all responsibility is taken 
off the operator as to marking his stock. The machine cuts to 
exact lengths, and each piece comes from it accurately worked 


and with great rapidity. Limited space permits only a brief 
exposition of its many features and mechanical improvements 
for performing the work desired to advantage, but special at- 
tention is called to the following points: 

It will cut off and tenon material from 10 ins. to 9 ft. long 
between shoulders, and will cut off and tenon both ends of 
timbers to 24 ins. wide and 8 ins. thick. By cutting off the 
lengths on some other machine, dispensing with the saws on 
this, timbers 12 ins. thick can be tenoned to advantage. Saws 
22 ins. in diameter can be used, and, operating in advance of 
the cutter heads, the bur raised by the saws is perfectly re- 
moved by the cutters, thus saving much valuable time. A 
special head is provided for making double tenons to 4 ins. deep. 
There are eight tenoning heads, two on each spindle, and each 
carrying two knives, cutting tenons 6 ins. long, so by using 
two heads on each spindle a tenon 12 ins. long can be cut. 

The machine is massive and strongly built to stand hard 
work. The adjustments can be made quickly and accurately. 

The Montgomery Street Railway Company has recently 
added to its equipment four ten-bench open cars built by the 
American Car Company. These cars will be operated in the 
city and suburbs of Montgomery, where the railway company 
has about 25 miles of trackage and thirty-five cars. The at- 
tractive amusement resort, Electric Park, is reached by the 
company's lines. Besides doing a flourishing business in cot- 
ton, Montgomery has many manufactories. 

The new cars measure 21 ft. over the end panels and 7 ft. 
5-4 in. over the seat ends. The seats are reversible, with the 


exception of the two seats at each end of the car. The sashes 
in the bulkhead are arranged to drop into pockets between the 
seats. Ash, with ceilings of decorated birch, constitutes the 
interior finish of the cars. 

The rhain dimensions of these cars are : Length over the 
crown pieces, 28 ft. 8% ins. ; from the panel over the crown 
])ieces, 3 ft. 103-16 ins.; width over the sills, including the 
plates, 6 ft. 3 ins. ; sweep of the posts, 5 ins. ; distance between 
the centers of the posts, 2 ft. 8 ins. ; side sill size, 3^ ins. x 
7 ins. ; sill plates, y% in. x 7 ins. ; thickness of the corner posts, 
3^ ins., and of the side posts, 2^ ins. ; height of the steps, 
1854 ins., and of the risers, 17 ins. The cars are equipped with 
Brill angle-iron bumpers, sand boxes and "Dedenda" gongs. 


J. J. Stanley, general manager of the Cleveland Electric 
Railway Company, has an idea that the exteriors of cars can 
be cleaned economically in the summer by means of a shower 
bath. He is having rigged up at the Windermere car house a 
set of huge sprinklers which will throw water on the tops of 
cars at high pressure. These will be placed over a cement 
washing basin and a car run under them. After a liberal 
shower the exteriors will be scrubbed with brushes and soap. 
Then the water will be turned on again to rinse them off. The 
scheme has not been worked out, but he believes it to be 

The Roxbury Park Amusement Association, of Johnstown, 
Pa., has officially named its new amusement resort "Luna 
Park," and announces the formal opening for May 30. The 
association is composed of citizens of Johnstown, and is capi- 
talized at $25,000. Charles Young is president. The park em- 
braces 35 acres and is readily reached by the local electric rail- 
ways. It contains, among other things, a half-mile track, base- 
ball field, 3-acre lake, picnic grove of 10 acres, grand stand 
with 2000 seats, theater with a capacity of 700, boat house, 
elaborate carousal, free dining hall, dance hall, cafe, roller 
coaster, laughing gallery, Ferris wheel and a shooting gallery. 

April 15, 1905.] 




The Macdonald Ticket Company, of Cleveland, is introducing 
a new system of cash fare receipts for interurban roads which, 
it is claimed, combines the good features of the fare register 
and the duplex cash receipt used by many roads. The device is 
attracting a great deal of favorable attention, and it is being 
used by a number of prominent interurban roads in Ohio and 
Michigan. It consists of a small metal box or holder, attached 
to which is a pad containing 100 tickets, numbered in consecu- 
tive order, with station names and classification of fares ar- 
ranged in two parallel columns. The pad is doubled over a 
plate and then placed in the holder and locked in such a way 
that a cutter edge engages between and against the columns. 
Along the top of the box are three movable notches arranged to 
be set for any combination of stations and amount of fare de- 
sired. When a receipt is torn from the pad, the notches leave 
indentations opposite the stations to be indicated and the 
amount of fare paid. The auditor's stub, which remains in the 
box, contains the corresponding projections. Owing to the 
peculiar construction of the box, the auditor's stub, by a slight 
pressure of the thumb upon the pad, flies back into the drum 
and cannot be seen until the holder is unlocked by the proper 

The box is light and strong, and its operation is simple. It 
is claimed that it takes less time to work the device than a fare 
register, and it can be operated anywhere on the car. The con- 








O. 1— ■ 

? - ae 
S =• m 

If s»» 

£ 03 

m C3 

- C3 

5 r< 


ductor cannot see the stubs, as they are securely locked in the 
box, and he settles upon amounts collected and not upon totals 
as indicated by the stubs. The stubs enable a company to keep 
a perfect traffic report of the distance covered by each passen- 
ger, and it gives each cash fare passenger a receipt for his 
money. It is claimed that 90 per cent of the conductors who 
are dishonest arc made so through settling the shortages and 

retaining the overages. The shortage or overage exists be- 
tween the auditor's stub and the conductor's cash. It is said 
that where a conductor is obliged to go into his own pocket to 
make up a shortage he is pretty certain to attempt to get it 
back the next day. Hence, it is argued that it is a much better 
])lan to keep the auditor's slips from him and keep a daily 
record of each conductor's business, charging him with short- 


ages and crediting him with overages. At the end of each 
month, if there are too many shortages, a conductor should be 
warned to do better, and if the shortages continue, he should be 
discharged as dishonest or incompetent. The claim is made 
that a road which is using the Macdonald box and following 
this plan, has reduced the shortages to practically nothing and 
the overages have been more than enough each month to pay 
for the tickets used in the device. The scheme is well liked by 
conductors, because it eliminates all bookkeeping from the car 
and because it removes the inclination to be dishonest. 

Murdock Macdonald, who is at the head of the company and 
who designed the device, has been associated with passenger 
business since the inception of electric railways, and he is 
thoroughly familiar with the ticket conditions of such roads. 


The Swedish Government, which is conducting a detailed in- 
vestigation as to the feasibility of electricity for trunk lines, 
has ordered from the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company an electric locomotive of the type shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. One of the interesting features is 
the high-trolley voltage for which the equipment is designed, 
18,000 volts, though connections are supplied for operating at 
several voltages lower than this, the minimum being 3000 volts. 
This high voltage necessitates the use of an oil-cooled main 
auto-transformer and an oil-break circuit breaker. The inten- 
tion is to operate at a moderate voltage in towns and thickly 
populated districts, while a high-trolley voltage will be cm- 
ployed, carried overhead, on the greater part of the line. 

The control system is electro-pneumatic and consists of an 
air compressor driven by a single-phase motor, an air motor 
on the induction regulator, air cylinders on the circuit breaker 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

and reverser, and the necessary magnet valves. The air brakes 
and air sanders are also to be supplied by the above compressor. 
There are two connectors at each end of the locomotive, so that 
two locomotives can be coupled and operated by one master 
switch. The master switch is in the middle of the cab, and is 
so situated that the operator has a clear view in all directions 
without leaving his seat. 

The weight of the locomotive and equipment is 25 tons, all of 
which is on four 41-in. drive wheels. Two 150-hp, 25-cycle, 


single-phase motors are geared, one to each axle, with a gear 
reduction of 18 to 70, and have shown an ability to handle a 
70-ton train at 40 m.p.h., without exceeding the rise of tem- 
perature for which they were designed. The equipment has 
been so installed on the locomotive as to permit ready access 
to all parts. Only the small operating devices have been placed 
in the cab, and the layout is such as to allow the greatest con- 
venience in operation with maximum safety to the operator. 



Realizing the desiraliility of providing for a choice in the 
selection of either jet or surface condensers, the W. H. Blake 
Steam Pump Company, of Hyde Park, Mass., has perfected a 
very extensive line of both types running in capacity from 
600 lbs. to 40,000 lbs. of steam condensed per hour with in- 
jection water having a temperature of 70 degs. F. In the type 
of small twin vertical air pump and jet condenser shown in" 
the accompanying cut, the air pump is made with compound 
steam cylinders when it is to be operated condensing, and with 
twin vertical steam cylinders when operated non-condensing 
and the exhaust steam utilized. Being vertical in construc- 
tion, all pistons wear equally on all sides, and not downward as 
in the horizontal type. The water cylinders are composition 
lined, all water piston (or bucket) heads are of the same ma- 
terial and fibrous packed. Easy access is afforded to heads, 
packing and water valves through a hand hole on either side 
of pump. The best composition is used in the construction of 
the water valve seats and guards ; the studs are of Tobin bronze, 
the valves being held in place by lock-nuts and operated with- 
out the aid of springs. The water piston rods are of Tobin 
bronze and the steam piston rods of steel. 

The injection stem and cone are of composition, and access 
to the same is provided through hand holes on either side of 
the condenser. The amount of water passing through the con- 

denser is regulated by the vertical adjustment of the injection 
cone, which acts as a nozzle to form a thin spray, which is 
thrown out at an angle of 45 degs. This falls upon a succession 
of shelves, thus forming secondary sprays through which the 
exhaust steam from the engine must pass. Instantaneous con- 
densation results with great economy in the use of water. A 
perforated copper plate is substituted for the shelves when the 
force of the injection water is not sufficient to produce spray. 
The combined volume of injection water and condensed steam 
flows by gravity through the bottom of the condenser into the 
pump. To prevent flooding of the engine, the condenser is 
[)rovided with an independent vacuum breaker attachment se- 
cured to the side of the condenser. This is so arranged that 
when the water reaches the level of the float chamber the float 
is raised, and by great leverage, forces the check valve from 
its seat, allowing an inrush of air, which instantly breaks the 
vacuum, thus preventing further suction of water into the con- 


denser and consequent flooding of tlie engine. The construc- 
tion of this machine is exceedingly simple, and all parts are 
readily accessible; it is very compact, requiring little floor 
space, and is operated by the Blake automatic valve motion, 
without complicated mechanical adjustments. 


The Common Council of Trenton, N. J., after keeping out 
of electric railway tangles for a couple of months, is now try- 
ing to determine whether the local street railway or the sub- 
urban companies should have the right of way where their lines 
cross each other. At present there is no ordinance or rule in 
the case, and as the Trenton Street Railway is crossed by the 
Trenton, Lawrenceville & Princeton Railroad; Yardley, Mor- 
risville & Trenton Street Railway; Camden & Trenton Railway, 
and Trenton & New Brunswick" Railroad, it causes complica- 
tions. Heretofore it has been largely a question of judgment 
upon the part of the motormen, and several narrow escapes 
from accident have shown the necessity for some definite rule 
as to which company shall have the right of way at the cross- 
ings. It is expected that the Council will give the Trenton 
Street Railway the right of way over all the crossings. 

April 15, 1905.] 




Wall Street, April 12, 1905. 

The Money Market 

There was no appreciable change in the local money market this 
week. The demand for funds was, if anything, less active, despite 
the increased volume of business in the securities market, and rates 
for all maturities ruled practically the same as those heretofore 
quoted. The inquiry for accommodation was confined largely to 
the call loan department, and was readily supplied at rates rang- 
ing from 2.yy per cent to 4 per cent, the bulk of the business being- 
transacted at 3^ per cent. In the time loan department, business 
was practically at a standstill. Early in the week a moderate de- 
mand developed for four-month funds at 3,^ per cent, and for si.x:- 
month maturities at 2iY\ per cent, practically all of which was satisfied 
from abroad. Toward the close, however, the inquiry quieted down 
considerably, borrowers being disposed to wait for concessions, in 
view of the accumulation of funds here, resulting from the heavy 
Government disbursements on account of pensions, transportation 
of mails, etc., and the influx of money from the interior for va- 
rious purposes. Local institutions, however, continued to hold the 
market firm at the above rates, despite the disposition on the part 
of some of the foreign houses to put out funds against exchange 
transactions at a shade under the ruling quotation. The commer- 
cial paper market was fairly active and firm. Merchants were dis- 
posed to put out moderate amounts of paper, and all offerings of 
choice material were readily absorbed. Rates remained unchnnged 
at 4 per cent for prime indorsements, and 4 to 4^4 per cent for good 
names. The bank statement issued by the associated bankers on 
last Saturday made a favorable exhibit. Loans decreased $8,530,- 
100, due in part to the continued shifting of loans to other banks 
and trust companies. The decrease in cash of $2,622,200 was 
larger than was generally expected. Deposits were $10,560,600 less 
than in the preceding week, and the reserve required was $2,6|o,- 
150 less than a week ago. The surplus reserve increases $17,950 
to $8,682,150 as against $22,916,400 in the corresponding vveek in 
1904; $3,741,300 in 1903; $4,571,750 in 1902; $7,938,200 in 1901, and 
$10,950,275 in 1900. 

The situation at the principal European center remained easy 
throughout the week, except at Paris, where the discount rate dis- 
played a hardening tendency. The open market discount rate at 
London was 2 per cent; at Berlin the rate was per cent, and 
at Paris 2^/2 per cent. 
The Stock Market 

Thete was a decided improvement in the stock market this week. 
Trading in all departments developed much larger proportions, and 
apart from slight reactions, due to realizing sales, the general 
tendency of values was toward a higher level. In the early dealings 
speculation was chilled by the announcement of the contemplated 
issue of $100,000,000 new stock by the Union Pacific, and prices for 
nearly all of the leading railway shares sustained substantial reac- 
tion. In the later dealings, however, the upward movement was re- 
sumed, and apart from the temporary reaction caused by profit- 
taking sales, the market ruled decidedly strong practically up to 
the close. A noteworthy feature of the trading was the increase 
in value of business transacted by commission houses, indicat- 
ing a keener public interest in the market. Sentiment was 
decidedly cheerful, as a result of the favorable Government report 
on the winter wheat crop, the comparative ease in money, further 
improvement in gross railway traffic returns, and continued activity 
in all the leading industries throughout the country. Exception- 
ally strong features of the railroad list were Union Pacific, New 
York Central, Canadian Pacific, Louisville & Nashville, Atlantic 
Coast Line, Southern Pacific, and Atchison. Missouri Pacific and 
others of the Southwestern group were also decidedly strong, St. 
Paul advanced sharply on report that the stock -was being absorbed 
by the Union Pacific-Standard Oil interests. In the industrial 
department United States Rubber rose sharply on the restoration of 
the stock to an 8 per cent dividend basis. United States Steel issue, 
American Smelter, Natural Lead and Federal Smelting and Re- 
fining displayed pronounced strength. The bond market was 
moderately active and strong, in sympathy with the general im- 
provement in other quarters of the market. At the close the 
market displayed an easier tendency. 

The local traction issues were extremely quiet but firm, especially 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit, which advanced 2^/% per cent. 


There was a sharp falling cjff in the dealings in the local traction 
issues this week. Fewer stocks were traded in, and the individual 
transactions were considerable smaller than in the preceding week, 
and although more or less irregularity developed in the speculative 
issues, the general tone of the market was firm. Prominent fea- 
tures of the trading were the advance of lYt, in Consolidated Trac- 
tion, of New Jersey, to 85, the highest price on record, and the 
strength in Union Traction, which rose to 60^, or ^ of a point 
above the previous high record. American Railways stock made a 
new high record on the present movement, the price touching 54^^, 
but in the subsequent dealings all of the improvement was lost. 
Philadelphia Traction held strong throughout, all of the transac- 
actions taking place at 100. Philadelphia common opened firm at 
47^8. but in the late dealings, a moderate selling movement de- 
\eloped, which carried the price off to- 46, with a subsequent rally 
to 46^/^, a net loss of Yx. About 8000 shares changed hands. The 
preferred lost ^4 to 48 on limited transactions. United Gas 
and Improvement displayed pronounced weakness throughout the 
week; the price receding from 117% to 115%, with a final rally to 
116^4, the latter figure representing a loss of lYz points. Philadel- 
phia Electric sold to the extent of about 2500 shares at prices vary- 
ing from 11^4 to iij'i- Philadelphia Rapid Transit was firm, up- 
wards of 1800 shares changing hands at from 3I.)4 to 31' j. Other 
transactions includes odd lots of LTnited Companies of New Jer- 
sey at 270^, and Fairmont Park Transportation at prices ranging 
from 21 to 22.><;. 


Despite the result nf the recent municipal election which de- 
clared in favor of the municipal ownership of the street railway 
system, all of the companies are going ahead with the improve- 
ments decided upon some time ago, and according to the officials of 
the different lines, the work will be continued whether or not the 
city devises means for raising the necessary funds to take over the 
various properties. It is said that John J, Mitchell, representing 
the controlling interest in the City Railway Company, has already 
informed Judge Dunne that the company was ready to turn the 
property over to the city, providing satisfactory conditions could be 
arranged, Mr, Mitchell also said that in the meantime the com- 
pany is going ahead with the development of the system and the 
rehabilitation. It is said that $6,000,000 has been authorized for 
expenditures for new cars and equipments, exclusive of what will 
be spent for additional motive power. 

Trading in the street railway stocks was upon an extremely 
small scale this week, there being no disposition on the part of 
traders to trade actively, pending further development. Transac- 
tions were, in most instances, confined to small amovmts, and apart 
from Metropolitan Elevated preferred, which declined from 63 to 
61, the price changes were insignificant. Metropolitan common 
sold at 22Y and 23, Northwestern Elevated at 23. Chicago & Oak 
Park common brought 6, and West Chicago sold at 50. 

Other Traction Securities 

The feature of the Baltimore market was the pronounced weak- 
ness in United States Railway issues, especially the stock and the 
income bonds, which declined sharply on comparatively light trans- 
actions. The first named, after selling at 15 in the early dealings, 
ran oft' a full point to 14, on the exchange of about 1000 shares. 
The incomes were under pressure practically the entire week, the 
price declining from 6434 to 62^, with a subsequent rally to 63, 
a net loss for the week of 2 points. LTpwards of $75,006 changed 
hands. The 4 per cent bonds were quiet, all transactions taking 
place at 93 to 92^, Other transactions included Charleston Elec- 
tric 5s at 95/^, Augusta Street Railway 5s at 10454. Virginia Elec- 
tric Railway & Development 5s at ggJi to 99^, Norfolk Railway 
& Light stock at 12^, and Baltimore City Passenger 5s at 108^. 
Interest in the Boston market centered largely in Boston & Wor- 
cester issues, both of which advanced sharply on buying by certain 
interests, who believe that sooner or later the property will be 
acquired liy one of the steam roads at prices much above the pres- 
ent level. The common was dealt in to the e.xtent of 4000 shares, 
at prices ranging from 33'/, to 34' j, while the preferred advanced 
from 79 to 80, on comparatively light purchases. Towanl the clo^e 
prices reacted, the common closing at 33 and the jirefcrrcd at 
7914. Massachusetts Electric common and preferred displaced ex- 
treme weakness, the first named selling from 23 to 20J4. while the 



[Vol. XXV. No. 15. 

preferred dropped from 70 to 68. Near the close there was a frac- 
tional rally in the common, and a recovery of a point in the pre- 
ferred. Other sales included Boston Elevated, at 154^ to 155, 
Boston & Suburban common at 27 to 26^, the preferred at 75, West 
End common at from g7l4 to 98, and the preferred from 116% to 
116. In the New York Curb market Interborough continued to 
fluctuate widely on a smaller volume of business. In the early 
dealings the stock was well absorbed, at from 212 to 213, but later 
in the week all support appeared to have been withdrawn, and the 
price drifted to 208. In the subsequent dealings there was a full 
recovery to the high price of the week, but at the close there was 
another reaction to 206, where it closed. About 7000 shares were 
dealt in. American Light & Traction common was active and com- 
paratively strong, the price rising 7 points to 95, on report that the 
dividend on the stock was to be increased. It is said in well in- 
formed quarters, however, that no increase will be made in the dis- 
tribution at this time. The company's earnings are said to be 
equivalent to 15 per cent on the common stock, but the policy of the 
management is to build up a substantial surplus. New Orleans Rail- 
way new stocks were also quite animated and strong, upward of 
2500 shares of the common selling at from 28 to 2854, while about 
1000 of the preferred brought prices ranging from 77 to 77M- 
The bonds sold at 92. Washington Railway 4s sold at 89^^. 

Tractions were comparatively quiet in Cincinnati. Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light advanced to 35, on sales of about 900 shares. Cin- 
cinnati Street Railway was practically stationary at 148^ to 149. 
Cincinnati, Newport & Covington, preferred, sold at 92. Detroit 
United sold at 85 and gsVz. Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction 
at 20]^ and 21. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light was particularly active at 
Cleveland, and advanced from 20 to 22]4, on sales of several hun- 
dred shares. Aurora, Elgin & Chicago, preferred, had a few sales 
at 70, while the common declined to I4;<3 and 15 on 30 days' future 
delivery. Western Ohio receipts advanced to 16, on announce- 
ment of the financing plan for building the new extension. Muncie, 
Hartford & Ft. Wayne sold at 44^. Cleveland & Southwestern 
Traction common, which has been inactive for many months, with 
a mark of 28, sold this week for $7 per share, but holders are asking 
15 for more. Northern Texas Traction advanced to 58^, while 
the 5 per cent bonds of this company advanced to 97^. Cleveland 
Electric Railway made a high mark of 85 the middle of the week, 
but declined to 82 on talk of municipal ownership. Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light sold at 32 early this week. 

Security Quotations 

The following table shows the present bid quotations for the 
leading traction stocks, and the active bonds, as compared with 
last week : 

April 5 April 12 

American Railways 54 o4 

Boston Elevated 1541/2 1551/2 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 671/2 69% 

Chicago City 199 

Chicago Union Traction (common) 10 9V2 

Chicago Union Traction (preferred) 42 37% 

Cleveland Electric 82% 81 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 81 84 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 5s 110% 110% 

Detroit United 85% 84 

Interborough Rapid Transit 212% 206 

International Traction of Buffalo 291/. 29 

International Traction of Buffalo (preferred) 69 68 

International Traction of Buffalo 4s 821/2 821/2 

Manhattan Railway I661/2 I66I/2 

Massachusetts Electric Cos. (common) 21% 21% 

Massachusetts Electric Cos. (preferred) 69 68% 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (common) 23 22% 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (preferred) 63 61 

Metropolitan Street 122% 122 

Metropolitan Securities 87% 861/2 

New Orleans Railways (common), W. 1 27% 28% 

New Orleans Railways (preferred), W. 1 77 77% 

New Orleans Railways, 4%s — • 91% 

North American 102% IOI1/2 

North Jersey Street Railway 23 25 

Philadelphia Company (common) *47 46 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 31% 31% 

Philadelphia Traction 100 100 

Public Service Corporation 5 per cent notes 97% 97% 

Public Service Corporation certificates 72% 72% 

South Side Elevated (Chicago) — 93% 

Third Avenue 130 131% 

April 5 April X2 • 

Twin City, Minneapolis (common) 120% 118 

Union Traction (Philadelphia) 59Va 60 

West End (common) 97% 97% 

West End (preferred) 116 116 

a Asked. * Ex-div. W. I., when issued. 
Iron and Steel 

The "Iron Age" says the consumption of pig iron in the month of 
March was 2,000,000 tons. The enormous output, as contrasted 
with former months, is due largely to the record breaking in some 
of the great districts, like Pittsburg, with its 510,000 tons, the 
Shenango Valley with 155,000 tons, and the Illinois-Northwest 
group with its 253,000 tons. But while such records may not be 
at once repeated, it is a general fact that we are now entering the 
months when everything conspires to lead to high records. The 
furnaces usually work best in April, May and June, and the 
handling of raw material is not impeded. 

The enormous consumption is another reminder of the extra- 
ordinary industrial expansion of the country, with the iron indus- 
try in the van, and justifies the unconquerable optimism of our 
people. There is a steady flow of moderate rail orders. Some 
very good tonnage has been placed in the structural shapes, and 
scarcity for prompt delivery is a feature. 


The deal for the purchase of the Springfield Street Railway 
Company, of Springfield, Mass., by the New York, New- Haven & 
Hartford Railroad Company was closed April 11, and the formal 
transfer of securities will be made as soon as possible. The stock- 
holders of the Springfield Company were offered $225 a share for 
their stock, this option expiring on Saturday, April 15. The New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, through its 
underwriting agents, offered the stockholders the entire sum in 
cash, or for each share held $75 in cash and $150 in the stock of 
the holding company. The stock issue of the Springfield Street 
Railway Company is 19,854 shares, and the underwriting agents on 
April II announced that they had already placed 8000 shares upon 
their books. 

The directorate of the Springfield Railway Companies, the hold- 
ing company, will comprise two stockholders of the Springfield 
Railway Company, four representatives of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Company and one representative of 
the underwriting agents. 



J. W. Butler, who has had charge of the special excursions of 
the Cleveland Electric Railway Company for several years, has 
resigned from that company and is now passenger agent for the 
Citizens' Transit Company, which has been organized to operate 
a series of electric buses in Cleveland. The company proposes to 
make two runs daily with its accumulator "Seeing Cleveland" 
coaches, and charge a fare of 50 cents. Each coach will seat 30 
passengers. Later more frequent trips may be made. It is also 
the intention of the company to build several funeral cars, which 
will have a seating capacity of about 20 people, and will also have 
room for the casket. The company has been organized with a 
capital stock of $100,000, with Charles S. Britton as president, H. 
P. Coe, vice-president, R. J. Venning, secretary and treasurer. 



The Rio de Janiero Tramway, Light & Power Company, of Rio 
de Janiero, Brazil, is preparing specifications for an hydraulic 
plant, transmission system, and the equipment of its tramway and 
lighting system in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The company has 
purchased the two principal street railway properties in the city, 
which now employ mule power, and will operate them by current 
taken from a water power 45 miles distant. A temporary plant of 
1000 hp, consisting of G. E. generators and Pelton wheels, has al- 
ready been purchased. The company is controlled by the F. S. 
Pearson syndicate, and the purchasing agent is W. E, Plummer, 
of 29 Broadway, New York. 

Ai'Rii, 15, 1905.] 





The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Metropolitan 
West Side Elevated Railway Company was held in Chicago April 
5. The following financial report was made : 


Feb. 28, '05 Feb. 29, '04 

Passenger earnings $2,080,937 $2,065,701 

Miscellaneous earnings 80,004 81,452 

Total earnings $2,160,941 $2,147,153 


Maintenance of way and structure $106,701 $64,329 

Maintenance of equipment 163,372 149,021 

Conducting transportation 700,809 726,790 

General expenses 93,778 102,196 

Net earnings from operation $1,096,281 $1,104,815 

Other income 5,553 6,030 

Net income $1,101,834 $1,110,846 


Interest on bonds $490,069 $474,353 

Rentals 243,095 239,509 

Taxes 126,643 139,532 

Special 41.350 

Surplus for stock $241,425 $216,100 

Add surplus from previous year 226,956 10,855 

Total surplus February $468,382 $226,955 


Feb. 28, '05 Feb. 29, '04 

Cost of road and equipment $30,462,522 $29,249,758 

Metropolilaji West Side Elevated Railway preferred 

capital stock in treasury (2919 shares) 291.900 291,900 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway first mort- 
gage 4 per cent bonds in treasury 192,000 192,000 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway extension 

mortgage (4 per cent) bonds in treasury 1,500,000 

Material and supplies on hand 49,794 66,061 

Accounts receivable 127,165 86,115 

Trustee, extension (4 per cent) bonds 135,331 1,859 

Cash 214,902 221,714 

Totals $32,973,616 .$30,109,400 


Capital stock, preferred $9,000,000 $9,000,000 

Capital stock, common 7,500,000 7,500,000 

First mortgage (4 per cent) bonds 10,000,000 10,000,000 

Extension (4 per cent) bonds 4,500,000 3,000,000 

Collateral loan. First Trust and Savings Bank 1,100,000 

Interest accrued, not due 52,693 52,693 

Taxes accrued, not due - 105,501 117,779 

Accounts payable 189,808 205,332 

Reserve fund for replacement of property 57,230 6,647 

Balances 787 

Balance, profit and loss 468,382 226,956 

Totals $32,973,616 $30,109,400 

The traiific record was: 

Number of passengers carried this fiscal year 41,694,788 

Number of passengers carried previous year 41,372,338 

Total increase 322,450 

Daily average this fiscal year 114,232 

Daily average last fiscal year 115,039 

Increase per day 1,193 

Per cent of increase 1.06 

President McAllister, in his address to the stockholders, first 
reviewed the inileage of the system and the causes that led to its 
increase. The question of motor equipment also was discussed. 
He referred to the old system of operating with electric locomo- 
tives, and how by careful inspection of equipment the company 
was able to increase the length of trains, although the apparatus 
was called upon to exceed its original rating. The perfection of 
the multiple-unit system of control blazed the way for improve- 
ments, and sixty-eight motor cars were purchased as an initial 
order. To-day there is a total of 157 motor cars and 262 coaches. 
The installation of a storage battery proved sufficient to care for 
the demands made upon the power equipment. It seems advisable 
here to quote the president as regards earnings and negotiations 
with the Chicago, Elgin & Auror.T. fTe said : 

While the gross earnings of tlie company have not shown much increase, 
due largely to the general depression in business in the city of Chicago, the 
operating expenses have been fairly satisfactory, particularly when you take 
into consideration the following facts: The operating expenses show an in- 
crease over the previous year of $22,322, or 2.14 per cent, divided as follows: 

Maintenance of structure and eciuipment shows an increase of $56,951, or 
26.72 per cent, while the conducting transportation and general expenses show 
a decrease of $34,628, or 4.18 per cent. 

There was charged to maintenance expenses during the year $50,582, which 
was set aside as a reserve for maintaining the property. Had this reserve 
fund not been charged operating expenses would have shown a decrease of 

In addition to the above there was charged in the conducting transportation 
expenses $5,250, due to the settlement of claims on account of the fog acci- 
dent of Nov. 19, 1901. This amount, being comparatively small, was not 
shown as other deductions from income, as was the case in previous fiscal 

For over a year we have had before the City Council an ordinance, and 
have been carrying on careful negotiations with the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
Railway Company, with a view to arranging to bring their trains down town 
into your Fifth Avenue terminal. We are now able to report the successful 
conclusion of these negotiations. On Feb. 23, 1905, the Council passed an 
ordinance granting your company permission to run the trains of the Aurora, 
Elgin & Chicago Railway into your Fifth Avenue terminal. 

H. G. Hetzler, superintendent of the Chicago division of the 
Burlington Railroad, in charge of freight and passenger traffic, has 
been chosen to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Presi- 
dent Dickinson MacAllister, but only four directors were elected : 
C. C. Adsit, R. F. Clinch, F. A. Delano and Benjamin Allen. The 
retiring directors are Dickinson, MacAllister and Clarence S. Day. 
Other oiTp.cers v/ere re-elected as follows : 

George Higginson, Jr., vice-president, secretary and treasurer; 
P. D. Sexton, assistant secretary and treasurer; S. C. Matthews, 
auditor; II. M. Brinckerhoff, general manager; W. W. Gurley, 
general counsel. 


Having successfully solved last year the problem of caring for 
trafiic at its Coney Island terminals, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company is this year engaged in a similar work at Brighton Beach, 
and hopes to have all the changes worked out in detail before the 
opening of the season at that resort, and at Manhattan Beach, 
which adjoins it. These improvements are chiefly for the surface 
lines, which now terminate at Brighton in a series of loops, at the 
liack of the Brighton Beach Hotel. The elevated lines to the 
resort are operated through to Coney Island, so that the present 
facilities for these, which were considerably improved last year, 
are considered adequate. 

Access to the surface lines has been through two entrances, one 
at either end of the hotel. Of these the one to the west leads di- 
rectly to the music hall, while the one to the east leads to the piazza 
of the hotel and the board walk facing the ocean. The trouble has 
been that passengers would flock through these passageways and 
onto the tracks before passengers arriving had been discharged. 
This, of course, resulted in confusion and delay. 

To obviate this difficulty in the handling of traffic, two stations 
are to be built, at which all unloading and loading will be done. 
One of these will be lo the east of the terminal grounds, and the 
other to the west. Incoming cars will swing to the west, discharge 
their passengers, take the loop and load at the platform on the 
east. As at Coney Island, the terminal will be so laid out that con- 
fusion between incoming and outgoing passengers will be im- 
possible. The stations will, however, be connected by an over- 
head bridge for general convenience. 

In connection with these improvements it is interesting to note 
that a change of ownership in Manhattan Beach will result in 
the partial rearrangement of that resort, and the addition thereto 
of features of amusement that will vie with anything Coney Island 
has to offer. Heretofore, Manhattan has been for the so-called 
elite. Now there are to be a Boer War and other similar at- 
tractions. Perhaps the most important improvements will be those 
of the Manhattan Beach Land Company. These include a scheme 
to colonize the beach, which has for its object the building of up- 
to-date dwellings on newly-made streets.